cryptography lab

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cryptography lab



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Lab 3: Hashing Objective: The key objective of this lab is to understand the range of hashing methods used, analyse the strength of each of the methods, and in the usage of salting. Overall the most popular hashing methods are: MD5 (128-bit); SHA-1 (160-bit); SHA-256 (256-bit); SHA-3 (256-bit), bcrypt (192-bit) and PBKDF2 (256-bit). The methods of bcrypt, scrypt and PBKDF2 use a number of rounds, and which significantly reduce the hashing rate. This makes the hashing processes much slower, and thus makes the cracking of hashed passwords more difficult. We will also investigate the key hash cracking tools such as hashcat and John The Ripper. & Web link (Weekly activities): Open up your Ubuntu instance within and conduct this lab. Demo: If required, you can check the hashing methods here: A Hashing In this section we will look at some fundamental hashing methods. No Description A.1 Using (either on your Windows desktop or on Ubuntu): Result 03CF5: Is it [Falkirk][Edinburgh][Glasgow][Stirling]? & Web link (Hashing): D5862: Is it [Falkirk][Edinburgh][Glasgow][Stirling]? Match the hash signatures with their words (“Falkirk”, “Edinburgh”, “Glasgow” and “Stirling”). 03CF54D8CE19777B12732B8C50B3B66F D586293D554981ED611AB7B01316D2D5 48E935332AADEC763F2C82CDB4601A25 EE19033300A54DF2FA41DB9881B4B723 A.2 Repeat Part 1, but now use openssl, such as: 48E93: Is it [Falkirk][Edinburgh][Glasgow][Stirling]? EE190: Is it [Falkirk][Edinburgh][Glasgow][Stirling]? 03CF5: Is it [Falkirk][Edinburgh][Glasgow][Stirling]? echo -n 'Falkirk' | openssl md5 D5862: Is it [Falkirk][Edinburgh][Glasgow][Stirling]? 48E93: Is it [Falkirk][Edinburgh][Glasgow][Stirling]? EE190: Is it [Falkirk][Edinburgh][Glasgow][Stirling]? 1 A.3 Using: MD5 hex chars: & Web link (Hashing): SHA-1 hex chars: Determine the number of hex characters in the following hash signatures. SHA-256 hex chars: SHA-384 hex chars: SHA-512 hex chars: How does the number of hex characters relate to the length of the hash signature: A.4 For the following /etc/shadow file, determine the matching password: bill:$apr1$waZS/8Tm$jDZmiZBct/c2hysERcZ3m1 mike:$apr1$mKfrJquI$Kx0CL9krmqhCu0SHKqp5Q0 fred:$apr1$Jbe/hCIb$/k3A4kjpJyC06BUUaPRKs0 ian:$apr1$0GyPhsLi$jTTzW0HNS4Cl5ZEoyFLjB. jane: $1$rqOIRBBN$R2pOQH9egTTVN1Nlst2U7. [Hint: openssl passwd -apr1 -salt ZaZS/8TF napier] The passwords are password, napier, inkwell and Ankle123. Bill’s password: Mike’s password: Fred’s password: Ian’s password: Jane’s password: A.5 From Ubuntu, download the following: Which file(s) have been modified? & Web link (Files): and the files should have the following MD5 signatures: MD5(1.txt)= MD5(2.txt)= MD5(3.txt)= MD5(4.txt)= 5d41402abc4b2a76b9719d911017c592 69faab6268350295550de7d587bc323d fea0f1f6fede90bd0a925b4194deac11 d89b56f81cd7b82856231e662429bcf2 A.6 From Ubuntu, download the following ZIP file: Do the files have different contents? & Web link (PS Files): Now determine the MD5 signature for On your Ubuntu instance, you should be able to view them. What can you observe from the the files by double clicking on them in the file explorer result? (as you should have a PostScript viewer installed). 2 B Hash Cracking (Hashcat) No B.1 Description Run the hashcat benchmark (eg hashcat –b -m 0), and complete the following: B.2 On Ubuntu, next create a word file (words) with the words of “napier”, “password” “Ankle123” and “inkwell” 232DD...634C Is it [napier][password][Ankle123][inkwell]? Using hashcat crack the following MD5 signatures (hash1): 5F4DC...CF99 Is it [napier][password][Ankle123][inkwell]? 232DD5D7274E0D662F36C575A3BD634C 5F4DCC3B5AA765D61D8327DEB882CF99 6D5875265D1979BDAD1C8A8F383C5FF5 04013F78ACCFEC9B673005FC6F20698D 6D587...5FF5 Is it [napier][password][Ankle123][inkwell]? Command used: hashcat –m 0 hash1 Result Hash rate for MD5: Hash rate for SHA-1: Hash rate for SHA-256: Hash rate for APR1: 04013...698D Is it [napier][password][Ankle123][inkwell]? words B.3 Using the method used in the first part of this tutorial, find crack the following for names of fruits (the fruits are all in lowercase): FE01D67A002DFA0F3AC084298142ECCD 1F3870BE274F6C49B3E31A0C6728957F 72B302BF297A228A75730123EFEF7C41 8893DC16B1B2534BAB7B03727145A2BB 889560D93572D538078CE1578567B91A B.4 FE01D: 1F387: 72B30: 8893D: 88956: We have hashed a SHA-256 value of the following and put it into a file named file.txt: 106a5842fc5fce6f663176285ed1516dbb 1e3d15c05abab12fdca46d60b539b7 By adding a word of “help” in a word file of words.txt, prove that the following cracks the hash (where file.txt contains the hashed value): hashcat -m 1400 file.txt words.txt B.5 The following is an NTLM hash, for “help”: 0333c27eb4b9401d91fef02a9f74840e Prove that the following can crack the hash (where file.txt contains the hashed value): hashcat -m 1000 file.txt words.txt B.6 Now crack the following Scottish football teams (all are single words): 3 635450503029fc2484f1d7eb80da8e25bdc1770e1dd14710c592c8929ba37ee9 b3cb6d04f9ccbf6dfe08f40c11648360ca421f0c531e69f326a72dc7e80a0912 bc5fb9abe8d5e72eb49cf00b3dbd173cbf914835281fadd674d5a2b680e47d50 6ac16a68ac94ca8298c9c2329593a4a4130b6fed2472a98424b7b4019ef1d968 Football teams: B.7 Rather than use a dictionary, we can use a brute force a hashed password using a lowercase character set: hashcat -a 3 -m 1400 file.txt ?l?l?l?l?l?l?l?l --increment Using this style of command (look at the hash type and perhaps this is a SHA-256 hash), crack the following words: 4dc2159bba05da394c3b94c6f54354db1f1f43b321ac4bbdfc2f658237858c70 0282d9b79f42c74c1550b20ff2dd16aafc3fe5d8ae9a00b2f66996d0ae882775 47c215b5f70eb9c9b4bcb2c027007d6cf38a899f40d1d1da6922e49308b15b69 Words: Number of tests for each: What happens when you take the “--increment” flag away? B.8 We can focus on given letters, such as where we add a letter or a digit at the end: hashcat -a 3 -m 1000 file.txt password?l hashcat -a 3 -m 1000 file.txt password?u hashcat -a 3 -m 1000 file.txt password?d Using these commands, crack the following: 7a6c8de8ad7f89b922cc29c9505f58c3 db0edd04aaac4506f7edab03ac855d56 Note: Remember to try both MD5 (0) and NTLM hash (1000). Words: Number of tests for each: 4 C Hashing Cracking (John The Ripper) All of the passwords in this section are in lowercase. No C.1 C.2 Description On Ubuntu, and using John the Ripper, and using a word list with the names of fruits, crack the following pwdump passwords: Result fred:500:E79E56A8E5C6F8FEAAD3B435B51404EE:5EBE7DFA074DA8EE8AE F1FAA2BBDE876::: bert:501:10EAF413723CBB15AAD3B435B51404EE:CA8E025E9893E8CE3D2 CBF847FC56814::: Bert: On Ubuntu, and using John the Ripper, the following pwdump passwords (they are names of major Scottish cities/towns): Admin: Fred: Fred: Admin:500:629E2BA1C0338CE0AAD3B435B51404EE:9408CB400B20ABA3DF EC054D2B6EE5A1::: fred:501:33E58ABB4D723E5EE72C57EF50F76A05:4DFC4E7AA65D71FD4E0 6D061871C05F2::: bert:502:BC2B6A869601E4D9AAD3B435B51404EE:2D8947D98F0B09A88DC 9FCD6E546A711::: C.3 On Ubuntu, and using John the Ripper, crack the following pwdump passwords (they are the names of animals): fred:500:5A8BB08EFF0D416AAAD3B435B51404EE:85A2ED1CA59D0479B1E 3406972AB1928::: bert:501:C6E4266FEBEBD6A8AAD3B435B51404EE:0B9957E8BED733E0350 C703AC1CDA822::: admin:502:333CB006680FAF0A417EAF50CFAC29C3:D2EDBC29463C40E762 97119421D2A707::: D Bert: Fred: Bert: Admin: LM Hash The LM Hash is used in Microsoft Windows. For example, for LM Hash: hashme gives: network gives: napier gives: FA-91-C4-FD-28-A2-D2-57-AA-D3-B4-35-B5-14-04-EE D7-5A-34-5D-5D-20-7A-00-AA-D3-B4-35-B5-14-04-EE 12-B9-C5-4F-6F-E0-EC-80-AA-D3-B4-35-B5-14-04-EE Notice that the right-most element of the hash are always the same, if the password is less than eight characters. With more than eight characters we get: networksims gives: napier123 gives: D7-5A-34-5D-5D-20-7A-00-38-32-A0-DB-BA-51-68-07 67-82-2A-34-ED-C7-48-92-B7-5E-0C-8D-76-95-4A-50 For “hello” we get: LM: FD-A9-5F-BE-CA-28-8D-44-AA-D3-B4-35-B5-14-04-EE NTLM: 06-6D-DF-D4-EF-0E-9C-D7-C2-56-FE-77-19-1E-F4-3C We can check these with a Python script: import passlib.hash; string="hello" print "LM Hash:"+passlib.hash.lmhash.encrypt(string) print "NT Hash:"+passlib.hash.nthash.encrypt(string) 5 which gives: LM Hash:fda95fbeca288d44aad3b435b51404ee NT Hash:066ddfd4ef0e9cd7c256fe77191ef43c & Web link (LM Hash): No D.1 E Description Create a Python script to determine the LM hash and NTLM hash of the following words: Result “Napier” “Foxtrot” APR1 The Apache-defined APR1 format addresses the problems of brute forcing an MD5 hash, and basically iterates over the hash value 1,000 times. This considerably slows an intruder as they try to crack the hashed value. The resulting hashed string contains “$apr1$” to identify it and uses a 32-bit salt value. We can use both htpassword and Openssl to compute the hashed string (where “bill” is the user and “hello” is the password): # htpasswd -nbm bill hello bill:$apr1$PkWj6gM4$XGWpADBVPyypjL/cL0XMc1 # openssl passwd -apr1 -salt PkWj6gM4 hello $apr1$PkWj6gM4$XGWpADBVPyypjL/cL0XMc1 We can also create a simple Python program with the passlib library, and add the same salt as the example above: import passlib.hash; salt="PkWj6gM4" string="hello" print "APR1:"+passlib.hash.apr_md5_crypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt) We can created a simple Python program with the passlib library, and add the same salt as the example above: APR1:$apr1$PkWj6gM4$XGWpADBVPyypjL/cL0XMc1 Refer to: No E.1 Description Create a Python script to create the APR1 hash for the following: Result “changeme”: “123456”: Prove them against on-line APR1 generator (or from the page given above). “password” 6 F SHA While APR1 has a salted value, the SHA-1 hash does not have a salted value. It produces a 160-bit signature, thus can contain a larger set of hashed value than MD5, but because there is no salt it can be cracked to rainbow tables, and also brute force. The format for the storage of the hashed password on Linux systems is: # htpasswd -nbs bill hello bill:{SHA}qvTGHdzF6KLavt4PO0gs2a6pQ00= We can also generate salted passwords with crypt, and can use the Python script of: import passlib.hash; salt="8sFt66rZ" string="hello" print "SHA1:"+passlib.hash.sha1_crypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt) print "SHA256:"+passlib.hash.sha256_crypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt) print "SHA512:"+passlib.hash.sha512_crypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt) SHA-512 salts start with $6$ and are up to 16 chars long. SHA-256 salts start with $5$ and are up to 16 chars long Which produces: SHA1:$sha1$480000$8sFt66rZ$klAZf7IPWRN1ACGNZIMxxuVaIKRj SHA256:$5$rounds=535000$8sFt66rZ$.YYuHL27JtcOX8WpjwKf2VM876kLTGZHsHwCBbq9x TD SHA512:$6$rounds=656000$8sFt66rZ$aMTKQHl60VXFjiDAsyNFxn4gRezZOZarxHaK.TcpV YLpMw6MnX0lyPQU06SSVmSdmF/VNbvPkkMpOEONvSd5Q1 No F.1 Description Create a Python script to create the SHA hash for the following: Prove them against on-line SHA generator (or from the page given above). Result “changeme”: “123456”: “password” G PBKDF2 PBKDF2 (Password-Based Key Derivation Function 2) is defined in RFC 2898 and generates a salted hash. Often this is used to create an encryption key from a defined password, and where it is not possible to reverse the password from the hashed value. It is used in TrueCrypt to generate the key required to read the header information of the encrypted drive, and which stores the encryption keys. PBKDF2 is used in WPA-2 and TrueCrypt. Its main focus is to produced a hashed version of a password and includes a salt value to reduce the opportunity for a rainbow table attack. It generally uses over 1,000 iterations in order to slow down the creation of the hash, so that it can overcome brute force attacks. The generalise format for PBKDF2 is: 7 DK = PBKDF2(Password, Salt, MInterations, dkLen) where Password is the pass phrase, Salt is the salt, MInterations is the number of iterations, and dklen is the length of the derived hash. In WPA-2, the IEEE 802.11i standard defines that the pre-shared key is defined by: PSK = PBKDF2(PassPhrase, ssid, ssidLength, 4096, 256) In TrueCrypt we use PBKDF2 to generate the key (with salt) and which will decrypt the header, and reveal the keys which have been used to encrypt the disk (using AES, 3DES or Twofish). We use: byte[] result = passwordDerive.GenerateDerivedKey(16, ASCIIEncoding.UTF8.GetBytes(message), salt, 1000); which has a key length of 16 bytes (128 bits - dklen), uses a salt byte array, and 1000 iterations of the hash (Minterations). The resulting hash value will have 32 hexadecimal characters (16 bytes). & Web link (PBKDF2): import hashlib; import passlib.hash; import sys; salt="ZDzPE45C" string="password" if (len(sys.argv)>1): string=sys.argv[1] if (len(sys.argv)>2): salt=sys.argv[2] print "PBKDF2 (SHA1):"+passlib.hash.pbkdf2_sha1.encrypt(string, salt=salt) print "PBKDF2 (SHA256):"+passlib.hash.pbkdf2_sha256.encrypt(string, salt=salt) No G.1 H Description Result Create a Python script to create the PBKDF2 “changeme”: hash for the following (uses a salt value of “ZDzPE45C”). You just need to list the first six “123456”: hex characters of the hashed value. “password” Bcrypt MD5 and SHA-1 produce a hash signature, but this can be attacked by rainbow tables. Bcrypt (Blowfish Crypt) is a more powerful hash generator for passwords and uses salt to create a nonrecurrent hash. It was designed by Niels Provos and David Mazières, and is based on the Blowfish cipher. It is used as the default password hashing method for BSD and other systems. 8 Overall it uses a 128-bit salt value, which requires 22 Base-64 characters. It can use a number of iterations, which will slow down any brute-force cracking of the hashed value. For example, “Hello” with a salt value of “$2a$06$NkYh0RCM8pNWPaYvRLgN9.” gives: $2a$06$NkYh0RCM8pNWPaYvRLgN9.LbJw4gcnWCOQYIom0P08UEZRQQjbfpy As illustrated in Figure 1, the first part is "$2a$" (or "$2b$"), and then followed by the number of rounds used. In this case is it 6 rounds which is 2^6 iterations (where each additional round doubles the hash time). The 128-bit (22 character) salt values comes after this, and then finally there is a 184-bit hash code (which is 31 characters). The slowness of bcrypt is highlighted with an AWS EC2 server benchmark using hashcat: • • • • • Hash type: MD5 Speed/sec: 380.02M words Hash type: SHA1 Speed/sec: 218.86M words Hash type: SHA256 Speed/sec: 110.37M words Hash type: bcrypt, Blowfish(OpenBSD) Speed/sec: 25.86k words Hash type: NTLM. Speed/sec: 370.22M words You can see that Bcrypt is almost 15,000 times slower than MD5 (380,000,000 words/sec down to only 25,860 words/sec). With John The Ripper: • md5crypt [MD5 32/64 X2] 318237 c/s real, 8881 c/s virtual • bcrypt ("$2a$05", 32 iterations) 25488 c/s real, 708 c/s virtual • LM [DES 128/128 SSE2-16] 88090K c/s real, 2462K c/s virtual where you can see that BCrypt over 3,000 times slower than LM hashes. So, although the main hashing methods are fast and efficient, this speed has a down side, in that they can be cracked easier. With Bcrypt the speed of cracking is considerably slowed down, with each iteration doubling the amount of time it takes to crack the hash with brute force. If we add one onto the number of rounds, we double the time taken for the hashing process. So, to go from 6 to 16 increase by over 1,000 (210) and from 6 to 26 increases by over 1 million (220). The following defines a Python script which calculates a whole range of hashes: import hashlib; import passlib.hash; salt="ZDzPE45C" string="password" salt2="1111111111111111111111" print print print print print "General Hashes" "MD5:"+hashlib.md5(string).hexdigest() "SHA1:"+hashlib.sha1(string).hexdigest() "SHA256:"+hashlib.sha256(string).hexdigest() "SHA512:"+hashlib.sha512(string).hexdigest() print print print print print print print print "UNIX hashes (with salt)" "DES:"+passlib.hash.des_crypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt[:2]) "MD5:"+passlib.hash.md5_crypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt) "Sun MD5:"+passlib.hash.sun_md5_crypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt) "SHA1:"+passlib.hash.sha1_crypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt) "SHA256:"+passlib.hash.sha256_crypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt) "SHA512:"+passlib.hash.sha512_crypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt) "Bcrypt:"+passlib.hash.bcrypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt2[:22]) 9 Figure 1 Bcrypt No H.1 Description Create the hash for the word “hello” for the different methods (you only have to give the first six hex characters for the hash): Also note the number hex characters that the hashed value uses: I Result MD5: SHA1: SHA256: SHA512: DES: MD5: Sun MD5: SHA-1: SHA-256: SHA-512: HMAC Write a Python or Node.js program which will prove the following: Type: Message: Password: Hex: Base64: HMAC-MD5 Hello qwerty123 c3a2fa8f20dee654a32c30e666cec48e 7376b67daf1fdb475e7bae786b7d9cdf47baeba71e738f1e If you get this to work, can you expand to include other MAC methods. You can test against this page: J 1. Reflective statements Why might increasing the number of iterations be a better method of protecting a hashed password than using a salted version? 10 2. Why might the methods bcrypt, Phpass and PBFDK2 be preferred for storing passwords than MD5, SHA? K What I should have learnt from this lab? The key things learnt: • • • • The differing methods used to hash data. How hashcat and John The Ripper are used to crack hashed values. How salt is added to the hashing process. The core difference between the fast hashing methods (such as MD5 and SHA-1) and the slow ones (bcrypt and PBKDF2). L Additional The following provides a hash most of the widely used hashing method. For this enter the code of: import hashlib; import passlib.hash; import sys; salt="ZDzPE45C" string="password" salt2="1111111111111111111111" if (len(sys.argv)>1): string=sys.argv[1] if (len(sys.argv)>2): salt=sys.argv[2] print print print print print "General Hashes" "MD5:"+hashlib.md5(string).hexdigest() "SHA1:"+hashlib.sha1(string).hexdigest() "SHA256:"+hashlib.sha256(string).hexdigest() "SHA512:"+hashlib.sha512(string).hexdigest() print print print print print print print "UNIX hashes (with salt)" "DES:"+passlib.hash.des_crypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt[:2]) "MD5:"+passlib.hash.md5_crypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt) "Sun MD5:"+passlib.hash.sun_md5_crypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt) "SHA1:"+passlib.hash.sha1_crypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt) "SHA256:"+passlib.hash.sha256_crypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt) "SHA512:"+passlib.hash.sha512_crypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt) 11 print "APR1:"+passlib.hash.apr_md5_crypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt) print "PHPASS:"+passlib.hash.phpass.encrypt(string, salt=salt) print "PBKDF2 (SHA1):"+passlib.hash.pbkdf2_sha1.encrypt(string, salt=salt) print "PBKDF2 (SHA256):"+passlib.hash.pbkdf2_sha256.encrypt(string, salt=salt) #print "PBKDF2 (SHA512):"+passlib.hash.pbkdf2_sha512.encrypt(string, salt=salt) #print "CTA PBKDF2:"+passlib.hash.cta_pbkdf2_sha1.encrypt(string, salt=salt) #print "DLITZ PBKDF2:"+passlib.hash.dlitz_pbkdf2_sha1.encrypt(string, salt=salt) print print print print print "MS "LM "NT "MS "MS Windows Hashes" Hash:"+passlib.hash.lmhash.encrypt(string) Hash:"+passlib.hash.nthash.encrypt(string) DCC:"+passlib.hash.msdcc.encrypt(string, salt) DCC2:"+passlib.hash.msdcc2.encrypt(string, salt) #print "LDAP #print "LDAP #print "LDAP #print "LDAP #print "LDAP salt=salt) #print "LDAP #print "LDAP #print "LDAP #print "LDAP #print "LDAP #print "LDAP #print "LDAP Hashes" (MD5):"+passlib.hash.ldap_md5.encrypt(string) (MD5 Salted):"+passlib.hash.ldap_salted_md5.encrypt(string, salt=salt) (SHA):"+passlib.hash.ldap_sha1.encrypt(string) (SHA1 Salted):"+passlib.hash.ldap_salted_sha1.encrypt(string, (DES Crypt):"+passlib.hash.ldap_des_crypt.encrypt(string) (BSDI Crypt):"+passlib.hash.ldap_bsdi_crypt.encrypt(string) (MD5 Crypt):"+passlib.hash.ldap_md5_crypt.encrypt(string) (Bcrypt):"+passlib.hash.ldap_bcrypt.encrypt(string) (SHA1):"+passlib.hash.ldap_sha1_crypt.encrypt(string) (SHA256):"+passlib.hash.ldap_sha256_crypt.encrypt(string) (SHA512):"+passlib.hash.ldap_sha512_crypt.encrypt(string) print print print print "LDAP "LDAP "LDAP "LDAP (Hex MD5):"+passlib.hash.ldap_hex_md5.encrypt(string) (Hex SHA1):"+passlib.hash.ldap_hex_sha1.encrypt(string) (At Lass):"+passlib.hash.atlassian_pbkdf2_sha1.encrypt(string) (FSHP):"+passlib.hash.fshp.encrypt(string) print print print print print print print print "Database Hashes" "MS SQL 2000:"+passlib.hash.mssql2000.encrypt(string) "MS SQL 2000:"+passlib.hash.mssql2005.encrypt(string) "MS SQL 2000:"+passlib.hash.mysql323.encrypt(string) "MySQL:"+passlib.hash.mysql41.encrypt(string) "Postgres (MD5):"+passlib.hash.postgres_md5.encrypt(string, user=salt) "Oracle 10:"+passlib.hash.oracle10.encrypt(string, user=salt) "Oracle 11:"+passlib.hash.oracle11.encrypt(string) print "Other Known Hashes" print "Cisco PIX:"+passlib.hash.cisco_pix.encrypt(string, user=salt) print "Cisco Type 7:"+passlib.hash.cisco_type7.encrypt(string) print "Dyango DES:"+passlib.hash.django_des_crypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt) print "Dyango MD5:"+passlib.hash.django_salted_md5.encrypt(string, salt=salt[:2]) print "Dyango SHA1:"+passlib.hash.django_salted_sha1.encrypt(string, salt=salt) print "Dyango Bcrypt:"+passlib.hash.django_bcrypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt2[:22]) print "Dyango PBKDF2 SHA1:"+passlib.hash.django_pbkdf2_sha1.encrypt(string, salt=salt) print "Dyango PBKDF2 SHA1:"+passlib.hash.django_pbkdf2_sha256.encrypt(string, salt=salt) print "Bcrypt:"+passlib.hash.bcrypt.encrypt(string, salt=salt2[:22]) No L.1 Description In the code, what does the modifier of “[:22]” do? Result In running the methods, which of them take the longest time to compute? Of the methods used, outline how you would identify some of the methods. For APR1 has an identifier of $apr1$. 12 For the following identify the hash methods used: • 5f4dcc3b5aa765d61d8327deb882cf99 • 5e884898da28047151d0e56f8dc6292773603d0d6aabbdd62a11ef721d1542d8 • $apr1$ZDzPE45C$y372GZYCbB1WYtOkbm4/u. • $P$HZDzPE45Ch4tvOeT9mhtu3i2G/JybR1 • b109f3bbbc244eb82441917ed06d618b9008dd09b3befd1b5e07394c706a8bb980b1d7785e597 6ec049b46df5f1326af5a2ea6d103fd07c95385ffab0cacbc86 • $1$ZDzPE45C$EEQHJaCXI6yInV3FnskmF1 • $2a$12$111111111111111111111uAQxS9vJNRtBb6zeFDV6k7tyB0DZJF0a L.2 It is known that a user has used a password of “passXord”, where X is an unknown character or number. Can crack the following hashes based on a filter: 5fa8051ada600a097bd0922d7a085b94734684c4e070b24a02cf43d24d6eedbe a6f63a5fb10b3bba180a79f2fc565b1db2101040ce71ea80692d671857fe2117 Passwords used: Number of tests: L.3 Download the bfield.hash password hash, and using the rockyou.txt list, determine the first 10 passwords in the hashed file. An example command might be: hashcat -m 0 bfield.hash /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt First 10 passwords from bfield.hash: 13
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