School Age Care – Activity Planning Form
(Please provide the following information for each activity.
Organize your activity plan with the following headings).
❖ Activity Leader Name:
❖ Activity Title:
❖ Required Materials:
❖ What you hope the children will learn and why it is useful.
❖ Theoretical Perspectives:
o What would Piaget say about this activity?
o What would Vygotsky say about this activity?
o What would Erikson say about this activity?
o What would Gardner say about this activity?
❖ Lead-In (How will you introduce and get the children excited about this
❖ Steps to Completing the Activity:
❖ Connections to Curriculum Areas (math, science, social studies,
language/literacy, art – which of these curriculum areas does this
activity address? Remember, it can , and should, address multiple
❖ Possible Extensions/ Follow-up (in what ways could you build on this
activity in the future):
Important things to remember:
Your activity should be: creative, fun, engaging.
The activity should NOT be teacher directed.
The activity should be open ended enough that children of varying interests
and abilities will be able to take part.
Child Growth &
The School Years 6 to 11
Social Emotional Development
Development in the School
Industry vs. Inferiority
During the school age years, the child will develop either…..
(you will learn more about this in Week 2)
Developing a sense
Pessimism and lack
of competence at
of confidence in own
ability to do things
School provides many
teachers, and peers
can contribute to
Industry refers to the pleasure individuals
get from being productive and being
Inferiority refers to a sense of failure that
causes individuals to avoid opportunities to
succeed or makes them so nervous that
their anxieties interfere with their ability to
Industry Versus Inferiority
How do children’s “selves”
develop during late childhood?
What influences the development of their
How do emotions develop during
the school age years?
Fears that were common in infancy – such
as fear of strangers or separation from
caregivers – decrease.
Other fears increase – fears of real life
What other things can cause
stress during the
school age years?
How do school age children
cope with stress?
Older children are more likely to use
emotion-focused coping strategies –
they try to reduce the emotional distress
they are feeling
They also become more skilled at using
problem-focused coping strategies –
managing or modifying the source of the
Those children who seem to overcome or
bounce back from stressful situations.
Possess certain qualities that protect them
and help them adapt to their stressful and
Above average intelligence
Attractive qualities – valued by others
A positive relationship with at least one parent
At least one supportive adult in their lives
School Age Peer Relationships
Stable social groups emerge
Peer groups based on those in close proximity
and similar interests – similar dress and
Popular prosocial/popular antisocial
Rejected children: those who are overtly disliked by
Neglected children: those who are reasonably liked
by their peers but lack friends – seldom
acknowledged either positively or negatively.
School Age Friendships
Personal qualities more important – trust
Influence on behaviors
Using age appropriate social behaviors to
enhance peer relationships without
Measured by the degree to which a child is
accepted by his or her peers.
Socially competent children are skilled in:
Initiating social interactions
Maintaining social interactions
Communicating for social purposes
What is Morality?
A set of principles or values that helps
individuals distinguish right from wrong
Because more important as children start
to develop relationships with others?
How do children learn moral
Preschool years – modeling and
By school age years
Reflect on why it is good or bad to behave in
certain ways – the purpose of rules
Look at people’s intentions
Look at the context of the behavior
Look at knowledge in regards to responsibility
Beliefs about how to divide material goods
1. Equality (5 to 6 years): everyone should get
2. Merit (6 to 7 years): work hard or do
exceptionally well, should get more
3. Benevolence (around 8 years): consider
those who have disadvantages, adjust views to
fit the situation,
of Moral Development
Premoral Period: Before age 6
Do not yet understand cooperative rules
and goals associated with playing a game.
Too egocentric to take others’ intentions
Act to avoid punishment and maximize
Piaget’s Moral Development
Heteronomous Morality: Ages 6 to 10
Obey rules because they are sacred and unchangeable
Being “right” means always following the rules
Rules are made by those who have absolute authority – “moral realism
Judge acts of goodness or badness in terms of the physical consequences and
not the motivation behind them.
Favor severe punishment regardless of the misdeed – punishment does not fit
Base judgments of good or bad on whether the act elicits punishment and how
much punishment it elicits
Concept of “immanent justice” – breaking a rule inevitably leads to justice/
Piaget’s Moral Development
Autonomous Morality Stage: After age 10
Rules are arbitrary social agreements that can
be challenged or changed
Rules can be violated in the service of human
Morality is determined by one’s intentions rather
than the consequences of an act
Favor milder punishment if it helps the person
see that her or his action was wrong
Punishment should fit the crime
How do family relationships change
during the school age years?
A decline in the amount of time spent with
parents and in the amount of time parents
devote to them.
Social interactions become more focused
on activities outside of the family.
Do only children differ from
those with siblings?
Those with Siblings
Spend considerably more time with
siblings than with parents.
Older siblings often take on more
responsibilities – sometimes providing
caregiving, comfort and support for
Types of Families Today
Gay and lesbian parents
drop in income
after 2 years
Boys, children with
more likely to have
Boys usually adjust
Girls adapt less favorably
Older children and
adolescents of both
sexes display more
Often leads to reduced
Children in fathers’
custody often react
Girls and stepmothers
slow to get along at first,
more positive interaction
How has parental supervision
What are the effects of these
Positive family and peer relations
Fewer gender stereotypes
More father involvement
Less time for children
Risk of ineffective parenting
After School Programs
Latchkey Children – were you one?
What makes a quality after school
What emotional and psychological
disturbances affect children
in late childhood?
A time when emotional and
psychological problems often surface
Aggressive behavior, repeated over time,
that is intentionally harmful and occurs
A pattern of behavior that is aggressive,
defiant, uncooperative, irresponsible and/
Boys more likely than girls
Show a pattern of behavior across
Factors affecting the development of
antisocial behavior include:
Treatment of Antisocial Behavior
Focus on just the antisocial children? The
family? Or the Community?
Role of motivation in treatment success.
About 1 in 6 children experiences a
depressive disorder at some time during
Display persistent negative moods and
lack of pleasure.
Causes of Depression
Causes not well understood
Causes grouped into three categories
Most improve following treatment
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral
Preconventional level: morality is
based on external forces
Stage One: Punishment-and-Obedience
Obedience is valued for its own sake and the
motivation for acting morally is to avoid
Rules should not be broken
Superiority of authority figures
Fails to consider others’ points of view
Preconventional level: morality
is based on external forces …
Stage Two: Instrumental-Purpose
Children believe that rules should be followed
when it is in one’s best interest to do so.
Aware that others pursue interests/needs and
these may conflict
Stage Three: Interpersonal Orientation –
Doing right is what pleases other people
Belief in the golden rule
Aware of shared feelings and expectations which are
more important than individual interests
Stage Four: Social-Order Maintenance
Rules maintain the social order and that the social
system will break down if people do not follow the
Can take the point of view of the majority
The individual is personally committed to a set
of principles that are shared with others but
go beyond particular authority figures
Stage Five: Social-Contract Orientation
Moral actions are defined as those that reflect the will
of the majority
Stage Six: Universal-Ethical-Principle
Right and wrong are based on self-chosen ethical
Child Growth &
The School Years 6 to 11
Like early childhood, growth is for the most part,
slow and steady.
Height: 2 to 3 inches/year & Weight: 5 pounds/year
Average North American 6 year old:
45 pounds and 3 ½ feet tall
Previously, girls slightly shorter and lighter – by age 9, the
other way around – girls also a little more body fat
Especially towards the end of this period - they are
growing out of their pants and shoes!!
Bones continue to grow – ligaments not yet completely
attached – flexibility
Essential to build healthy bones now
Importance of Calcium and physical activity to build
Only 1/5 girls and ½ boys get enough Calcium in their
Growing Pains: 10-15% of 8 to 12 year olds
Actual growing pain or activity related? Actually growing relatively
slow – although muscles still need to adapt to their growing
Becoming “toothless” – between ages 6
and 12 primary replaced with permanent
Correct brushing and flossing
One-third - “malocclusion”
Thumb sucking, overcrowding
Continued improvements in functioning
Especially frontal lobes –
Also...parietal lobes –
And the corpus callosum –
communication between the two hemispheres
Improved coordination and balance
For the most part – most are pretty healthy,
although some become sick more often during
first couple years of school – building immunity
and more exposure to sick children.
Those who have health concerns, usually
related to poverty, poor nutrition, lack of
health insurance and quality care……
Vision and Hearing
Myopia – nearsightedness ¼ by end of school years –
genetic and environmental
Otitis media – less frequent, but still a concern
Importance of regular screenings
The passages that connect the throat and lungs (the
bronchial tubes) are highly sensitive to infection,
exercise, allergies, infection and emotional stress.
Can fill with mucous and contract….coughing,
wheezing and difficulties breathing
Accounts for 1/3 of chronic childhood illness
Frequent cause of school absences and
Risk factors: Heredity, boys, African American
children, LBW, exposure to secondhand smoke and
A healthy diet is essential – zinc, calcium and iron – need protein
and cholesterol for healthy brain development
Unfortunately, poor eating habits of parents carry over to
Associated with many chronic diseases… heart disease, some
types of cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure….
Nutrition can affect the child academically and socially
Supplemental food programs
Obesity – Generation XL
Being more than 20% over “ideal weight” –
25% of American Children!!
15 to 20% of our children are overweight
Most overweight children (over 80%)
become overweight adults – with the
accompanying health problems.
Obesity – Why?
Heredity may give a “tendency” to be
overweight…..and then there is
What we eat, how much, and exercise
Compared to 20 years ago – 200 more
calories a day….also portion sizes
The first bagels 1.5 oz and 115 calories, most
today: 3X bigger and as much as 300 calories
Other factors related to
Socioeconomic status (SES)
Family eating habits
Responsiveness to food cues
Television, video games and computers – a
correlation for some children – what came
How to Lose the Weight?
Often a “family disorder”
Family based interventions
Importance of early intervention
Promoting physical activity
Limit television, computer, video game time
Physical education in schools
Activity in sports
Family activities – make it fun and give the child a
Physically active chores
Nocturnal Enuresis: Bedwetting
15-20% of North American School Children at age five,
10% at six, and 3% at age 12
3 X more boys
Usually not diagnosed until after age 5
Decreases with age
Alarm (60-70% success over 4 to 6 months)
Leading cause of death among US children
ages 5 to 14 is motor vehicle injuries (as a
passenger or a pedestrian) – one killed or
injured every 90 seconds…2000 year die…..
300,000 are hurt.
Bikes, scooters, skateboards….risk of head
injury….almost every bicyclist who dies in an
accident was not wearing a helmet.
Playgrounds – at school usually hurt on climbing
equipment, at home it is swings.
Gross Motor Development Gains in
Fine Motor Development
Improve writing and drawing skills
Instruments and Hobbies
Reaction Times: Eleven year old responds
twice as fast as a five year old.
Six Year Old’s Drawing
Eight Year Old’s Drawing
Ten Year Old’s Drawing
How are boys and girls similar/different
in regards to motor skills?
Boys – muscle mass and strength
Effects of environment/practice
Girls – fine motor skills and balance
Games, Sports, Play
Games with rules, perspective taking,
learning to win and lose, planning
Organized sports vs. Rough and Tumble
Build on children’s interests
n Emphasize enjoyment
n Let kids contribute
Teach age-appropriate skills
n Limit practices
Discourage unhealthy competition
n Focus on personal and team
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