Fire Protection

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Question 1

Instructions

In the image provided, describe the initiating device. Discuss any criteria about these devices being accessible, unobstructed, and visible. Does this initiating device require a manual or automatic means of activating the fire alarm and initiating signal? Why, or why not? Have you ever come across an initiating device that did not meet these criteria? Explain. 

Question 2

Instructions

Part 3: Scenario-Based Case Study 

For this assignment, you will submit Part 3 of the scenario-based case study course project, which is due in Unit VIII. You should evaluate and revise the recommendations as needed during the process for each previous unit as you learn more during the progression of this course. Please continue to draw upon your imagination to think creatively on potential concerns with fire and explosive hazards, fire controls, and fire and emergency management. Look at fire protection technology in a holistic way that is significantly different from what was previously designed by thinking in isolation. You will evaluate and develop recommendations to resolve potential fires in the future. 

Section I 

As you make suggestions to improve fire detection and alarm systems, refer back to the background information, if needed, to provide you with the necessary material to identify the basic components common to fire protection for the City of Washington Distribution Warehouse. 

This assignment is not looking for compliance with building codes nor expecting you to be a fire protection system designer. However, the purpose of this assignment is for you to apply the concepts and knowledge you learned in this unit as you begin writing your final project, which will cover protection systems that will detect, contain, control, and extinguish a fire. This assignment provides you with the opportunity to use your skills, expertise, and experience to enrich your response.

Prepare a well-organized narrative addressing the fire detection and alarm system, and provide your recommendations after reviewing the background information and information above. Your discussion will consist of your evaluation of the previous fire detection and alarm system. In addition, from reading the textbook chapters and any additional research you conduct about detection and alarm systems, discuss your recommendations for the rebuild of the warehouse. Be sure to include the information below. 

Briefly      explain the function of a fire alarm control unit.                         

Categorize      the types of audible notification appliances.                          

Discuss      the three types of specialty signals. 

Section II 

As we saw in the unit lesson, written plans, procedures, and work practices are needed in any organization, no matter how large or small they may be. Written plans and procedures point out unforeseen hazards or emergencies to the organization, employees, or even the public. Based on the scenario in the unit lesson and the information above, discuss what is an emergency action plan. What are procedures and work practices? Describe the designated actions employers and employees should take to ensure employee safety from fire and other emergencies after the warehouse is rebuilt. 

For this assignment, you will write a two-page narrative (one page per section) supporting your position. You must have a title page and references page. An abstract is not required. You may use information from reputable, reliable journal articles, case studies, scholarly papers, and other sources that you feel are pertinent. You should use at least three sources, of which one must be your textbook. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations following proper APA style. 

Question 3

Instructions

Many municipalities have private water systems and fire hydrants that connect to the public water system. Private water systems normally provide water to industrial and commercial structures. Consider the interactions of private/public contractors or engineers with utilities in your city, county, or state. Do you think a private water system would adequately provide water to a fire protection system where you live? Would a public water system adequately provide water to a fire protection system where you live? Is one better than the other? What are your thoughts? 

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary. 

Question 4

  • Instructions

Part 4: Scenario-Based Case Study 

  • Refer to the unit study guide for the needed information about water systems before attempting to complete this assignment. 

For this assignment, you will submit Part 4 of the scenario-based case study course project, which is due in Unit VIII. You should evaluate and revise the recommendations as needed during the process for each previous unit as you learn more during the progression of this course. Please continue to draw upon your imagination to think creatively on potential concerns with fire and explosive hazards, fire controls, and fire and emergency management. Look at fire protection technology in a holistic way that is significantly different from what was previously designed by thinking in isolation. You will evaluate and develop recommendations to resolve potential fires in the future. 

  • Section I 

As you make suggestions to improve life, safety, and fire protection, refer back to the background information, if needed, to provide you with the necessary material to identify the basic components common to fire protection for the City of Washington Distribution Warehouse. 

As we have been building on each phase of the scenario for fire protection design, evaluate the appropriate quality, quantity, and pressure of the water protection system in the scenario. 

This assignment is not looking for compliance with building codes nor expecting you to be a fire protection system designer. However, the purpose of this assignment is for you to apply the concepts and knowledge you have learned in this unit as you begin writing your final project covering protection systems that will detect, contain, control, and extinguish a fire. In addition, this assignment provides you with the opportunity to use your skills, expertise, and experience to enrich your response. 

Prepare a well-organized narrative addressing the existing water distribution system suppling the fire protection system for the warehouse described in the unit study guide. Your discussion will consist of your evaluation of the water system and the effect of water pressure on the fire as it relates to the movement of water, the components of a water supply and distribution network, and if the warehouse should be on the public water system or private water system. 

Section II 

In the unit lesson, fire brigades were described. Explain the views to a reader unfamiliar with fire brigades, including references to specific statements. What are the characteristics of fire brigades in the industrial or commercial setting? Should fire brigades be a part of today’s fire protection? Why, or why not? 


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Question 1 & 2 Announcement Unit III Announcement Unit III Announcement Students: We are looking at the basic functions of fire alarms systems. Fire alarm systems have various inputs (pull station, smoke detectors, heat detector, IR and UV detectors) and outputs (bells, strobes, annunciator panels, voice commands, and suppression system activation. Legacy systems are hardwired into circuits and are limited in the information that is provided to the annunciator panel and fire alarm receiving station (think ADT operator). New systems are energy efficient, inputs/outputs are software program addressable and provide detailed information to the annunciator panel and fire alarm receiving station. Unit II Summary: This unit reviews the chemistry of fire and how each side of the tetrahedron can be utilized to control a fire. Different fire suppression technologies will be introduced along with their advantages and disadvantages. This unit should add or reinforce your basic knowledge of fire chemistry and fire suppression systems. Thoughts for you to ponder: • • • What are the distinct differences between legacy conventional systems and addressable systems? What NFPA standard regulates fire alarm systems and how is it developed? What are specialty signals? These points to ponder are critical for you as a leader to identify and prepare strategically as all of these challenges can potentially affect your agency or you. Here is a link for you to research: RealPars. (2019). What is a Fire Alarm System?. RealPars YouTube Channel https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cVjyDgFrb2g Important Notices: Project Requirements: To clarify the writing of project responses please note the following in order to achieve the highest possible score per essay response: • All responses must have properly formatted in-text and reference citations. If you paraphrase than give proper citations. Failure to do so will result in a poor grade and possible violation of the CSU Plagiarism Policy. • • All responses must have a minimum of 200 words which does not include in-text citations; anything less is not solid college level work. This means you will need to add content. You are not to just copy from the text with a citation to answer the questions. I have already read the textbook. I want you to add to the experience of the question. Please use a Spell and/or Grammar Check function of your word processing software to ensure proper spelling and grammar before copy and paste. UNIT III STUDY GUIDE Fire Alarm Notification Systems Course Learning Outcomes for Unit III Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Recommend appropriate fire protection systems for protecting life and property. 1.1 Describe written plans, procedures, and work practices for fire detection and alarm systems. 5. Examine emerging technologies related to fire protection. 5.1 Explain the function of a fire alarm control unit. 6. Evaluate design specifications for fire alarm systems. 6.1 Categorize the types of audible notification appliances. 6.2 Discuss the three types of specialty signals. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes 1.1 5.1 6.1 6.2 Learning Activity Unit III Lesson Chapter 2 Report: How to Plan for Workplace Emergencies and Evacuations Unit III Course Project Unit III Lesson Chapter 2 Unit III Course Project Unit III Lesson Chapter 2 Unit III Course Project Unit III Lesson Chapter 2 Unit III Course Project Reading Assignment Chapter 2: Fire Detection and Alarm Systems In order to access the following resource, click the link below. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (2001). How to plan for workplace emergencies and evacuations (OSHA Publication No. 3088). Retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3088.pdf Unit Lesson In the previous lesson, we learned that the components of fire protection, detection, and suppression are critical to ensure life safety and the protection of property. In addition, we learned the myth of pulling a manual fire alarm and activating the entire sprinkler system was found to be false. The fire alarm notification system is tied to the manual pull station, and pulling the alarm will initiate a signal notifying the monitoring company as to the type and location of the alarm. There are a variety of simple and complex fire alarm systems, and the optimal performance detection is the first defense against the spread of fire. MOS 5301, Fire Protection Technology 1 According to Brakhage, Abrams, and Fortney (2016), fire alarm detection systems fromGUIDE simple in UNITrange x STUDY nature to advanced detection systems with microprocessor-based software. Fire detection and fire alarm Title systems utilize fire alarm control units (FACU) that receive the signal from the initiating device, whether it is a smoke, heat, light, or gas detection or even water flow. FACUs monitor and control the devices and transmit a signal to a fire alarm monitoring company where the fire department is notified of the location and type of alarm. In addition, upon activation, the FACU initiates an audible alarm to evacuate the structure. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 72 outlines the notification requirements for fire alarm appliances. What notification signaling appliance alerts occupants in a timely manner? Is it bells, buzzers, horns, speakers, strobe, or lights? What is the reliability of notification signaling appliances? Notification signaling appliances provide audible, visual, and textual signals. According to Gagnon (2008), of the different types of notification signaling appliances, a three-pulse temporal pattern allows individuals to recognize the alarm signal in a timely manner. Whether bells, buzzers, or horns, if it is a constant alarm sounding, it becomes ambient sound or white noise. The constant alarm is similar to a car alarm where many have become numb to the sound and, in many cases, not even respond to the sounding alarm even when there is an emergency. It happens so often that it has become a nuisance alarm to many believing it to be a false activation. Gagnon (2008) suggested that alarms are ignored because of the failure to recognize the sound, because it is a nuisance alarm, or because one cannot hear the alarm. As a result of numerous false alarms in some facilities, many have been conditioned to the sound. Examples of fire alarm notification system In addition, fire alarm system activation should not impact other zones being evacuated within the same structure and must be separated by a 2-hour rated wall, and the cabling that carries the notification signal must be rated for 2 hours (Gagnon, 2008). Points to Ponder Scenario At 1:17 p.m., the fire alarm monitoring company received a report of a water flow alarm at 44614 Mays Street West. The FACU-initiating devices did not sense the presence of the products of combustion and smoke conditions through the multi-criteria devices throughout the warehouse. The only notification received was the signal for a water flow-initiating device in the warehouse. A few minutes later, the monitoring company received notification of a pull station activation in the warehouse near the loading docks. The monitoring company notified the City of Washington Fire Department, and a first-alarm assignment was dispatched. The first company arrived shortly thereafter and reported seeing the dense black smoke issuing from the roof area of the City of Washington Distribution Warehouse. Workers stated that after pulling the manual pull stations, there was no audible alarm notification. Those in the office area and other parts of the warehouse were unaware of the fire and were not evacuated until the fire department arrived. After investigating, it was found that the alarm notification system on the older part of the warehouse and office was a pre-signal service with an integral delay, and someone in the office concerned about another false alarm cleared the notification. However, the sprinkler system and manual pull station were tied to a newer FACU and sent a signal to the monitoring company. The audible notification of the fire alarm pull station and the water flow detectioninitiating device were wired into the pre-signal system, and when the system was silenced, the audible notification did not sound. The pre-signal was allowed by the previous business because they had written plans, procedures, and work practices concerning fire and evacuation as well as a trained fire brigade for a quick response until the fire department could arrive. MOS 5301, Fire Protection Technology 2 Why was there only a water flow alarm and not a smoke or heat detection alarm in the scenario? Why was UNIT x STUDY GUIDE there a pre-signal system in the warehouse? What is a pre-signal system? Gagnon Title (2008) described a presignal system as a fire alarm system that sends a signal to a control room, front desk, or security workstation. The signal has a delay, and someone must manually activate a public alarm. Pre-signal systems are undesirable in many locations and must be approved by the authority having jurisdiction before installation. Most pre-signal systems have 24-hour supervision. Written Plans, Procedures, and Work Practices Is it important to have written plans, procedures, work practices, or even an emergency action plan with the advanced fire detection and fire alarms that we have today? Are these a thing of the past when systems were simple? Should workplace emergency be identified in advance? How do you protect employees and visitors in the workplace? Written plans, procedures, and work practices are needed in any organization, no matter how large or small they may be. Written plans and procedures point out unforeseen hazards or emergencies to the organization, employees, or even the public. These written plans and procedures identify multiple hazards or emergencies ranging from natural events to manmade. Even the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA, 2001) suggests that these events were unforeseen threats and listed them as "floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, fires, toxic gas releases, chemical spills, radiological accidents, explosions, and workplace violence resulting in bodily harm and trauma" (p. 1). The best time to prepare for an event is before it happens, and the emergency action plan must be comprehensive and deal with specific hazards found in the workplace. Not all workplaces are the same, and each workplace has its unique hazards. Every emergency action plan consists of the following components:       a way to report fires and other emergencies; strategies and processes for evacuation; emergency procedures for escape and assigned routes, such as maps of floor plans and designated safe areas; contact information of individuals inside and outside the company who know the details of the duties and responsibilities of individuals during the emergency plan; measures for employees who stay to perform or shut down crucial company operations or maintain services that cannot be shut down for every emergency alarm; and rescue and medical responsibilities for workers (OSHA, 2001). Without clear and concise written plans, procedures, and work practices during an emergency, confusion and chaos can result in injury, damage to property, and possibly death. These written documents need to identify someone who will be the incident commander or person in charge who can follow procedures using some type of command structure. Someone needs to be familiar with the procedure who can determine if the written plan needs to be activated; evacuate personnel; know the exact location and any known hazards present to communicate to emergency medical services, fire services, or both; and terminate plant operations when needed. Written plans, procedures, and work practices are aimed at minimizing the causes of fire and prevent injury and the loss of life to employees and visitors through written guidelines. These guidelines should identify potential fire hazards as well as address the proper storage and handling of combustible or hazardous materials. In addition, they should identify persons or positions responsible for the housekeeping procedures and the segregation and separation of combustible materials. The written plans should address training of employees for any hazards that they may be exposed to during their daily activities. Conclusion Fire detection and fire alarm systems are the first defense against the spread of fire through detection, whether by simple or complex systems. Fire detection and fire alarm systems utilize FACUs to receive the activation signal from the initiating device and transmit a signal to the monitoring company in order to reduce fire damage or the loss of life. Systems have transitioned from bells, buzzers, or horns to a more complex electronic alerting system that does not blend into the background. In addition to an audible notification to save lives and reduce damage, written plans, procedures, and work practices are needed to ensure the risk of fire has been reduced or eliminated as much as possible. MOS 5301, Fire Protection Technology 3 References UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Brakhage, C., Abrams, A., & Fortney, J. (Eds.). (2016). Fire protection, detection, and suppression systems (5th ed.). Stillwater, OK: Fire Protection Publications. Gagnon, R. M. (2008). Design of special hazard and fire alarm systems (2nd ed.). Albany, NY: Delmar Learning. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (2001). How to plan for workplace emergencies and evacuations (OSHA Publication No. 3088). Retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3088.pdf Suggested Reading In order to access the following resources, click the links below. You are encouraged to read about how you can create a written program for your facility to reduce hazards, establish safety rules, and enforce procedures to ensure employee and visitor safety. The article below discusses the importance of having a written program that addresses work-related injuries and workplace safety. Caccavale, S. (2002, July). How to create your facility’s written program. Safety Management, 472, 1, 3, 6–7. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=buh&AN=6964598&site=ehost-live&scope=site Although the document below was written about a concrete plant emergency plan, it covers the three parts needed for written safety plans: emergency action plan; fire prevention plan; and spill prevention plan for environmental spills of oils, fuels, and chemicals. Eckhardt, B. (1998, February). Written emergency plans-part I. Concrete Products, 101(2), 12–17. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=bth&AN=317432&site=ehost-live&scope=site The video below discusses the importance of pre-signal alarms. S.E.R. Safety. (2016, November 12). System test 19: LED & pre-signal! [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yGuifXK86bE Click here for a copy of the video transcript. Learning Activities (Nongraded) Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information. Reflect on the concepts you have learned during your readings. What do you understand completely? What did not quite make sense? The purpose of this assignment is to provide you with the opportunity to reflect on the material you have read and to expand on it. If you are unclear about a concept, either review it in the textbook or ask your professor. Can you apply what you have learned to your career? How? This is not a summary. A reflection paper is an opportunity for you to express your thoughts about the material you are studying by writing about it. Reflection writing is a great way to study because it gives you a chance to process what you have learned and increases your ability to remember it. MOS 5301, Fire Protection Technology 4 Use the following guidelines as you reflect on the course material. • • • UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title List and compare the different types of manually operated fire alarm devices. What are the types of audible notification appliances for fire alarm systems? Explain the effectiveness of audible notification appliances given ambient sound or white noise. Write at least two pages, using APA style writing. This is a nongraded activity, so you do not have to submit it. If you have any difficulties with the unit content, contact your instructor for additional explanation and discussion. MOS 5301, Fire Protection Technology 5 Question 3 & 4 Announcement Unit IV Announcement Unit IV Announcement Students: This unit delves into fire protection systems in your community. Interactions between public and private water systems, fire protection engineers, and construction managers that must come in on budget. What external pressures are placed on the fire officer from city management and elected officials to get a project approved and built? What economic incentives are at stake for the builder and the city when a project is held up due to a failed fire protection system test? How does your organization interface with an industrial fire brigade during a response? These are just a few issues that a fire officer can face. Unit III Summary: We are looking at the basic functions of fire alarms systems. Fire alarm systems have various inputs (pull station, smoke detectors, heat detector, IR and UV detectors) and outputs (bells, strobes, annunciator panels, voice commands, and suppression system activation. Legacy systems are hardwired into circuits and are limited in the information that is provided to the annunciator panel and fire alarm receiving station (think ADT operator). New systems are energy efficient, inputs/outputs are software program addressable and provide detailed information to the annunciator panel and fire alarm receiving station. Thoughts for you to ponder: • Would a public water system adequately provide water to a fire protection system where you live? • What are the characteristics of fire brigades in the industrial or commercial setting? • Should fire brigades be a part of today’s fire protection? These points to ponder are critical for you as a leader to identify and prepare strategically as all of these challenges can potentially affect your agency or you. Here is a link for you to research: IFWfireworld. (2014). Texas A&M Industrial Fire School. IFWfireworld YouTube Channel https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0eyEDMUB7Kw Important Notices: Project Requirements: To clarify the writing of project responses please note the following in order to achieve the highest possible score per essay response: • All responses must have properly formatted in-text and reference citations. If you paraphrase than give proper citations. Failure to do so will result in a poor grade and possible violation of the CSU Plagiarism Policy. • All responses must have a minimum of 200 words which does not include in-text citations; anything less is not solid college level work. This means you will need to add content. You are not to just copy from the text with a citation to answer the questions. I have already read the textbook. I want you to add to the experience of the question. • Please use a Spell and/or Grammar Check function of your word processing software to ensure proper spelling and grammar before copy and paste. UNIT IV STUDY GUIDE Water Supply Systems Course Learning Outcomes for Unit IV Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Recommend appropriate fire protection systems for protecting life and property. 1.1 Discuss the characteristics of fire brigades in the industrial or commercial setting. 6. Evaluate design specifications for fire alarm systems. 6.1 Define the terms pressure, low, and duration as they relate to the movement of water in private or public water systems. 6.2 Identify and describe the components of a water supply and distribution network. 6.3 Discuss the difference between some public water systems and private water systems. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes 1.1 6.1 6.2 6.3 Learning Activity Unit IV Lesson Chapter 3 Unit IV Course Project Unit IV Lesson Chapter 3 Unit IV Course Project Unit IV Lesson Chapter 3 Unit IV Course Project Unit IV Lesson Chapter 3 Unit IV Course Project Reading Assignment Chapter 3: Water Supply Systems Unit Lesson Water is the most common and most plentiful firefighting extinguishing agent. Understanding the properties of water is critical in the design of fire protection systems. Designers must know the quantity of water for a given structure, the pressure required for the fire suppression system, and the friction loss of the system. They must also know the variables that affect water distribution in both private and public systems. Understanding water in relationship to temperature is also critical in that it changes the properties and weight of water. Does a fire suppression system in Florida need more water to absorb the heat of a fire than a fire suppression system in Michigan? The law of specific heat measures the amount of energy needed to raise its temperature. Brakhage, Abrams, and Fortney (2016) explain that it takes 1 joule of heat to 1 pound of water to warm it by 1 degree Fahrenheit at sea level. HotSpot Energy (n.d.) suggests the average temperature of groundwater in Florida is 72 degrees, and the average in Michigan is 47 degrees. Will the groundwater in Michigan absorb more heat faster because it is colder and converts to extinguishing properties sooner? Brakhage et al. (2016) suggest that the extinguishing effect of water is affected by the law of specific heat, law of latent heat of vaporization, surface area of the water, and specific gravity. We know that the temperature of water will not increase beyond the boiling point of 212 degrees before it turns to steam. According to Brakhage et al. (2016), water at an average temperature of 60 degrees needs MOS 5301, Fire Protection Technology 1 152 British thermal units (BTUs) to raise the temperature of water to the boiling pointx of 212 degrees. UNIT STUDY GUIDE If we use the average groundwater temperature of 72 degrees, you will need 140 BTUs Titleto raise the temperature of water to the boiling point; if we use the average groundwater temperature of 47 degrees, you need 165 BTUs to raise water to the point of boiling. The physics of water is needed to understand how much water would be required to convert water into steam for extinguishing fires. One gallon of water at 60 degrees and 152 BTUs of heat will convert into steam absorbing 9,358 BTUs of heat. In firefighting, water needs to be applied effectively to achieve the maximum conversion into steam to absorb the heat from a fire. If you see firefighters applying water inside a structure and water is running out the door, then it is not being applied effectively to the seat of the fire. The same is true with fire protection systems. To extinguish a fire, water must be applied to the seat of the fire in order to be converted into steam. Water Systems Have you ever noticed the fluctuation of the water pressure? Sometimes the pressure seems high while it may seem low at other times. Water demands of a community change continuously during peak usage depending on the time of day, week, month, or year. This may leave public water systems inadequate to support fire suppression efforts or even supply fire protection systems. Even though the availability of water seems plentiful in most communities, for firefighting, it can be challenging at times. Fire protection designers must understand these fluctuations and the properties of water in order to design a proper fire protection system. This includes flow rate requirements of the sprinkler system and firefighting efforts to mitigate a fire. The needed flow rate is the number of gallons of water required to extinguish a fire based on the building type, occupancy, and hazards. The amount of water required for sprinkler systems and firefighting from the public water system is based on pressure, flow, and duration of operation. Determining these factors is critical in the design. Points to Ponder Scenario During the fire, several workers reported that the sprinkler heads in front of the loading dock doors were barely operating. They also stated several sprinkler heads directly over the fire, which was started by the welders, activated. A couple of the workers wearing their normal uniforms (non-fire rated) attempted suppression activities during the initial fire stage using a hose rack, pre-connected, 1-inch fire hose that was a part of the existing structure before the renovation. However, the water stream would not reach the fire because there was no pressure. The workers also stated that a rusty colored water was coming out of the sprinkler heads and the fire hose line. The public water supply system for the community is ageing, and deterioration of many of the water mains has caused unreliable water supply during the maximum daily consumption. The water supply for the multiple sprinkler heads that were activated comes from a 6-inch private loop off of the secondary feeder from the City of Washington. Just past the loop is a cross-connection control device connected to the City of Greenville public water supply system, which is a primary feeder. The City of Greenville’s water main is a 16-inch main reduced down to 6-inches at the cross-connection control device. The storage tank feeding the industrial area is 200,000 gallons maximum, and recovery time to fill the tank is 2 hours. The City of Washington is unable to boost the pressure due to the deterioration of the water system. After the fire and during the investigation, it was found that when the warehouse first opened, there was a fire brigade due to the distance to the closest fire station. The insurance company required staff to be trained to fight fire in order to receive a reduction in premiums. Two employees trained as a part of the original fire brigade that remained after the new owners reorganized the warehouse. However, the new owners did feel the need for a fire brigade but also felt it increased liability after conducting a risk analysis. MOS 5301, Fire Protection Technology 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Was the private loop system effective? Did it provide enough water to the warehouse to supply the sprinkler system? In order to be effective, water supply systems should be fed from multiple distribution connections and directions using grids and loops. The least effective water supply system is one that is on a dead-end such as in the Points to Ponder Scenario. One of the signs that the water system was on a dead-end was the sediment that accumulated in the water lines from being static and reports of the rusty colored water. After the sprinkler system activated, the discharge of large amounts of water caused the sediment to break free. In addition, dead-end mains typically have low pressure due to water being supplied from only one direction. Brakhage et al. (2016) suggest that loop systems are also referred to as circle systems. Typically, the loop system supplies water from two different directions. However, as seen in the scenario, the water is supplied to the private loop from only one direction making it like a dead-end main. Dead-end mains only allow water to travel in one direction reducing the availability (Brakhage et al., 2016). Cross-connection control device. MOS 5301, Fire Protection Technology 3 Fire Brigades UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Should fire brigades be utilized in fire suppression efforts? Should fire brigades be involved in emergencies when they occur? National Fire Protection Association (2018) or NFPA 1081: Standard for Facility Fire Brigade Member Professional Qualifications discusses the magnitude of fire brigades when dealing with fire emergencies. Fire brigade members should have the knowledge and skills to mitigate fire in an organized industrial setting providing specific services. Fire brigade members may preform suppression, rescue, or both, in fire related incidents (NFPA, 2018). The intent is that fire brigade members will be able to control the fire in the initial fire stage before it reaches the fully developed stages. Fire brigade members utilize fire hoses from Class I, Class II, and Class III standpipe fire suppression systems; although, Class II systems are less demanding with better control with lower pressure and volume requirements for individuals to handle (Brakhage et al., 2016). The standard stresses the importance of individuals in the fire brigade to have proper training, equipment, and protective clothing. Conclusion Water is critical in the extinguishment of fire, and understanding the properties of water makes firefighting more effective when applied properly at the seat of the fire in order to convert to steam. Water distribution systems, both private and public, are important in the ability to deliver water to fire protection systems. As seen in the warehouse fire in the scenario, the effects of firefighting, from a fire brigade or a fire protection system, can be disastrous when water is not readily available. Not having adequate water for fire suppression can be life threatening. References Brakhage, C., Abrams, A., & Fortney, J. (Eds.). (2016). Fire protection, detection, and suppression systems (5th ed.). Stillwater, OK: Fire Protection Publications. HotSpot Energy. (n.d.). Ground water temperature map - Entering water temperatures [Climatic map]. Retrieved from http://www.hotspotenergy.com/heat-recovery-performance/groundwater-temperaturemap.php National Fire Protection Association. (2018). Standard for facility fire brigade member professional qualifications (NFPA Standard No. 1081). Retrieved from https://www.nfpa.org/codes-andstandards/all-codes-and-standards/list-of-codes-and-standards/detail?code=1081 Suggested Reading In order to access the following resources, click the links below. You are encouraged to read the trends and technologies related to municipal water supply systems with a focus on interoperability, backup and redundant water supply systems, and critical infrastructure protection. Hickey, H. E. (2008). Water supply systems and evaluation methods: Volume I: Water supply system concepts. Retrieved from https://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/publications/water_supply_systems_volume_i.pdf Hickey, H. E. (2008). Water supply systems and evaluation methods: Volume II: Water supply evaluation methods. Retrieved https://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/publications/water_supply_systems_volume_ii.pdf In order to view National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standards, each student must register for a free account with the NFPA. Please review the video tutorial on gaining access to the NFPA website and how to access the NFPA codes there. MOS 5301, Fire Protection Technology 4 Locating and Using NFPA Standards Tutorial: http://libguides.columbiasouthern.edu/nfpastandards UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Click here to access the transcript for the tutorial above. Title Once you access the codes and standards, review NFPA 1081: Standard for Facility Fire Brigade Member Professional Qualifications. National Fire Protection Association. (2018). Standard for facility fire brigade member professional qualifications (NFPA Standard No. 1081). Retrieved from https://www.nfpa.org/codes-andstandards/all-codes-and-standards/list-of-codes-and-standards/detail?code=1081 MOS 5301, Fire Protection Technology 5
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Running head: INITIATING DEVICE

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Question 1: Initiating Device
Name
Course
Professor
Date

INITIATING DEVICE

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Initiating Device

In the image provided, describe the initiating device. Discuss any criteria about these
devices being accessible, unobstructed, and visible. Does this initiating device require a
manual or automatic means of activating the fire alarm and initiating signal? Why, or why
not? Have you ever come across an initiating device that did not meet these criteria?
Explain.
In the image above, the Fore Alarm Control Unit (FACU) in the right is the initiating
device. The device is capable of sensing products of combustion in a building, and it acts on that
by raising the alarm to the fire companies around and the residents of the given facility
simultaneously. When establishing this device, it is necessary to place it in a place where it is
accessible. It should be visible and unobstructed so that in the event where the system fails to
initiate an alarm during a fire outbreak, human intervention may be put to trigger the alarm.
The initiating device needs to have an automatic means of activating the fire alarm and
initiating a signal. The system ought to be designed in such a manner that it can sense when there
is a fire outbreak in the house. The system ought to be so sensitive that at the slightest production
of products of combustion such as smoke, it needs to sense and raise the fire alarm. However,

INITIATING DEVICE

3

since there is a chance that the system may fail to recognize combustion taking place in the
facility, there is a need to have provisions for manual triggers.
Some time back, I came across an initiating device that was tucked at the back of a house
at a corner where it could be difficult to notice. Without a critical evaluation, an individual may
have failed to realize that there is a fire alarm system in the house. The effect of this is that when
a fire outbreak occurs and the system fails to sense the outbreak, it would be very difficult to
trigger a manual system.


Running head: SCENARIO-BASED CASE STUDY

Scenario-Based Case Study 1
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SCENARIO-BASED CASE STUDY

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Anonymous
Awesome! Perfect study aid.

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