4-5 pages research paper , Prevention of UTI in elderly


Question Description


In this assignment you will formulate a research problem/question, conduct a literature review, find research articles that help to explain and support your problem. This paperwill be the beginnings of a research paper, but you will not carry out the research. You will basically be writing the introduction of a research paper.

1. This paper should be approximately four to five pages double spaced, excluding the title and reference page.

2. Limit your variables to two, one independent and one dependent variable.

3. Do not write an abstract.

4. Make sure you have a title. See text for writing a good title.

5. Use APA style.

6. Do not use any quotations in this paper. All your citations must be paraphrased not quoted. Points will be deducted for quoting.

Introduce your research problem and state the importance of doing the study.

In this section you introduce the reader to the problem, give data that supports the importance of exploring the problem and why this would be significant to nursing knowledge. This should be one to two paragraphs.

Make sure that you support all of this with citations from the literature.

10 points

Define the concepts or variables to be studied.

Give definitions of the variables that you are exploring. These should come from nursing literature, not Webster’s dictionary. Make sure you cite the literature that helps you to define the concepts

15 points

Write a review of the literature.

Review several research articles that are relevant to your problem. (At least 3 articles must be used). Make sure you cite properly.

20 points

Write a purpose statement for your research study

Must be well- developed stating your problem.

This should be in your own words and needs no citation.

20 Points

Write a research question and an hypothesis

In your own words, no citation.

5 points

Identify your research design

Include your research design and methods to be used. Provide sampling information for your study population

20 points

APA format

Paper must be of professional quality in terms of spelling, grammar, sentence structure


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CARE OF THE OLDER PERSON Alternative to antibiotics for managing asymptomatic and non-symptomatic bacteriuria in older persons: a review Debbie Duncan Lecturer (Education), School of Nursing and Midwifery, Queens University, Belfast d.duncan@qub.ac.uk ABSTRACT Recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common reasons for long-term antibiotic use in frail older people, and these individuals often have non-symptomatic bacteriuria. This article reviews the literature and recommendations for the treatment of UTIs particularly in the older population (>65 years). It considers the question: is there an alternative for antibiotics for asymptomatic and non-symptomatic bacteriuria in older adults? D‐mannose powder has been recommended for the treatment of UTIs, as when applied locally, it reduces the adherence of Escherichia coli. In one study, D‐mannose was reviewed for the prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs in women, and the findings indicated that it may be useful for UTI prevention instead of prophylactic antibiotics. There is a lack of information about the efficacy of cranberry products combined with D-mannose in this regard, and this is an area for further research. KEY WORDS w Asymptomatic and non-symptomatic bacteriuria w Antibiotic prophylaxis w Escherichia coli w Older adults w Recurrent urinary tract infection 116 BJCN_2019_24_3_116-119_COP_Alternative to antibiotics.indd 116 Incidence of UTIs Around 10–20% of women experience a symptomatic UTI in their lifetime (Foxman, 2002; 2014). However, a comprehensive literature review of seven different medical databases found this value to be even higher, at 33% (Salvatore et al, 2011), showing that one in three women will experience at least one episode of UTI during their lifetime. Men commonly have more complicated UTIs, which means they have structural or function abnormalities of the urinary tract that impede urinary flow and underlying disease that interferes with the immune system (Melekos and Naber, 2000; Foxman, 2014; Kelly-Fatemi, 2015; NICE, 2018a). A qualitative study conducted by Prakash and Saxena (2013) in India showed a considerably higher prevalence of UTIs among women (73.57%) than men (35.14%). Recurrent UTI, too, is certainly more common in women, but it has is no universally accepted definition (Barclay, 2017). Some studies have defined it as a single individual experiencing two episodes of UTI in 6 months or three episodes in a 1-year period (Gupta and Trautner, 2013; NICE, 2018b). The incidence of UTI is known to increase with age in both sexes (NICE, 2018a), but studies conducted so far have reported conflicting results regarding the age group most susceptible to UTIs. Prakash and Saxena (2013) found that the occurrence of UTI recorded among older individuals (≥48 years, 63.51%) was higher than that recorded in young (26–37 years, 58.11%; 15–25 years, 54.55%) and middle-aged individuals (37–47 years, 39.19%). These findings corresponded with those of a large-scale Japanese study conducted over a 20-year period, which identified an increasing trend of complicated UTI in older adults (Shigemura et al, 2005). However, they differed considerably from those reported in a Kuwaiti study by Dimitrov et al (2004) and a large-scale retrospective Nigerian study by Omigie et al (2009), both of which suggested that the highest incidence of UTIs was recorded in individuals from the age group of 20–50 years. © 2019 MA Healthcare Ltd T his article is a review of the literature and recommendations for the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the older population (those over 65 years old).The topic discussed is particularly of interest for healthcare professionals working in the community setting, as the cohort of individuals aged over 65 years is known to be prescribed unnecessary antibiotic treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) (NICE, 2018a). Recurrent UTI is also one of the most common reasons for long-term antibiotic use in frail older adults (McClean et al, 2011; 2012; NICE, 2018b). This study asks the question: is there an alternative to antibiotics for ABU and non-symptomatic bacteriuria in older adults? It also explores the recent focus on D-mannose for the prophylaxis and treatment of ABU and recurrent UTIs. British Journal of Community Nursing March 2019 Vol 24, No 3 21/02/2019 16:35 CARE OF THE OLDER PERSON Several large meta-analyses and reviews have identified factors that predispose older people to UTIs, including the use of urinary catheters; neurological conditions such as dementia, which are associated with impaired bladder emptying; impaired autoimmune response as observed in individuals with diabetes mellitus; prostate problems; and oestrogen deficiency after menopause (Beveridge et al, 2011; Matthews and Lancaster, 2011). General aging, declining physical ability and mental decline can affect bladder emptying and increase the risk of UTIs (McMurdo and Gillespie, 2000; Benton et al, 2006). Certainly, in older men, prostate enlargement and bladder prolapse can limit urine flow (Benton et al, 2006; Beveridge et al, 2011). Incontinence and the use of incontinence pads also increase the rates of UTIs, particularly if there is poor hygiene practice and/or faecal incontinence (Wilson et al, 2001). © 2019 MA Healthcare Ltd Antimicrobial resistance Older men and women are commonly prescribed long-term antibiotics to prevent recurrent UTIs (NICE, 2018b). UTIs and recurrent UTIs are also over-diagnosed in older people, as seen in the large retrospective case series of emergency hospital admissions in an acute general hospital in northwest England (Woodford and George, 2009).Although significant, this case series was only undertaken in one region, in which most clinicians would have received similar education and would consequently make similar clinical decisions. Nonetheless, it does reflect the evidence from George et al’s large qualitative study in India (2015) and Alanazi’s smaller retrospective study in Saudi Arabia (2018), which found that the prevalence of inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions was 47% in older adults. Within the community setting, repeated exposure to antibiotics is a strong causative factor of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli infection (Hillier et al, 2007). Antimicrobial resistance is certainly a major concern for UK healthcare professionals, with the increasing prevalence of healthcareassociated infections due to organisms like Clostridioides difficile (Gopal Rao and Patel, 2009; While, 2016). NICE (2018a) suggests that these can be minimised by adhering to regional or local best practice guidelines such as the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and the National Institute of Health and Social Care Board guidelines (NICE, 2018b), as well as collation of local antimicrobial resistance data (NICE, 2018b). Local guidelines that should be used for prescribing antimicrobials are based on local resistance patterns and available agents (Beveridge et al, 2011). Thus, appropriate diagnosis; a higher-dose, shorterduration antibiotic regimen; or alterative therapy needs to be considered to reduce the risk of antimicrobial resistance and the impact of over-prescribing on older people (Beveridge et al, 2011). Certainly, NICE (2018a) recommends that the overuse of antibiotic treatment may be minimised through clear diagnostic guidelines and prudent antibiotic prescribing. There is also clear guidance about the unnecessary use of antibiotic treatment for ABU, as it is associated with a significantly increased risk of clinical adverse events, including C. difficile infection, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus British Journal of Community Nursing March 2019 Vol 24, No 3 BJCN_2019_24_3_116-119_COP_Alternative to antibiotics.indd 117 infection and the development of antibiotic‑resistant UTIs (Zalmanovici Trestioreanu et al, 2015; NICE, 2018a). The diagnosis of infection in those aged 65 years and older can be complicated, and often these patients have a lack of symptoms such as pyrexia and a clear history (Walker et al, 2000; Bardsley, 2017). This complexity of clinical features was also reported in Juthani-Mehta et al’s (2009) prospective cohort study of nursing home residents in Connecticut. Bardsley (2017) therefore suggested that a full clinical assessment should be made, which includes a review of the patient’s medical history, physical examination, vital signs and a record of the reported symptoms.A UTI should be considered only if the patient has urgency, frequency of urination or suprapubic tenderness (Ninan et al, 2014; NICE, 2018a). Asymptomatic bacteriuria NICE (2018a) defines ABU as ‘significant levels of bacteria (greater than 105 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml) in the urine with no symptoms of UTI’. People over the age of 65 years show an increased prevalence of this condition: the prevalence of ABU increases with age, and up to 50% of older women and 35% of older men who reside in long-term care facilities are believed to have ABU (Walker et al, 2000). ABU showing >105 CFU/ml of a single E. coli strain can persist for years without provoking a host response (Klemm et al, 2006).This can be a concern as older people in long‑term care frequently have unnecessary antibiotic treatment for ABU, as they present with non-specific symptoms, so clinicians may presume they have a UTI. Beveridge (2011) suggested that there is strong evidence that ABU should not be treated. In their more recent review, Cai et al (2017) suggest that ABU is a common clinical condition in specific risk groups like older persons and often leads to unnecessary treatment. This is something community nurses must consider. Bacterial infections Many bacterial organisms cause UTIs, but the most common causative agent of both ABU and non-symptomatic bacteriuria is the gram-negative uropathogen E. coli (UPEC) (Foxman, 2010; 2014; NICE, 2015). It is responsible for 80%–90% of all uncomplicated UTIs and approximately 65% of complicated UTIs (Foxman, 2010; 2014; Hooton, 2000).The second leading cause is gram-positive Enterococcus spp. (Flores-Mireles et al, 2015). These bacteria are thought to occur in the gastrointestinal tract where they are either commensal or transient members of the gut microbiota (Schwartz et al, 2013). It has also been shown that ABU-E. coli and UPEC can both exploit the human urinary system for survival, and how they do this needs to be examined in order to develop more preventative and/or therapeutic approaches (Roos et al, 2006). Lim et al’s (2014) large review of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing in the residential care setting identified several resulting complications such as prolonged antibiotic use in the absence of infection, empiric prescribing without microbiological investigation and unnecessary treatment of ABU. Multimorbidity, frailty and polypharmacy are also more common in older people and are contributory 117 21/02/2019 16:35 CARE OF THE OLDER PERSON D-mannose D‐mannose is a simple sugar that is closely related to glucose and is rapidly absorbed to reach the organs within 30 minutes, after which it is excreted by the urinary tract as it cannot be stored in the body. It is not classified as a drug (Cusumano et al, 2011; NICE, 2018b). For some time now, D‐mannose powder has been recommended as an alternative antimicrobial for the treatment of UTIs, as when applied locally, it reduces the ability of UPEC to bind to bladder epithelial cells (Hung et al, 2002; Bouckaert et al, 2005; Cusumano et al, 2011;Altarac and Papeš, 2014). Certainly NICE (2018b) suggests the use of D‑mannose for recurrent UTIs. In Altarac and Papeš’s study (2014), the use of D‐mannose was reviewed for the prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs in women. The primary outcome measure of the trial was the reduction in microbiologically proven UTI, and the study showed that D‐mannose can be an effective prophylactic agent in women. This finding agrees with those of Kranjčec et al’s (2014) study, which compared D-mannose with prophylactic nitrofurantoin and found that D-mannose powder significantly reduced the risk of recurrent UTI and to a similar extent as nitrofurantoin did. Thus, D-mannose may be used instead of prophylactic antibiotics for preventing recurrent UTIs. D-mannose was also compared to the prophylactic regime of trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole for the treatment and prevention of frequent UTIs in 60 women by Porru et al (2014), who found that D-mannose appeared to be a safe and effective treatment for recurrent UTIs in adult women. In Domenici et al’s pilot study (2016), they found that D-mannose can be used as an effective treatment for cystitis and as a prophylactic agent for recurrent UTIs. Similarly,Vicariotto (2014) reported that women who experienced symptoms of cystitis found their symptoms to be improved on using D-mannose and cranberry extractbased compounds. Barclay (2017) suggested that although the evidence for non-antibiotic treatments is variable, the use of vaginal oestrogens, D-mannose, immunotherapy and methenamine for recurrent UTIs in women seems effective. Undoubtedly, D-mannose is a viable alternative to prophylactic antibiotic use, but whether it is appropriate for the older age group or is an effective prophylactic agent in women alone (as indicated by Altarac and Papeš (2014)) are questions that still need answering. Additionally, there is an overall call to further investigate and clearly define de novo and recurrent UTI. 118 BJCN_2019_24_3_116-119_COP_Alternative to antibiotics.indd 118 Cranberry products Altarac and Papeš (2014) suggested that more studies are needed to examine the use of D-mannose in conjunction with cranberry products in UTI prevention. A Cochrane Database review on the use of cranberry products, however, concluded that cranberry products cannot at present be recommended for the prevention of recurrent UTIs (Jepson et al, 2012), although it did suggest that the lack of positive research could be because of discrepancies in the clinical studies, as many of the various cranberry products tested had no clearly defined potency, dosing and active ingredient contents. Micali et al (2011) also reviewed clinical studies that evaluated the efficacy of cranberry products in the prevention of new or recurrent UTI episodes in young and middleaged women. Their review does not, however, recommend cranberry products for a different age range. Conclusion It is well documented that UTI recurrence is one of the most common reasons for long-term antibiotic use in frail older adults (McClean et al, 2011; 2012; NICE, 2015). Antibiotic prophylaxis may also be wrongly prescribed for these patients. The author found little evidence of the management of recurrent UTIs in older men or any research in frail care home residents. This finding mirrors the conclusions of Ahmed et al’s systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials (2017). Most research in this area concerns women, particularly postmenopausal women, and recurrent UTIs. There is certainly a call to provide a clear definition for ABU and UTI. Research about D-mannose also appears to be focused on women experiencing recurrent UTIs. Further research on the use of D-mannose and other alternatives to antibiotics for ABU and non-symptomatic bacteriuria in older adults would be worth considering. BJCN Accepted for publication: February 2019 Conflicts of interest: none Ahmed H, Davies F, Francis N, Farewell D, Butler C, Paranjothy S. Long-term antibiotics for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ Open. 2017; 7(5):e015233. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015233 Alanazi MQ.An evaluation of community-acquired urinary tract infection and appropriateness of treatment in an emergency department in Saudi Arabia. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2018; 14:2363–2373. https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S178855 Altarac S, Papeš D. Use of D‐mannose in prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women. BJU Int. 2014; 113(1):9–10. https://doi: 10.1111/ bju.12492 Antoniou T, Gomes T, Juurlink DN, Loutfy MR, Glazier RH, Mamdani MM. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-induced hyperkalemia in patients receiving inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system: a population-based study. Arch Intern Med 2010; 170:1045–1049. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinternmed.2010.142 Barclay J. Non-antibiotic options for recurrent urinary tract infections in women. Br Med J. 2017; 359:j5193. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j5193 Bardsley A. Diagnosis, prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections in older people. Nurs Older People. 2017; 29(2):32–38. https://doi.org/10.7748/nop.2017. e884 Benton TJ,Young RB, Leeper SC. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in the nursing home. Ann Longterm Care. 2006; 14(7):17–22 Beveridge LA, Davey PG, Phillips G, McMurdo ME. Optimal management of urinary tract infections in older people. Clin Interv Aging. 2011; 6:173–80. https://doi. org 10.2147/CIA.S13423 Bouckaert J, Berglund J, Schembri M et al. Receptor binding studies disclose a novel class of high‐affinity inhibitors of the Escherichia coli FimH adhesin. Mol Microbiol. 2005; 55(2):441–455. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2004.04415.x © 2019 MA Healthcare Ltd factors for potential harms such as those related to drug interactions such as renin–angiotensin system inhibitors and trimethoprim, which can increase the risk of hyperkalaemiarelated hospitalisation and sudden death (Antoniou et al, 2009; Woodford and George, 2009; Lim et al, 2015). In fact, Detweiler et al (2015) suggested that differentiating between ABU and a UTI is challenging for healthcare providers, as the symptoms of UTI are highly variable. They argued that standardising definitions and ensuring a thorough assessment are important. This is summarised in Ninan et al’s (2014) case series, where they reiterate that ABU is common in older people and that prescribing antibiotics confers no benefit and may cause harm, and outlined again in Cai et al’s (2017) opinion piece. British Journal of Community Nursing March 2019 Vol 24, No 3 21/02/2019 16:35 © 2019 MA Healthcare Ltd CARE OF THE OLDER PERSON Cai T, Koves B, Johansen TE.Asymptomatic bacteriuria, to screen or not to screen – and when to treat? Curr Opin Urol. 2017; 27(2):107–111. https://doi.org/10.1097/ MOU.0000000000000368 Cusumano C, Pinker J, Han Z et al.Treatment and prevention of urinary tract infection with orally active FimH inhibitors. Sci Transl Med. 2011; 3(109): 109–115. https:// doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3003021 Detweiler K, Mayers D, Fletcher SG. Bacteruria and urinary tract infections in the elderly. Urol Clin North Am. 2015; 42(4):561–568. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. ucl.2015.07.002 Dimitrov TS, Udo EE,Awni F, Emara M, Passadilla R. Etiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of community-acquired urinary tract infections in a Kuwait hospital. Med Princ Pract. 2004; 13(6):334–339. https://doi.org/10.1159/000080470 Domenici L, Monti M, Bracchi C et al. D-mannose: a promising support for acute urinary tract infections in women. A pilot study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016; 20(13):2920–2925 Flores-Mireles AL,Walker JN, Caparon M, Hultgren SJ. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2015: 13(5):269–284. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro3432 Foxman B. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections: incidence, morbidity, and economic costs. Am J Med. 2002; 113(Suppl 1A):5S–13S Foxman B. The epidemiology of urinary tract infection. Nat Rev Urol. 2010; 7(12):653–660. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrurol.2010.190 Foxman B. Urinary tract infection syndromes: occurrence, recurrence, bacteriology, risk factors, and disease burden. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2014; 28(1):1–13. https ...
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Prevention of UTI in Elderly
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Prevention of UTI in Elderly
Recurring urinary tract infections are a high prevalence in adults than it is in children
and the long-term use of antibiotics in adults. According to Feng and Hokanson (2018), at least
one out of three older women experience UTI leading to hospitalization. They include pregnant
women, postmenopausal women, and catheter patients. A bacterium called E.coli is often the
cause of UTI, and other factors include the genetic and biologic risk factors like the
compromised immune system of the patient. It is also quite challenging to distinguish between
the asymptomatic bacterium and symptomatic urinary tract infection in adults. Several diagnosis
and treatment guidelines have been developed to help in the treatment of UTI. However, there is
a lack of a single evidence-based approach used for the prevention of UTI in the elderly. It is,
therefore, essential to analyze various options available that could ultimately contribute to the
prevention of UTI in the elderly. It is critical to determine if complementary and alternative
medicine (CAM) could lead to the prevention of UTI in the elderly. Management of
asymptomatic and non-asymptomatic bacterium, as well as the prevention of catheter-associated
urinary tract infections, could also contribute to the prevention of UTI in the elderly.
The majority of individuals with recurring tract infections frequently use antibiotics as a
form of medication. However, the increased side effects of antibiotic use and antibiotic
resistance have led to increased challenges for providers as they have to research current and
appropriate treatment options for UTI patients. According to Duncan (201...

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