### Description

1. Hypothesis testing: how to form hypotheses (null and alternative); what is the meaning of reject the null or fail to reject the null; how to compare the p-value to the significant level (suchlike alpha = 0.05), and what a smaller p-value means.

2. How to interpret the one-sample t-test results: what are Ho and Ha; the standard for determining statistical significance, i.e., t statistic and p-value; what are the steps for the one-sample t test; what a normal distribution looks like.

3. How to interpret the one-way ANOVA results: what are Ho and Ha; the standard for determining statistical significance, i.e., F statistic and p-value; what an F distribution looks like.

4. How to interpret the simple linear regression results: what are Ho and Ha; the standard for determining statistical significance, i.e., t statistic and p-value of the slope; what is the slope and what it means; what is the R-square (not R, it is R-square!) and what it means; what are independent variables and dependent variable, and what their relationships are; how would you plot the relationship between a dependent variable and an independent variable; from a given independent variable, how would you predict the value of a dependent variable.

5. How to interpret the multiple regression results: how to interpret the slope of an independent variable (i.e., the impact of this independent variable, holding other independent variables constance).

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Running Head: SOCIOLOGY QUIZ

1

Sociology Quiz

Institution:

Name:

Date

Question 1: Hypothesis testing

Rejecting the null hypothesis indicates that there exists a positive significant association between

the test phenomena while failure to reject null hypothesis means that the test did not identify any

consequential relation between the two test phenomena. P-values are used to draw conclusions in

testing the significance. Precisely, the p-values are compared to the significance level α to

conclude on our hypotheses. A p-value lower than the significance level leads to rejection of the

H0 (null hypothesis), accepting the Ha (alternative hypothesis).

Question 2. How to interpret the one-sample t-test results

H0, is the hypothesis that is truly tested, and presumed to be correct, unless a solid proof to the

contrary exists, while Ha, is the other hypothesis, normally presumed to be true where the Ho is

proven to be false. Both hypotheses must be stated prior to any statistical testing of significance.

The one-sample t-test is conducted in 4 steps:

i.

Calculating the mean ...