Strategic Management 2000

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Introduction(200)

 

Main Body :

A-Discussions   (Knowledge)(800 words)

B-Critically   evaluation(700   words)

 

Conclusion(350 words)

 

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This assessment word count is 2000

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Please use a minimum font size of 12

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ECOFORUM [Volume 8, Issue 1(18), 2019] THE IMPACT OF DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION ON STRATEGIC BUSINESS MANAGEMENT Benjamin GRAB The Bucharest University of Economic Studies, 71131, Romania benny_grab@hotmail.com Abstract The research paper aims to identify and showcase key drivers of strategic business management development in the light of the recent waves of digital transformation experienced by companies around the globe. The paper consists of an overview on the existing literature and a concise outline of the research conducted. Both research results from professional associations as well as recognized publishers were considered. Furthermore, expert interviews as well as market data were factored in for drawing a comprehensive picture on strategic management theories and frameworks, as well as the history and influence of digital transformation. Our research revealed that digital transformation is worldwide phenomena; however the regional impact differs significantly depending on the regulatory environment and the level of economic sophistication. In essence, the disruptive nature of this trend has the potential to shake the foundations of industries which requires firms to fundamentally change their strategic management approach. The introduction of the digital transformation strategy framework aims to address these challenges and aims to foster additional research in this field. The research was conducted as part of the Research Centre of Business Administration in The Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania. Key words: Digital transformation, strategic management, innovation JEL Classification: L22, M16, O31 I. I NTRO DUCTION In the public domain, firms like Facebook or Google are perceived as the shining example of digital transformation. Naturally, they receive a lot of attention with people trying to unlock their business secrets or imitate the processes and procedures that are making them so financially successful. Points of interest span from the creation of a collaborative and innovation-fueling work environment to team or office structures. Less attention is however provided to the issue of strategic management and the scope and depth of impact of digital transformation processes. Despite existing research highlighting the profound nature of change initiated by digitization, there remains to be a lack of scientific analysis on the matter of strategic management. (Manyika & McAfee, 2014; Tornjanski et al., 2015). The power of disruption as unfolded by the latest waves of digital transformation is a concept that is well established among senior managers. Against this background, 60% of top managers consider it to be a topic which requires attention going forward, while 30% regard the ongoing changes to be potentially threatening to both profitability as well as market position. (Ford, 2015; Weill & Woerner, 2015a). Against this background, the presented research intends to link existing studies, papers and information conducted by experts, professional associations and scholars from the field of strategic management with the drivers and repercussions of digital transformation. By assessing and analyzing the various factors of influence, the digital transformation strategy star to be introduced towards the end of this paper shall work as a framework for structuring and channeling decision-making processes in the context of the current digital challenges. II. R ESEARCH PURPO SE In the light of the conducted desk study on strategic management and digital transformation, it became evident that the recent scientific debate predominantly centers on three key issues. The first point of consideration focuses on demand for upgraded IT infrastructure and skilled labor. In this context, questions concerning adopting future-proof and cutting-edge technology are weighed against internal skills capacities as well as ramp-up, investment and training costs involved. Essentially, firms are striving for an improved value proposition both for existing and new customers as well as for the firm itself. (Joseph et al., 1999; Malik, 2016) The second point of consideration covers the wide issue of human labor and potentially disruptive impact that digital transformation has. In this light, issues such as the future relationship between humans and artificial intelligence, the effect of automation on employment and salary structures as well as the role and future of education are broadly discussed. (Brynjolfsson & McAfee, 2014; Ford, 2015) ECOFORUM [Volume 8, Issue 1(18), 2019] The third question centers on the customer expectations and product delivery. Business planning on company level is under pressure from changes in the market environment with new competitors arising from unexpected areas, increased transparency and constant pressure for innovation. Given this interplay of market forces, the current leaders of the technological elite such as Apple, Amazon or Tesla are among the players expressing most concern regarding the consequences of the next waves of digital transformation. (Tong, Li &Yuan, 2008; Weill & Woerner, 2015b). In the light of the disruptive nature of changes at work, firms need to assess and address those individual factors of influence with the aim of adopting strategic options suitable for their industry. While the current discussion mainly centers on isolated aspects of digital transformation, firms are required to establish a broader digital strategy framework as not to fall victim to the substantial changes posed by the new digital market landscape. (Weill & Woerner, 2015b). III. M ETHODOLOGY This paper on the impact of digital transformation on strategic management is based on an inclusive and thorough assessment and review of existing research from various professional sources. It includes books, papers and expert opinions from a range of scholars, research firms and professional associations. With the aim of drawing an integrated picture of the current research landscape, over 50 available publications were considered, processed and analyzed. Furthermore, expert interviews as well as market data were factored in for drawing a comprehensive picture on strategic management theories and frameworks, as well as the history and influence of digital transformation. In a nutshell, the desk research presented in this paper is intended to form the basis for further research in this field, with the aim of broadening the scope of the scientific debate on the effects of digital transformation on current strategic management models and tools. Consequently, the introduction of factors of influence in the form of the integrated digital strategy framework shall be enriched by empirical research on the degree of impact across various industries going forward. IV. F ORM AND IMPACT OF D IGITAL T RANSFO RMATI ON Achieving operational excellence is at the core of most digitization efforts. Ultimately, this translates into an improved cost position and efficiency. In order to achieve those targets, companies engage in activities towards standardizing and automating business processes. Considering the potential effects of such implementation efforts, industry champions might see their market share under attack from more digitizationdriven competitors. However, firms who are capable of mastering the challenges of digitization are able to provide a new value proposition to their clients in the light of a better and more reliable data management. Essentially, this is a pre-requirement for effective scaling business operations across various market and customer segments. While the benefits of investing time and resources in automation and standardization are straightforward, the major of firms are struggling to steer the internal implementation process. According to research conducted by MIT, only 1 in 4 established company has so far managed to completely digitalize their internal processes. Given that automation and standardization are perceived as a natural first step on the way towards mastering digital transformation, the apparent lack of digital sophistication among firms is potentially threatening for business (Markovitch & Willmott, 2014; Ross, 2017) The full scope of digital transformation is both complex in nature and challenging for all companies involved. It is associated with a technological quantum leap liaised with hot topics such as big data analytics, artificial intelligence, smart cities or social media channels. In the light of the diverse and colorful digital transformation landscape, companies may find it challenging to identify and address these trends in a structured and convincing manner. In addition to that, new market competitors seek opportunities provided by market changes by creating value swiftly and inclusively. Essentially, becoming a new digital leader is about providing a both a new customer experience in combination with an enhanced value proposition which ultimate has the intrinsic potential to reshape the way business has been conducted. (Ross, 2017) In essence, digital transformation is a phenomena transcending the globe while impacting on the business activities of companies worldwide. While borders do not bring the power of change to a full stop, it needs to be noted that the effects of digital transformation are not evenly distributed across countries and regions of the world. Policy makers and businesses have a great degree of influence in affecting a countries’ digital agenda by shaping its regulatory and policy framework. In addition to that, the overall state of economic sophistication has an imprint on the capability of a country to deepen its digital evolution. The issue of the distribution of digital sophistication among countries as it the core of joint study conducted by the Harvard Business Review, Fletcher School at Tufts University as well as renown global financial service company Mastercard. The Digital Evolution Index aims to assess and cluster the degree of digital evolution in key countries across all continents. In a nutshell, associated researchers formed four types of ECOFORUM [Volume 8, Issue 1(18), 2019] countries based on a set of 170 different indicators. The final result of the digital evolution index are in the form of a landscape introducing the current status of digital transformation in more than 60 countries around the globe: Figure 1 - Map of Digital Evolution (Source: Chakravorti, B., et al. 2017) Among the regions of the world, Asia is at the forefront of digital transformation with the UAE, Malaysia and Singapore catering successfully to a tech-savvy urban society. While many of the top spots are currently taken by emerging economies, most of the developed countries such as the United Kingdom or the United States are forced to revisit their digital strategies, in order not to lose ground to their competitors. Interestingly, numerous smaller countries such as Estonia or Israel have already outperformed bigger markets. Among the most interesting cases are the break out countries consisting of a diverse group of nations including Bangladesh, Bolivia and Colombia. (Billon, 2010; Chakravorti et. al., 2017) Aside from the regional distribution of digital transformation, Dawson et. al. (2015) targets the individual factors of influence with regards to supply and demand for redefining market forces at large. Figure 2 sums up the two main sides of the medallion with the upper part focusing on the modest changes associated with supply and demand, while the lower part centers on the more disruptive developments as unleashed by the latest wave of digital transformation. Figure 2 - Digital change overview (Source: Dawson, A., et al. 2016). ECOFORUM [Volume 8, Issue 1(18), 2019] In the modest development section, the following three points shall be considered with regards to changes in the supply and demand equilibrium: • Undistort demand: Digital transformation removes obstacles by allowing customers to experience the full range of products and services on offer which have previously been limited by dominant market competitors. In this regard, online insurance brokers can provide a broader selection of services, in contrast to the very normed and limited insurance products available some years ago. • Unconstrain supply: The digital era helps to unleash firms’ potential by allowing them to tap upon segments which have been previously deemed uneconomical. In this context, semi or fully automated processes provide for a better cost structure on the firms’ side, while customers enjoy a seamless and cost-efficient process. • Make new markets: Wikipedia has been at the forefront of making a new market by using various elements of the digital transformation. The business model focuses on crowd founding whereas users pay for the intrinsic value that they experience in product. In addition to that, content and quality management are steered by crowd knowledge allowing it to renew and reinvent itself every day. Essentially, it provides access to an abundance of knowledge anywhere and anytime, which makes paperback versions of the latest encyclopedia a thing of the past. With reference to the more extreme section, the impact on the factors balancing demand and supply is of a more disruptive nature. In its most extreme form, companies may be forced to close down, while others may experience substantial effects regarding their revenues and profits. These three points include: • Create new value propositions: This element relates to the fact that customers are sometimes not even aware of the products or services that they desire. In this context, the invention of tablets serves as a prime example since oversized smartphones filling the gap between small phone devices and laptops were largely regarded as difficult to market. However, the initial success of the IPad made both suppliers as well as customers rethink their initial perception. • Hyper scale platforms: Today’s tech companies are no longer limited by product or industry frontiers, but rather benefit from their skills and capabilities in business automation, data analytics and marketing. In this context, they are capable of adding new business activities to their existing network whenever a promising opportunity arises. • Re-imagine business systems: The management of internal processes and superior access to the entire value chain of products and services forms an integral part of improved business systems. Essentially, it helps to build new barriers against competitors from all kinds of industries while securing a superior cost position. V. I NFLUENCE OF S TRATEGI C M ANAGEMENT C ONSIDERATIONS Digital transformation can already be felt in many industries with business activities being affected in all parts of the world. While the degree of disruption may be different across business segments and countries, Hirt and Willmott (2014) successfully define seven main drivers which impact on traditional forms of business. Against this background, they play a vital role considering strategic planning and implementation processes. Price setting and profits remain under substantial pressure The abundance and structure of information provided to customers across the internet helps closing the previously existing information asymmetry between firms and clients. This improvement in market transparency puts customers in a better position with the effect of higher bargaining power and lower prices. However, the later might be subject to regional differences given substantial fluctuations in digital sophistication across the globe. (Grab et al., 2018b) Competition is no longer limited to your own industry Barriers for market entry have proven to be useful for many decades, allowing market participants to defend themselves against competition from other players. The rise of digital firms has largely distorted this old perception of shielding industries. These companies rely on superior management skills, flat organizations, technical-savvy staff and entrepreneurial spirit to challenge the current heavyweights in any given industry. In the process, they do not only question the status quo of doing business, old paradigms are further put into question. As a result, ramp up costs are no longer the deciding factors for success, which forces the old guard to seek new strategies beyond pure rent-seeking. Satisfied customers reinforce a winner takes all dynamic Large tech firms such as Apple or Google have taken the element of perfect customer lock-in to new levels by pooling internal resources and capabilities in the form of superior business organization, talented staff and technological advancements for the benefit of an attractive company culture. This stimulates a positive perception cycle which in addition to high quality services and products turns firms into go-to places for customers. This return effect reinforces the customer relationship and manifests the winner takes it all dynamic of the digital era. Modular business models are a key success factor - ECOFORUM [Volume 8, Issue 1(18), 2019] Against the background of the winner takes it all dynamic stimulated by large tech companies, smaller firms may find it particularly difficult to compete on an equal footing. Therefore, innovative market participants aim to piggyback on the success of larger market players by adding their businesses to existing platform structure provided by bigger firms. This translates into a win-win situation since customers are able to find a broader selection of products and services within a known environment. Fighting for smart brains is crucial Frey & Osborne (2013) take a strong stand towards the impact of ongoing business automation as well as further introduction of robotics and artificial intelligence in the work place by stating that almost half of all professions worldwide have the potential to be replaced by machines over the decades to come. While institutions such as the OECD are in strong disagreement regarding the scale and scope of the effect on the global labor market, it is widely acknowledged among scholars that digital transformation forces a shift in skills and capabilities required for the future. In this context, firms need to find new strategies to address the issue of talent gaps within their organization, while at the same time thinking of new ways to train people who are stuck in professions which will no longer be needed. (Manyika et al., 2017; Nedelkosa & Quintini, 2018) Convergence of global supply and demand Online service providers are not limited in their regional focus. In this light, firms have almost unlimited access to customers when it comes to expanding their growth strategies. From a customers’ perspective, standardized products are made available across country frontiers. Along the entire value chain, clients expect a harmonized process from the moment a delivery is made to the after sales service. (Grab et al., 2018a). Constantly evolving business models Digital transformation represents a major change for most firms who have so far lived under the impression that small incremental changes are sufficient to stay in business. However, in a world where your next competitor is formulating and implementing radical solutions for your industry, this kind of slow moving approach will no longer be successful. In this light, the tourism industry makes for an excellent example where tech platforms such as Tripadvisor continuously reshape their business models to improve access to new clients. (Grab et al., 2018c) In the light of these statements, the waves of digital transformation are not a single event, but shall be considered the new normal requiring firms to continually change, evolve and innovate. This puts substantial pressure on both internal as well as external strategic factors. Figure 3 aims to isolate and combine the most imminent elements of digital strategy formulation, in order to structure the discourse on the topic with the help of an integrated framework: Figure 3 - Digital transformation strategy star (Source: own illustration) Company For companies to compete successfully in the fast changing market environment, the power of innovation and creativity needs to be unleashed among the workforce with the aim of staying ahead of competitors with superior product and service delivery. In order to create an environment driven by collaboration and entrepreneurial thinking, firms are required to introduce new management methods which go beyond the old way ECOFORUM [Volume 8, Issue 1(18), 2019] of leadership. Against this background, the next generation of leaders will play a vital role in deciding whether hierarchical structures are outdated and to what extend new forms of organizational development can take center stage. (Hamel & Breen, 2007; Hamel, 2012; Weill &Woerner, 2015; Manyika et al., 2017) Employees Digital transformation represents a significant challenge for employees on various levels. Most notably, members of the workforce are confronted with new styles of leadership and organizational set-ups. Additionally, they are required to learn and adopt new skills and capabilities to actively contribute to the requirements of the innovation-driven business environment. Furthermore, the issue of artificial intelligence and human-robot relations in the work place will require new concepts going forward, in order to harmonize internal processes, (Hamel, 2012; Ford, 2015; Weill & Woerner, 2015; Nedelkoska & Quintini, 2018) Customers Customer experiences and expectations have been significantly impacted by digital companies operating on local or global basis. This can associated with an increased level of transparency allowing customers to compare products and services with only a few clicks. Against this background, firms feel the increase in bargaining power of consumers, which forces them to provide for an improved value proposition in the form of a seamless customer value chain from product selection to after sales service. (Hamel, 2012; Hirt & Willmott, 2014) Information The management of information is one of the cornerstones of the digital transformation era. Therefore firms can gain a competitive edge based on their individual ability to collect, select, process and utilize large chunks of available data. In the context of big data analytics, firms may filter data from various different sources with the aim of utilizing information for the benefit of providing bespoke products and services to different customer groups. In the light of challenges posed by a fast-paced and volatile business environment, planning processes can be further enhanced through the targeted use of data analytics. If companies aim to profit from such development, an internal focus on sharing knowledge and fostering internal communication across department lines is at the core of establishing a work culture based on learning and innovation.. (Hamel, 2012; Bennett & Lemoine, 2014) Risk management Classic approaches on risk management may fall short in capturing the substantial changes created by digital transformation. In this context, new systems and specialists are required to take a more holistic view, while at the same time focusing on the key drivers of future developments. The improvement of internal risk management systems shall hence be more flexible as well as closer to the core of the business activities, in order to create additional value (Hamel, 2012; Tupa et al., 2017) VI. C ONCLUSIONS Digital transformation has the power to shift the balance between firms competing in the same market environment. It essentially impacts on known tectonic business structures by setting a new playing field changes the way firms compete on various levels. The existing strategic management theories and models still partly serve the purpose to assess firm’s internal resources and capabilities. In combination with tools and systems for analyzing the existing and future market environment, firms can still adopt strategic options. However, as outlined in the paper, the challenges posed by digital transformation are disruptive in nature and a thorough understanding, monitoring and acting on the key factors will be crucial for firms going forward. Therefore, the integrated framework on digital strategies aims to complement the existing models while addressing individual shortfalls as described. In a next step, the presented desk study shall be complemented by empirical research with a focus on individual or combined elements of the digital transformation strategy star. Points of consideration for future research may include the role of leadership in stewarding digital transformation processes or the introduction of self-managed teams as a vehicle for successfully addressing the most imminent challenges of the new digital reality. VII. 1. 2. 3. 4. R EFERENCES Bennett, N., Lemoine, G.J., (2014). What VUCA really means for you, Harvard Business Review, Jan-Feb 2014, pp. 27 Billon, M., Lera-Lopez, F., Marco, R., (2010). Differences in digitalization levels: a multivariate analysis studying the global digital divide. Review of World Economics, (146) 39, pp. 39-73. Brynjolfsson E., McAfee A. (2014). The second machine age: Work, progress, and prosperity in a time of brilliant technologies (1st ed.). W. W. Norton Chakravorti B., Bhalla A., Chakravorti R.S., (2017) 60 Countries’ Digital Competitiveness, Indexed; Harvard Business Review July 2017 [online] Available at: [Accessed 01 May 2018] ECOFORUM [Volume 8, Issue 1(18), 2019] 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. Dawson, A., et al., (2016). The economic essentials of digital strategy, McKinsey Quarterly April 2016 [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 April 2018] Ford, M., (2015). Rise of the robots: Technology and the threat of a jobless future, 15th edition, APA: Washington D.C. Frey, C. B., Osborne, M. A., (2017), The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerisation?, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 114, issue C, p. 254-280 Grab, B., Geldmacher W., Ionescu R., (2018) Managing the risks associated with the cyber city project - case study of the NEOM Project; 31st IBIMA Conference in Milan Proceedings, ISBN:978-0-9998551-0-2, 25 - 26 April 2018 Grab, B., Gavril, R.M., Bothe J., (2018). Managing the challenges and opportunities of e-commerce platforms in the Gulf region; 6th International Conference on Management, Leadership and Governance in Bangkok Proceedings, ISBN: 978-1-911218-81-4, 24 - 25 May 2018 Grab, B., Bumbac, R., Gavril, R., Ilie, C., (2018). The winner takes it all - business model innovation in the tourism industry, BASIQ Conference in Heidelberg 2018, 4th BASIQ International Conference on New Trends in Sustainable Business and Consumption Proceedings, ISSN: 2457-483X, 11 -13 June 2018 Hamel, G., Breen, B., (2007). The Future of Management. Boston: Harvard Business School Press Hamel, G., (2012) What Matters Now: How to Win in a World of Relentless Change, Ferocious Competition, and Unstoppable Innovation, Chicago, IL: Jossey Bass Hirt, M., Willmott, P., (2014). Strategic principles for competing in the digital age. McKinsey Quarterly May 2014. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 February 2018]. Joseph, M., McClure, C., Joseph, B., (1999). Service quality in the banking sector: the impact of technology on service delivery. International journal of bank marketing, 17(4), pp. 182-193. Malik, V., (2016). Impact of information technology on banking services comparative analysis of public and private sector banks. Manyika, J., McAfee, A., (2014). Why every leader should care about digitization and disruptive innovation. McKinsey Global Institute Manyika, J., (2017). What the future of work will mean for jobs, skills, and wages. McKinsey Quarterly November 2017. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 February 2018]. Markovitch, S., Willmott, P., (2014). Accelerating the digitization of business processes. McKinsey - Corporate Finance Business Practise, May 2014, pp. 1-4. Nedelkoska L., Quintini G., (2018) “Automation, skills use and training”, OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Paper, No. 202, Paris: OECD Publishing Ross J., (2017). Don’t Confuse Digital With Digitization. MIT Sloan Review - September 2017; [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 January 2018] Tong, Y., Li, D., Yuan, M., (2008). Product lifecycle oriented digitization agile process preparation system. Computers in industry, 59(2), pp. 145-153. Tornjanski et al., (2015). A need for research focus shift: banking industry in the age of digital disruption, ESMSJ, 5 (3), pp. 1116 Tupa, J., Simota, J., Steiner, F., (2017). Aspects of Risk Management Implementation for Industry 4.0. Procedia Manufacturing. Volume 11, pp. 1223-1230. Weill, P., Woerner, S. L., (2015). Thriving in an increasingly digital ecosystem. MIT Sloan Management Review, 56(4), pp. 2734. Weill, P., Woerner, S. L., (2015). Working With Your Board on Digital Disruption?. Research Briefing, MIT CISR Cardiff School of Management (CSM) Module Number: (MBA 7002) Strategic Management PORT 1 (50%) ‘2000 Words’ Critical Article Review December 2019 Gulf College OMAN Student Guidance, Instructions and Marking Scheme Important Dates: Submission Date: TBC by Gulf College Coursework Must Be Submitted Online Via (MOODLE) As Per The Dead Line Set By Gulf College, Muscat Oman. Module Lecturer: Dr Asif Zaman azaman@cardiffmet.ac.uk Essay 2000 Words- Critical – Strategic Management (MBA 7002) - Gulf College OMAN Page 1 of 20 Mapping Assessments to Module Learning Outcomes EXAM1 (50%) + PORT1 (50%): Module Descriptors Learning Outcomes: NO 1 At the end of this module students should be able to: • 2000 words Essay Review Port 1 (50%) Evaluate and reflect on the influences driving demand within the business to consumer and business to business markets and the factors influencing the strength of their influence ✓ Exam1 (50%) ✓ 2 • Critically assess the debate that surrounds corporate values and social responsibilities. ✓ ✓ 3 • To analyse competition and customer requirements in order to identify opportunities for competitive advantage within an industry. ✓ ✓ 4 • Identify different types of strategic change programmes and assess the value of different leadership styles in managing strategic change. ✓ Essay 2000 Words- Critical – Strategic Management (MBA 7002) - Gulf College OMAN Page 2 of 20 Course Assessment MBA7002 (December2019) Essay 2000 Words- Critical – Strategic Management (MBA 7002) - Gulf College OMAN Page 3 of 20 (PORT 1) Assessment- Essay 2000 words- Critical Article Review Module Title: Strategic Management Module Code: MBA 7002 Assessment Method: Essay Level: 7 Module Credits: 20 Weighting: 50 % Due Date : Word Count: 2000 ± 10% TBC by Gulf College, Oman To be submitted Via Moodle Number of Submissions allowed: 2 ( TWO ) Assessment Task (PORT 1- Essay) 50% : You are required to write a fully referenced 2000 words critical review on following journal article topic. Article: (See separate file for the article) THE IMPACT OF DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION ON STRATEGIC BUSINESS MANAGEMENT ECOFORUM [Volume 8, Issue 1(18), 2019] Essay 2000 Words- Critical – Strategic Management (MBA 7002) - Gulf College OMAN Page 4 of 20 2000 Essay Word Count Guidance Marks Sections with (Approximate) word count guide Allocated Introduction (200) 10% A-Discussions (Knowledge) (800 words) 40% B-Critically evaluation (700 words) 30% (350 words) 10% Main Body : Sections Conclusion Referencing: (Correct use of Harvard Referencing system) Total Marks 10% 100% Activity: This PORT1 (50%) requires you to write 2000 words critical article review and developing the citation using Harvard referencing format. The above table is ONLY a guide for your understanding. Essay 2000 Words- Critical – Strategic Management (MBA 7002) - Gulf College OMAN Page 5 of 20 Guidance notes (2000 words essay) 1. Title page (front cover). See below 2. Article Review Here are some things you should consider as you examine a document and write your review: As a start, first, skim through the article and then giving it an once-over read. As you do this, ask the major questions that are central to the review process: 1. What is the purpose of this article? 2. Why is it important to investigate or examine the subject of the article? 3. How are the authors carrying out the task? Are their methods and comments appropriate and adequate to the task? 4. What do they claim to have found out? Are the findings clearly stated? 5. How does this advance knowledge in the field? How well do the authors place their findings or comments within the context of ongoing scholarly inquiry about this topic? Look at the organization of the article. Can you find answers to the above questions quickly and easily? Can you trace the logic consistently from the opening paragraphs to the conclusion? Then go back to the opening paragraphs of the article. Is the groundwork adequately and clearly laid to guide readers into the topic that is being addressed? Is it clear what the authors are talking about? Do they make the case that this is an important area for inquiry or examination? An early section of many articles is usually a review of the existing literature on this topic. Do the authors present a convincing line of argument here—or does it appear that they are just namedropping (citing sources that may be important, without a clear underlying logic for how they may be important)? Do the authors focus on ideas, or merely on discrete facts or findings? Have they given sufficient attention to theory—the cumulative attempts at prior explanations for the questions they are investigating? Essay 2000 Words- Critical – Strategic Management (MBA 7002) - Gulf College OMAN Page 6 of 20 In short: How well do the authors set the stage for the problem or issue that they are reporting? In the case of a research article like this, the section presenting research results is surely the heart of the article—though not its soul (which the reader should find in the opening paragraphs and in the discussion section). The writing style is important. Consider the three guidelines for successful communication— to be clear, concise, and correct—and whether the authors have achieved it: 1. Is the writing clear? Do the authors communicate their ideas using direct, straightforward, and unambiguous words and phrases? Have they avoided jargon (statistical or conceptual) that would interfere with the communication of their procedures or ideas? Have they clearly and satisfactorily explained the key concepts relevant to the article? 3. Is the writing concise? Are too many words or paragraphs or sections used to present what could be communicated more simply? 4. Is the writing correct? Many writers have only a rudimentary grasp of grammar and punctuation, and that results in meandering commas, clauses in complex sentences that are struggling to find their verbs, and adjectives or even nouns that remain quite ambiguous about their antecedents in the sentence. Essay 2000 Words- Critical – Strategic Management (MBA 7002) - Gulf College OMAN Page 7 of 20 (PORT 1 -50%) (2000 words) Essay Marking Scheme Sections / Marks Structure (10) Content (10) Presentation (10) Individual Marking Scheme None, muddled. 0–3 Some attempt, a little disjointed. 4–7 Some relevance, a few errors of fact, most statements supported by evidence. 4–7 Good clear structure, beginning, middle and ending. 8 –10 High relevance, no errors of fact, all statements supported by evidence. 8 –10 Spelling and grammar fairly good, tables & figures mostly support text. 4–7 Excellent spelling and grammar, all tables and figures support the text. 8 –10 Missed the jest of the article. Does not focus on major issues. 0–4 5–9 Some points selected couple minor issues or no supporting example explained. None, little relevance to title, many errors of fact, statements not supported by evidence. 0–3 Poor spelling and grammar, poor layout, poor use of tables & figures. 0–3 Analysis (25) None, little relevance. 0–3 Relevant but rambling or repetitive. 4–7 Does not write any of your own thoughts or ideas about what is discussed in the article. 0–3 Brief mention of thoughts, but did not elaborate. No mention of learning from reading the article. None, or do not follow logically from earlier content. 0–3 None, Does not follow Harvard style, or very poor. 0–3 4–7 Some valid conclusions that mostly follow from earlier content. 4–7 Some attempt but citations and references not matching. 4–7 Discussion (15) Your Thoughts (10) Conclusions (10) Referencing (10) Your Score /100 Student Name: Total Marks: 10 – 14 Relevant but demonstrating little understanding of issues in the field. 8 – 12 Major points selected and discussed. 15 – 20 High relevance, insightful analysis. 21 - 25 High relevance, demonstrating a good understanding of wider issues related to the field. 13 – 15 Articulates your thoughts on the article in clear manner. Discusses what you learned from reading the article or ideas you might use in the future. 8 – 10 Good, valid conclusions that logically follow from earlier content. 8 –10 Good referencing, no omissions. 8 –10 Student ID: Essay 2000 Words- Critical – Strategic Management (MBA 7002) - Gulf College OMAN Page 8 of 20 General instructions Coursework must be submitted online (MOODLE) as per the dead line set by Gulf College, Muscat Oman. You will two chances to submit your work, only the final submission will count. The only circumstance in which assignments can be uploaded late via Turnitin is if a Mitigating Circumstances (MC) form is submitted at the same time. In these circumstances work may be submitted within five (5) working days. Make sure to secure MC form and submit the same to the concerned staff. Write the number of words used, excluding references, at the end of your assignment. Provide the list of sources you used at the last page of your assignment with proper label ‘References’. You may include diagrams, figures etc. without word penalty. The number of words will be + or – 10% of the total words allowed. A work declaration must be included just after the reference page of your assignment. This ensures that you prepare your work in good faith. Any form of collusion and/or academic unfair practice will be dealt with according to the pertinent rules and regulations of the partner university. Please read carefully the plagiarism guide. Essay 2000 Words- Critical – Strategic Management (MBA 7002) - Gulf College OMAN Page 9 of 20 Instructions to students: • This assessment word count is 2000 • Your student identification number (ID) must be clearly stated at the top of each page of your work. • Each page must be numbered. • Please use a minimum font size of 12 • Times new Roman Font Style • 1.5 line spacing and justify alignment • All referencing must adhere to Institutional requirements.(Harvard Referencing Style) • A word count must be stated at the end of your work. • If applicable, all tables and figures must be correctly numbered and labelled. Essay 2000 Words- Critical – Strategic Management (MBA 7002) - Gulf College OMAN Page 10 of 20 USE THIS FRONT COVER CRITICAL REVIEW THE IMPACT OF DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION ON STRATEGIC BUSINESS MANAGEMENT Name: ________________________ Student No: ___________________ Degree Programme: MBA (Gulf College, Oman) Course: Strategic Management (MBA 7002) Date: Essay 2000 Words- Critical – Strategic Management (MBA 7002) - Gulf College OMAN Page 11 of 20 Plagiarism 1. Plagiarism, which can be defined as using without acknowledgement another person’s words or ideas and submitting them for assessment as though it were one’s own work, for instance by copying, translating from one language to another or unacknowledged paraphrasing. Further examples of plagiarism are given below: Use of any quotation(s) from the published or unpublished work of other persons, whether published in textbooks, articles, the Web, or in any other format, which quotations have not been clearly identified as such by being placed in quotation marks and acknowledged. Use of another person’s words or ideas that have been slightly changed or paraphrased to make it look different from the original. Summarising another person’s ideas, judgments, diagrams, figures, or computer programmes without reference to that person in the text and the source in a bibliography or reference list. Use of services of essay banks and/or any other agencies. Use of unacknowledged material downloaded from the Internet. Re-use of one’s own material except as authorised by the department. 2. Collusion, which can be defined as when work that has been undertaken by or with others is submitted and passed off as solely as the work of one person. This also applies where the work of one candidate is submitted in the name of another. Where this is done with the knowledge of the originator both parties can be considered to be at fault. 3. Fabrication of data, making false claims to have carried out experiments, observations, interviews or other forms of data collection and analysis, or acting dishonestly in any other way. Plagiarism Detection Software (PDS) As part of its commitment to quality and the maintenance of academic standards, the University reserves the right to use Plagiarism Detection Software (PDS), including Turnitin. Such software makes no judgment as to whether a piece of work has been plagiarised; it simply highlights sections of text that have been found in other sources. The use of plagiarism detection software fulfills two functions. The first is to enhance student learning (i.e. as a developmental tool); the second is to guard against and identify unfair practice in assessment. Essay 2000 Words- Critical – Strategic Management (MBA 7002) - Gulf College OMAN Page 12 of 20 Generic Marking Rubrics: 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 100 Very Poor No answer given or a totally irrelevant answer. Very Poor An attempt to answer the basic requirements of the task but lacks clarity; highly irrelevant ideas and concepts; highly irrelevant materials which reflects very limited subject knowledge; no assignment objectives set Poor Poor discussion of the assessment task; irrelevant ideas and concepts; irrelevant materials which reflects very limited subject knowledge; no clear assignment objectives Satisfactory Basic discussion of the assessment task; limited ideas and concepts; limited use of relevant materials which reflects limited subject knowledge; assignment objectives are unclear Good Good discussion of points in the assessment; relevant ideas; relevant materials reflects subject knowledge; assignment objectives are set Very Good Very good discussion of the points in the assessment task; relevant ideas and concepts; relevant materials reflects thoroughness of subject knowledge; assignment objectives are defined Excellent Excellent discussion of the main points in the assessment task; highly relevant ideas and concepts; excellent presentation of relevant materials which reflects thoroughness of subject knowledge; clearly defined assignment objectives Outstanding Outstanding discussion of the main points in the assessment task; highly relevant ideas and concepts; outstanding presentation of relevant materials which reflects thoroughness of subject knowledge; clearly defined assignment objectives Exceptional Exceptional discussion of the main points in the assessment task; highly relevant ideas and concepts; exceptional presentation of relevant materials which reflects thoroughness of subject knowledge; clearly defined assignment objectives No answer given or a totally irrelevant answer. An attempt to answer the basic requirements of the task but lacks clarity; very poor comprehensio n of the theories and Poor understandin g of the theories and concepts; inability to relate the theories and concepts to other fields of Basic understandin g of the theories and concepts; ability to relate the theories and concepts; limited Good understandin g of the theories and concepts; ability to relate the theories and concepts; discussion of Very good understanding of the theories and concepts in relation to the assessment; ability to relate the theories and Excellent understanding and comprehensio n of the theories and concepts related to the assessment; ability to relate Outstanding understanding and comprehensio n of the theories and concepts related to the assessment; ability to relate Exceptional understanding and comprehensio n of the theories and concepts related to the assessment; ability to relate Introductio n 10% Knowledge 40% Essay 2000 Words- Critical – Strategic Management (MBA 7002) - Gulf College OMAN Page 1 of 20 No answer given or a totally irrelevant answer. Evaluation 30% concepts; unable to relate the theories and concepts to other fields of study; unclear discussion of the key terms of the assessment. An attemp to judge the case but no originality; appraisal of arguments with no pros and cons; critique of theories with no details; no consideration of evidences to address the issues; no solutions raised in the assessment task study; poor discussion of the key terms of the assessment. discussion of the key terms needed in the assessment. the terms needed in the assessment. concepts; discussion of the terms needed in the assessment. the theories and concepts to other fields of study; discussion of the key terms needed in the assessment. the theories and concepts to other fields of study; discussion of the key terms needed in the assessment. the theories and concepts to other fields of study; discussion of the key terms needed in the assessment. Poor judgement of the case with no originality; appraisal of arguments with no pros and cons; critique of theories with no details; very limited consideration of evidences to address the issues; very limited solutions raised in the assessment task Basic judgement of the case with limited originality; appraisal of arguments provide limited pros and cons; critique of theories with limited details; limited consideration of evidences to address the issues; limited solutions raised in the assessment task. Good judgement of the case with originality; appraisal of arguments provide pros and cons; critique of theories with details; consideration of evidences to address the issues; solutions raised in the assessment task. Very good judgement of the case with perception and originality; appraisal of arguments provide valid pros and cons; critique of theories supported by details; consideration of evidences relevant to theories to address the issues; solutions to problems raised in the assessment task. Excellent judgement of the case with high degree of perception and originality; appraisal of arguments provide strong and valid pros and cons; critique of theories and concepts supported by relevant details; consideration of various evidences relevant to theories and concepts to address issues; solutions to Page 2 of 20 Outstanding judgement of the case with high degree of perception and originality; appraisal of arguments provide strong and valid pros and cons; critique of theories and concepts supported by relevant details; consideration of various evidences relevant to theories and concepts to address issues; solutions to Exceptional judgement of the case with high degree of perception and originality; appraisal of arguments provide strong and valid pros and cons; critique of theories and concepts supported by relevant details; consideration of various evidences relevant to theories and concepts to address issues; solutions to Essay 2000 Words- Critical – Strategic Management (MBA 7002) - Gulf College OMAN Conclusion/ Synthesis 10% No answer given or a totally irrelevant answer. References 10% No reference s given An attempt to summarise the assessment task; very poor synthesis of the assessment task; very weak summary of the points presented; very weak position on the points raised Includes very limited list of references from online sources with no Harvard referencing style problems and issues raised in the assessment task. problems and issues raised in the assessment task. problems and issues raised in the assessment task. Outstanding synthesis of the main points of the assessment task; outstanding summary of the evidences presented; profound position on the main points raised Includes a comprehensiv e list of references from all sources including books, ebooks, online Exceptional synthesis of the main points of the assessment task; exceptional summary of the evidences presented; profound position on the main points raised Includes a comprehensiv e list of references from all sources including books, ebooks, online Poor synthesis of the assessment task; weak summary of the points presented; weak position on the points raised Satisfactory synthesis of the assessment task; satisfactory summary of the points presented; unclear position on the points raised Good synthesis of the assessment task; good summary of the points presented; clear position on the points raised Very good synthesis of the points of the assessment task; very good summary of the evidences; strong position on the points raised Excellent synthesis of the main points of the assessment task; excellent summary of the evidences presented; profound position on the main points raised Includes very limited list of references mostly from online sources which are not following proper Includes a limited list of references mostly from sources including books and online sources with Includes a list of required number of references but mostly from sources including books, online sources, and Includes a comprehensiv e list of references mostly from sources including books, ebooks, online Includes a comprehensiv e list of references from all sources including books, ebooks, online Essay 2000 Words- Critical – Strategic Management (MBA 7002) - Gulf College OMAN Page 3 of 20 Harvard referencing system no proper Harvard referencing system journals with lapses on on the use of Harvard referencing system sources, journals and publications with minor mistakes on the use of Harvard referencing system Essay 2000 Words- Critical – Strategic Management (MBA 7002) - Gulf College OMAN sources, newspapers, journals and publications using the proper Harvard referencing system Page 4 of 20 sources, newspapers, journals and publications using the proper Harvard referencing system sources, newspapers, journals and publications using the proper Harvard referencing system Referencing guide: The University regulations on plagiarism and unfair practice must be observed. Your attention is drawn in particular to the need to acknowledge all sources of information by clearly referencing all material using the Harvard Convention. The Cardiff School of Management reserves the right to ask for further proof of the nature and source of material used and you are advised to keep complete records of such sources. Throughout your assignment you should been referring to the work of other people. This must be properly referenced as a reader may wish to consult the original text. It is essential to cite ALL sources of references and to acknowledge works consulted. There are many referencing styles, like Harvard, APA, MLA, MHRA, OSCOLA, Vancouver and Chicago. For this assignment, use ‘HARVARD’ referencing format. Please explore the following comprehensive link to referencing. ‘Cite Them Right Online’ Link to www.citethemrightonline.com refining guide. End of Assignment Brief Essay 2000 Words- Critical – Strategic Management (MBA 7002) - Gulf College OMAN Page 1 of 20 Guidance Notes Further Guidance Notes on referencing. As stated above do not forget to explore the ‘Cite Them Right Online’ web link: For this assignment, use ‘HARVARD’ referencing format. Please explore the following comprehensive link to referencing. ‘Cite Them Right Online’ Link to www.citethemrightonline.com refining guide. In the text you should refer to pieces of work in a consistent manner. The required method for doing so is the Harvard system, as noted below: Essay 2000 Words- Critical – Strategic Management (MBA 7002) - Gulf College OMAN Page 2 of 20 Harvard System References are indicated in the text as follows: (Name, Date) e.g. - (Jones, 1999) Where there are two authors: (Name and Name, Date) e.g. - (Jones and Kemp, 1998) Where there are more than two authors, all authors should be listed on first use, thereafter ‘et al’ is acceptable: (Name et al, Date) e.g. - (Jones et al, 1991) Use a,b,c etc. to indicate different publications by the same author(s) in the same year. e.g. ...In contrast to others (Jones, 1996a; Jones, 1996b Norman, 1988;), Mathews (1999) suggested that... When listing authors in this way you must use either alphabetical (names as listed above) or chronological order (date of publication as listed below), so it is also feasible to write: e.g. …In contrast to others (Norman 1988, Jones 1996a, Jones 1996b), Mathews (1999) suggested that… Short quotes, less than three lines of typescript should be run into the text like this: "Most writers, even professionals, have trouble getting started" (Becker, 1986:45). Where you have a longer quote, indent it, single-spaced with no quote marks: They start over and over again, destroying reams of paper, working over the first sentence or paragraph again and again as they find each successive try unsatisfactory in some new way (Becker, 198:45). Essay 2000 Words- Critical – Strategic Management (MBA 7002) - Gulf College OMAN Page 3 of 20 Please note where the full stop occurs in these quotes. The source must be part of the sentence. Please also note that page numbers are given for quotes. One point: try not to use too many quotes, make sure the ones you use are pertinent, otherwise it ends up messy and disjointed - they will seldom all be relevant. Quotes should rarely exceed 8 lines. At the end of the dissertation you will include a list of references in alphabetical order - books, journals, conference papers etc. all together. The name of the book, journal, conference paper should be underlined and the date of publication, place of publication and publisher given e.g. Balchin, P. and Bull, G. (1987) Regional and Urban Economics London: Harper Inverted commas should be used with chapters from edited collections, and article titles e.g. Bateley, R. (1989) ‘London Docklands: An Analysis of Power Relations Between UDCs and Local Government’ Public Administration Vol. 67 pp167-187 Cardiff City Council (1971) South Butetown: Proposals for the Seventies Cardiff: Planning Department Cawson, A. (1985) ‘Corporatism and Local Politics’ in Grant, W. (Ed.) The Political Economy of Corporatism London: Macmillan Duffy, H. (1989) ‘ Title of Article’ London: Financial Times 28th February Saunders, P. (1981a) Social Theory and the Urban Question London: Hutchinson Saunders, P. (1981b) ‘Notes on the specificity of the Local State’ in Boddy, M. and Fudge, C. (Eds) The Local State: Theory and Practice Working Paper 20 University of Bristol - SAUS Essay 2000 Words- Critical – Strategic Management (MBA 7002) - Gulf College OMAN Page 4 of 20
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Explanation & Answer

Attached.

Outline for article review
Introduction
In this section, an introduction is made regarding the impact of digital
transformation on strategic business management.
Discussions
In this section, a discussion of the central ideas in the article is made.
Critical evaluation
In this section, a critical evaluation of the concepts of digital transformation and
impact on business has been stated clearly and precisely.
Conclusion
In this section, a summary of the major ideas in the paper regarding digital
transformation is made with emphasis on the major impacts on business strategic
administration.
List of Reverences
The sources used to substantiate the work are enlisted in this section.


ARTICLE REVIEW ON STRATEGIC BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 1

CRITICAL REVIEW
THE IMPACT OF DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION ON
STRATEGIC BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

Name: ________________________
Student No: ___________________
Degree Programme: MBA (Gulf College, Oman)
Course: Strategic Management (MBA 7002)
Date:

ARTICLE REVIEW ON STRATEGIC BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 2

Impact of Digital Transformation on Strategic Business Management Review
Introduction
Digital transformation is a key issue in the 21st century when it comes to strategic
business management. The main objective of digital transformation is to change the phase of
problems experienced by the managers in the course of their business transactions (Grab, Olaru
and Gavril, 2019). Organizations have embraced the fact that digital transformation is a key issue
which must be embraced. The article review is basically to identify the key issues which are
presented in the impact of digital transformations in strategic business management. Businesses
require a successful approach to challenges through the incorporation of required business ideas
and become tech-savvy in the world of competition (Bouwman et al., 2018, pp. 104-124). With
the introduction of modern technology in the businesses, the methods of business operation
changes and business models also become different which is a good perspective in fighting the
challenges of business. Flexibility is also a major component of the impacts of business strategic
management following the various challenges identified. Fundamental concepts are required in
the elimination of challenges and promotion of a qualitative approach which is required in the
proper management of businesses (Sebastian et al., 2017). The purpose of this review is to
identify the basic approaches which businesses have implemented in the control of analog
processes through digital transformation. Also, the impact of the digital transformation in their
business administration and management is critically analyzed to come up with a perfect
approach to modern business administration techniques.
Discussions
The article has identified a number of changes in the methods of business administration
and outcomes of the same based on digital transformations (Grab, Olaru and Gavril, 2019). With
the implementation of various business strategies and needs for promotion of required business
competence, the article has identified major ideas that are good and are actually in society. Most
of the organizations have succeeded in the market competition due to their efforts and strategic
business management skills (Matt, Hess, and Benlian, 2015, pp. 339-343). Based on the required
impacts, the following are some of the ideas which are presented due to the impact of digital
transformation on strategic business management and administration:

ARTICLE REVIEW ON STRATEGIC BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 3
Operational excellence is an impact of the digital transformation and implementation of
tech-savvy techniques in the various businesses. Based on the approaches and fundamental
strategies which businesses require, digital transformation improves the operational speed and
the rates of business transactions (Grab, Olaru and Gavril, 2019). The profits associated with the
various technological administration techniques are considered fundamental in the elimina...


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