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I want help with writing 3 pages of reflection one page under each question. You can read the participant answer for each question in chapter 4 to help you to write the reflection. I attached to you the participants' answer in a separate document named (Information to help you) I already have information under each question just I want you to write the reflection as it shown below.

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I want help with writing 3 pages of reflection one page under each question. You can read the participant answer for each question in chapter 4 to help you to write the reflection. I attached to you the participants' answer in a separate document named (Information to help you) I already have information under each question just I want you to write the reflection as it shown below. RQ1: What are the characteristics of an effective Early Childhood Professor? There were three theme and eight sub-themes that were obtained from the results of this study. The study established that throughout their teaching life, professors develop various characteristics that they impact on themselves as well as on the students who are preparing to become future teachers for children during their teaching and interactive work. All these qualities reflect a deep passion for teaching, as students feel that these professors care about their learning and cannot help but see them as role models. According to Bredecamp (2017), characteristic of professional, intentional Early Childhood teachers are as follows: caring and committed, enthusiastic and engaged, curious and creative, respectful and responsible, passionate and patient, purposeful and playful, focused and flexible, aware and accountable, informed and effective, listening and learning. The majority of the participants mentioned that they prepare students for real-life teaching and challenges and guide them on how to face these challenges. The participants agreed on the importance of understanding early childhood development content, current research, past research and related theories to be an effective early childhood professor. “Many educators feel that effectiveness as a teacher stems from a combination of knowledge, skills, and personal characteristics” (Katz 1993). In my opinion professors having experience in early childhood education allowed them to provide more examples that help students have a deep understanding of the contents. All participants shard that they had personal characteristics that enabled them to perform well in their work. According to Helterbran, (2008), students perceive that the category of professorial personal qualities is important when they feel that they are cared for by their teachers, and when they treated in a respectful and compassionate manner by their teachers. The majority of the participants said that they organize information in a way that is easy for students to understand, and that their passion for teaching makes them provide their best to the students. Participant A stated: Modeling content or concepts, bringing in other models from other online sources such as videos and that sort of thing. Providing those examples so students are able to problem solve through the information. Also, guiding students. I think it's really important that students are able to be guided through the task and understanding. Again, taking the student from where their level of understanding is, to where they’re comfortable. Helping them understand new material. Some students really need that guidance. They need you to guide them through that process and if that's what they need then that's what needs to be provided. All professors agree with having excellent communication skills such as be a good listener help professors to know the concerns and the needs of the students. In my opinion ensured that the ability to listen actively is crucial in helping students as they all come from different backgrounds, experiences, and have different levels of understanding. Felder and Brent (2005) argue that these differences should be understood by the instructors and that they need to put some effort into providing and using different strategies of teaching. Write one-page reflection Q2 R2: How do Early Childhood Professors exemplify the skills of their field? The professors expressed that they needed to have the required skills and knowledge to successfully impart on the students in their academic journey. The participants used different teaching strategies to reach specific expectation or outcome which they look forward to achieving at the end of a course or learning activity. There is a need for college professors to possess distinct and effective characteristics which can easily help in the dissemination of knowledge and values to the teachers and later to the students (Frankel & Swanson, 2002). Hughes, Cavell, Willson, (2001) describe the student as the person who wants to learn and take the information in, while the teacher is the giver of this information. So, their relationship should consist of positive interactions and good communication. Professor A stated: Another strategy is constantly taking breaks within a class period to check for understanding and again this goes back to asking the right questions. We have to connect to the students’ understanding because students might find what they think they know is being challenged. It's can be hard for them to take the research and the theory and connect it to their practice. So that is something I'm constantly doing in my class as well. Professor E shard: I use pair and share. I also started off each class with some type of activity in the morning like I had Undergraduate class started at 7:30. I started with a “start the day the brain smart way activity” where they get up and do some type of connection-based activity…. Each student had to lead the class in a brain smart activity…...I would say my classes are about 50 percent lecture and 50 percent hand on activities. The participants ensured that students understand the information by using a pedagogical method that focuses on teaching students to comprehend what they are being taught rather than just to get information with the aim of passing the course. The professors aimed at creating deep and meaningful learning among the students through this method and it enables the students to integrate the information into their brains not just for recalling and reciting but to also put the knowledge into practice in the real world. In support of the pedagogical teaching method in higher education by the professors, Postareff asserts that pedagogical training had a positive impact in the scales measuring conceptual change that was seen in the students as a result of using the focused approach and emphasis on self-beliefs (Postareff et al., 2007). The professors further shard that experience was a foundation of learning and relating with professors who are more experienced in their courses enhanced the learning of students. The professor suggests that students can learn through observing them in their teaching process. This is true as Slate argues that the cognitive aspects of instructions that can be obtained by students in learning include communication, teaching well, use of different modalities, organization, motivation, teaching for understanding, challenging students, and exhibiting knowledge (Slate et al., 2009). As such, students learn from their professors in many ways, not only through the actual information that is being passed to them in verbal or written form. The participants used the concept of mentorship to help students in their learning experience. Most of the participants believed that mentorship not only helps students to become great early childhood teachers, but it also helps them to become successful college students. The students obtained critical techniques and feedback help to shape and empower their teaching skills. Students become motivated when they receive positive feedback from the teachers. It improves their academic achievement. If teaching lacks feedback or if there is limited feedback in the teaching situations, students do not enhance their learning. (Ferguson, 2011). The participants expressed that collaborative mentoring effort is fundamental as it requires both the professors and the students to learn from each other. Write one-page reflection Q3 R3: How do Early Childhood professors illuminate self-efficacy? The majority of the professors mentioned that the students needed to develop self-efficacy as they exhibited by their confidence while teaching in the classroom and the competent use of teaching strategies. The professors believed that self-efficacy is developed through experience as opposed to just visualization of other people manifesting it. They agreed that the students need to build self-efficacy in themselves to maximize their teaching potential. The majority of the participants agreed that effective communication enhanced the self-efficacy of the students. A simple conversation between the professors and students, without judgment, helped the students to improve in the areas in which they did not perform well by explaining the concept in multiple ways. All the professors believed that they should have different ways of communicating and interacting with students for effective communication based on their personalities. The use of various teaching methods to assist the students, as it was discussed by the professors, was also ranked among the top three qualities of the best instructor by graduate level students in a study that was done by Fortson and Brown which was aimed at establishing a variable that most influenced their decision on the best instructor (Fortson and Brown, 1998). Professor G shared Students would get graded on the lesson plan and maybe the lesson plan is great. Then once they implement it they also have to write a reflection about a fair so they write a reflection and then that's where I will look to see ….if I think the implementation was not correct they lost control of the class and they write the same thing in the reflection. Then I know they have an understanding as well. So now we can fix this right. And they would be graded fairly on that. You did everything correct. You saw your mistake. Professor A You can ask them to go and think spend some time, persevere, think about this and come back to me tomorrow, then let's have another discussion. If the student does their job. Then they will come back and then we can have the next discussion. And when they finally get to that moment where they get it, then their self-efficacy develops. The problem is sometimes our students either one don't have the time or want to take the time to go through that process. And if they don't, you're really going to have a hard time helping their self-efficacy. Or you might develop false self-efficacy by pumping them up and telling them that they're doing great or that they understand if they really don't. And I think that's a disservice. It takes time. Professor A Put that information here for us all to share and helping them see themselves as experts in the field. I think that's really important for helping their self-efficacy. In addition, giving them permission to not just wait for me to give the responses, not only to my questions but to other students’ questions when asked. However, if nobody responds I put it back out there and say I'm going to respond to this but before I do, I need you to tell me what you think about this student’s question. I want them to start seeing and having that confidence in their own ability versus just always waiting for me to supply information. The participants believed that having confidence in their students enhances their self-efficacy. Having confidence in the students before they have confidence in themselves and understanding what they know helps build their self-efficacy. The professors made the students believe in what they know and make efforts to improve their knowledge and skills in various areas to become better future teachers. The participants also build good relationships and self-efficacy among the students by appreciating the areas they succeed in and improving on the students’ weak points. They organize personal meetings with the students whom they feel need to improve to help them better understand the topic or unit. The professors encourage the students to discuss and share their opinions by asking them questions to obtain feedback. This strategy demonstrated by the professors helps the students to understand that the crucial thing to pay attention to is the learning experience and not just grades and it gives the students various opportunities to develop self-efficacy. Building good personal relationships with the students was also a basis for ranking teachers as effective in a study done by Young and Shaw, in addition to having genuine respect to the students (Young and Shaw, 1999). These qualities enhance the self-efficacy of students. Write one-page reflection Participant answer of Question 1 RQ1: What are the characteristics of an effective Early Childhood Professor? Theme 1 Characteristics of Early Childhood Professor The participants in this study have various perspectives regarding what they think are the best characteristics of an effective Early Childhood Professor. Throughout their teaching life, professors develop various characteristics that impact on themselves as well as on the students who are preparing to become future teachers for young children. Participants transfer many professional and personal traits to their students during teaching and other interactive work. Participants discussed how they got some of these characteristics, and how they use the different characteristics in their classroom with the students to influence their personality and education experiences. Participants prepare students for real-life teaching and challenges that may face, and they also guide them on how to face these challenges. Through beneficial interaction with professors, students have a great opportunity to enjoy learning and become life-long learners. Sub - Theme 1 Professional Characteristics The participants discussed the important of having sufficient knowledge and understanding of early childhood education filed. Participants also mentioned that having experiences in early childhood education allow them to provide more examples that help students have deep understanding of the contents. Professor A shared the important of understanding of early childhood development content, current research, past research and theories to be an effective early childhood educator professor A shared: One of the things that I think is really an effective early learning to be an active early childhood educator one of the characteristics. You have your understanding of content and also you know and that includes early childhood development developmental milestones. It incorporated includes current research past research theory. It also an effective early childhood educator needs to be able to understand all of those things and then be able to connect that with their students and their current level of understanding. So that you can help that student each student strengthens and stretch their level of understanding. Professor B she loves teaching her student to became a good teacher that will impact learning life of young children: I really love teaching, and I really enjoy students. So it's not just that I am giving information across or helping adults really value young children, but that it was the effect on them, and my effect on them to want to be good teachers and work with little kids. And the other thing is, I always tried to model what I was saying. I value play very much, and I wanted to be sure that as I was teaching, I wasn't doing something in a way that they couldn't see it happen but that they just had to memorize it. Professor C always connect her practical experiences and examples to the topic that she was talking about in her classes: I always used examples. I would use examples in my classes from my experience as a classroom teacher which I was teaching years before……The other thing I would do I was fortunate for me I had family members who were infants and growing up and so I used examples from their lives. For example, in language development and so on and then motor development. I. And if I didn't have a personal experience, I have many friends who were pre-school and early childhood teachers. I would gather experiences from their classrooms and relate those. You have to love what you are doing. Also professors C shard Relationship with students and you must have deep broad knowledge of young children. I believe some practical experience. You have to. You can't just talk about theory. You have to be able to say this was my experience in the classroom and gives a great deal of credibility to see it to more you need to be. You do need to be up the latest research and you need to be I think actively involved in the field. Professor D shard that important of having good communication and connect with her students: Knowledge of the field. Ability to communicate well. Ability to organize the material effectively so that students can understand it. Ability to connect with students. To help students feel like they are a part of the enterprise. And I personally feel strongly that we have in the enterprise learning together. It's not me giving you a break down It's an interchange of learning and understanding. I think having that perspective. It's one of the strongest things any early childhood professor can have. Professor F I believe you have to be knowledgeable in your field. So, it's early childhood. I also think experience to me is important key. I think to me it would be hard to be an early childhood professor to not have experience with teaching young children…..I think you do have to have a passion for the field. Yes, because I think it's hard to be working with children daily and all the things you have to do. And then I think you have to love your students. Professor F also commend that the early childhood educators should have good listening skills that help to know the needs of the students, colleagues and parents: And I think another characteristic is you need to be a good listener, because the listener you need to hear what people are saying. Not only listen and hear what you think but what people need, what their needs and student’s needs. Parents’ needs. And, you know, people you're working with needs. You have to hear what their concerns are. Hear what? What's happening? I think a lot of times people want to let teachers use to talk, talk, talk. But you need to listen because you need to hear what the students need. Like if there's a concern with your colleagues, what they have, and that was one of the things I didn't say up in my strength is I feel I'm very collegial. I like to work with people. Professor G have experiences and understanding of the early childhood education help her to find better way to teach her students: I believe that one of my strengths is my experience in an early childhood classroom……I do feel that continual education is very important for a professor. The students want to know that you truly understand this field and they can come to you for answers questions. So I think that's a strength that because I do remain current on what's going on in early childhood through conferences reading and my own personal education....I think another strength is that I am relational with the students. So, I like to look at them as we're almost on the same level. I understand what you're going through. I've been there and here's how we can get through it. Sub – Theme 2 Personal Characteristics Every participant mentioned various personal characteristics. Participants talk about the organize materials in a way that is easy to understand for students, be passionate about the course and love to perform well and give their best to their students. Having excellent communication skills such as be good listener to know the concerns and the needs of the students. Ability to actively listen will help since the students have different backgrounds, experiences, and different levels of understanding. Professor A sherd how important to listen to students with different experiences, backgrounds, and different levels of understanding and help them to solve their problem: As an early childhood professional, I think that you have to be patient and you need to be able to listen. You need to be an effective listener because our students come to us with a variety of backgrounds, experiences, and levels of understanding. And so, we really have to be able to understand that level in order to take them from their current level of understanding to the next level. You really have to be an effective listener. That takes patience sometimes because our students don't really know how to articulate what they know, so you have to just be good at problem solving. Almost just like a puzzle and you have to be able to listen and then ask questions to get them to really understand and own what they think they know. Professor E shard: I really care a lot about the students. And I think that comes out through my interactions with them. To me it's very important to build a community it is a classroom. And that everyone feels safe to learn and become the best that they can be. I'm course wise I'm really proud of the courses that I've developed syllabi...... very well organized very well spelled out so that the students know exactly what to expect. Professor G commented that analyze her students from the beginning of the school year effective way to know student need and be able to serve them better: What should be for a professor is to quickly be able to analyze your students and to quickly see what they need. This is going through experience convenient right. So that goes hand in hand. Yeah but I do think you know I have to be able to see what the student needs they are not all the same. And because we're at a smaller university I think that's a strength that I can individualize just what they need. Professor H always create safe and healthy environment for her students to feel comfortable to learn: I really believed that I was meant for the profession that I've been because of the way that I can connect with my students. I feel like I've just been given a gift that gets really important to know your students and know that they trust you. I try to create a classroom environment where they can express how they feel about teaching and things that they might be overwhelmed with or nervous about or excited about going into the classroom and teaching young children……I feel as though I can connect with students that might not even be as vocal and might be more shay where I can kind of I know them well enough where I can pinpoint. Who I want to ask questions to and getting them all to be able to share and feel comfortable so that a strength that I feel. Participant answer of Question 2 Q2 R2: How do Early Childhood Professors exemplify the skills of their field? Theme 2 Skills and knowledge Participants have skills and knowledge that impact their learning and teaching journey. Learning is the process of obtaining knowledge, understanding or improving one's skills through experience or studying under instructions (Ravitch 2007). Participant want their students to understand what is being taught and, therefore, be able to put the knowledge obtained into practice in the future to help young children. Sub Theme 2.1 Teaching Strategies Participants ensure that students understand the information by using a pedagogical method that focuses on teaching students to comprehend what they are being taught rather than just to get information with the aim of passing the course. Participants aim to create deep, meaningful learning among the students through this method and it enables the students to integrate the information into their brains not just for recalling and reciting but to also put the knowledge into practice in the real world. Participants use different teaching strategies to reach specific expectation or outcome which they look forward to achieving at the end of a course or learning activity. Professor A shard that there are a lot of different types of activities where students are up and moving, engaging in and experiencing the content: So I’m really a proponent of teaching strategies that include the students having that meaningful discourse not only with myself but with each other. So there is a lots of teamwork going on during the course, where we're breaking down new information. This might include hands on experiences, we might be, researching a concept, where we are each responsible for different pieces and then we bring it all together so we can discuss it. There are a lot of different methods to implement this type of teamwork…. The other strategies to obtain a high success rate with students, is for students to understand what that high success rate is. So I always talk to them about the course expectations. Then asking them what questions they have……Other strategies that I use, that I believe are effective are: questioning again, I think that questioning helps the student practice the new information ideas and connect the new material to their situations and understanding. Professor B provides model and hands-on experience to help students feel comfortable and have deep understanding of the materials: I always either include in the class or start the class with something that they can write, "Oh yeah, that was fun. Let's do that." Something that they will put on a card or in their notes to say, "I'd like to do this when I teach." So in the language development class, we started every night with what I consider to be a really good book to read aloud to children. And then at the end of the class, they had to work with a couple people, and they had to pick a book and then one of the people would read it…We didn't do questions or anything like that. It was just the pure joy of reading aloud to children. ..And that was one of the things that they really enjoyed…… In the curriculum class, we always did something that required me to be in that room about an hour and a half before I taught to promote centers and ways to do things with children that are open-ended and developmental. Professor C: I felt that students had to know why they were doing. And why would I include this in a course. Because this is what the research says. That's really exciting and very important. and also use activity to support that…. I started with the theory the research and then I would say now you need to know this because this is what you do in the classroom. And now here's an activity to show you how that plays out…. And sometimes I would start with the activity and I would challenge the students to tell me what's the research behind this……we did activities in class and then they were activities that designed for young children. So that students could experience it before they would take it into a classroom. It was fun too. I mean they had a lot of fun. Professor D commented: Some of what I do is to intentionally create discomfort so that what you know doesn't quite match what I'm talking about. You think out how to make those things work together. Another thing is Jean Piaget the whole idea of dissonance. He talked about with children I use it with adult. And the same thing with Vygotsky's. He talked about the zone of proximal development as something important for children's learning to understand. That the child can only learn from what they already know to something that close to what they already know. They learn in their zone of proximal development. Well I have to figure out with my students what is the zone of proximal development for each of them and what are they ready to learn next. Professor E It's really important to break things up. I might have a half hour or 40 minutes of lecture which within that time I break it up to make sure that there are opportunities for students to discuss what's been presented…….. Also, I really try hard to demonstrate various types of teaching techniques and break things up so that hopefully that regardless of the type of learner some learners you know need to do some learners need to hear things suddenly to see and hear but that I'm trying that I'm reaching the various intelligences within the classroom……I try to make sure that I have a balance. I have a little, you know, some lecture, some activities, some group discussions. Sometimes in a course we'll have a book study, where I'll give the students a choice of five books to choose from and then I'll actually let them have a book club for about 40 minutes in class. The book club meets for about four weeks or so and then they present their book to the class. So they have an opportunity to hear about a number of different books, but they’re really diving into one themselves. The students do group presentations on various topics. I usually try to have some type of activity of each type during class as well. Professor F I really believe that all the strategies that you should that you use in your class should be research base, whether it's looking at, you know, Piaget looking at Vygotsky looking at all different other people that have created……One of my courses I teaches is early childhood. It's child development and ethics. And I really look at a lot of the theories. Like, for instance, like when you question children and early childhood, we're looking back at Socrates as he did a Socratic questioning. Yeah, I look at Martin Luther. He was someone in our Lutheran. And then he said, you should have education for all children. And so then I look at certain strategies. There are certain things that I do with them, like the project work, you know, looking at project work. So I really feel that all the strategies that I do and I teach should have a basis of somebody that did some research on it.….And I think like when we look at Piaget, some of the things we choose in the classroom is to help them with cognitive development. Same thing as Montessori you know, the way we use manipulative in the classroom that had to do with Montessori. So all of those things that when I look at content and what I'm doing, I try to relate it back to a theorist and who did some research…..Hands on It's more like for instance, I tried to do so in this class at the end rather than writing a paper. They have to videotape themselves doing a presentation. Professor G has a very unique way to teach in her class which include lecture and hand on activities that help her students to be more engage: I would say my classes are about 50 percent lecture. And then Hands on or enter active activities. So because I teach and this is for my face to face class yeah. Because I teach art methods and they teach social studies methods. I have the teachers participate in activities as if they. Were presenting to children or as if. They were the participants in a classroom. So they have to do activities that they would have children do. So if there's art activities I will have them they will do it and then critique an activity as. Would this work for children or would this not work for children. Sub Theme 2.2 Experience and belief Participants past experiences and beliefs influence their teaching experience. For example, professor C states, she has always loved working with children since she was young. Additionally, she says that the bond between her and children comes naturally. Social cognitive theory influences teaching since it bases social experiences and experiences. Experience is a foundation of learning, so relating with professors who are more experienced in the courses will also influence the teaching. Professor A past experiences and beliefs influence how she teach positively and stated that: If we look at Bandura’s social learning theory, the idea that our experiences influence our teachings is relevant. So absolutely my experiences influence my teaching. Social Cognitive Theory is based on your experiences and your social experiences. So of course, those are going to influence my teaching. Professor E: I want to help people and my parents were teachers and recommended that I take an education course because education was always something you could fall back on. So I took an education course My freshman year not thinking I ever wanted to be a teacher. But somehow during that time I realized how important those first years are. And I think I love young children because they're so eager to learn and they're so full of curiosity and adventure and I just I knew. I still remember that year because all of a sudden, it's kind of like this light went on and I knew it was what I wanted to do, because those four years or so are so important in a child's life. It sets the foundation for their future. Professor D talked about past experiences with her own professors and how they support her and then she able to provide better support to her students: My past experiences influence how I teach absolutely. I talked about the professors that I had that put us in a circle …… Both of those professors were still professors when I came to as a young professor. It was kind of oh my gosh how can I teach alongside these giants…..one of them was interested in the spiritual development topic that I had some interest in already and he brought four of us together to talk about it and ask what can we do? And by the end of the meeting, I found that I was chairing the whole thing. And told me later he said, I invited you because I knew you could chair, I knew you can be the leader and I just I go because I did not have that kind of confidence in myself. He had confidence in me. That gave me confidence in myself, which is the foundation for selfefficacy. Professor G: My past experiences are my beliefs are directly influenced in my teaching experience. So even from a young age. I loved working with children. Even you know I always babysat coward when I was in college. I always worked at a school. I ran an after-school program. I was just always with children It just came naturally to me……In fact, I always worked with children. And then I got my business degree as an undergrad I was not going to be a teacher. And then I had my first child. And then actually it was my husband said to me you really need to go back into teaching because I was working in the biz in the business world. It was OK. It was great. And then I decided to get my master's degree in Early Childhood so. And then at the same time I finished my masters and I finished the undergraduate portion of my education degree so that I could teach. So, I did both at the same time. So, I've been in it ever. Professor H Counselor H commented how past experiences helps her to assist her students with providing different strategies and support: I definitely think that if I wouldn't have had my past experiences, I would not have been a good professor of education. I might say that because. As I mentioned when I looked at my students evaluations. One of those main points was that talking about how they understood material better because I provided examples. …..If I didn't have those experiences in education and with all different grade level and with all different diversities income statuses and everything that I wouldn't have been as well-rounded to be able to teach this to get. I don't think I would have even been able to make a really good connection with the students with my own students. Professor H commented: I also have a minor in a concentration and Spanish. And that means that is very important because right now you know the university is a Hispanic serving institution high class and have a lot of Hispanic students and it's also a childhood education is a field that many Hispanic students want to go in to and are going to. And I feel as though my experiences and my belief them background in working with the Hispanic community. Has also been able has also really helped and supported me. Sub Theme 2.3 Mentoring Professors role is important regarding mentoring students. Participants mentoring is significant not only does it help students become great early childhood teachers, but it also helps them to become successful college students. Mentoring students by giving them critical techniques and feedback help to shape and empower them perfectly. A mentee is a person who receives coaching or guidance from someone who is more experienced in a particular topic, skill, or profession. A mentor is a trusted counselor that acts as a guide for the new person who has little expertise in a subject (Ravitch,2007). Participant expressed the collaborative mentoring effort is fundamental it requires the students to learn from the professor and the professor to learn from the students that is working together. Participant mentor students by helping put their resume together and setting them up for the academic year. Professor A: I have mentors doctoral students that have moved away. They were local but have moved away. I continue to be in touch with them. They reach out to me as they're taking on new positions and want some help. Sometimes they just might be navigating a co-worker situation or a philosophical situation that might be different from their own or a direction their place of employment is working towards…… I am still connected with some students and help mentor them in other ways that may not be academic focused. I have had students that have wanted to actually start their own childhood centers. I have helped them by writing letters or by visiting their center and again not telling them how to do it but asking them questions about why they made particular choices and getting them to really think about whether that's a good choice or not. So those would be ways I would say I mentor. I've had other students that I've mentor when they are thinking about changing jobs and they want somebody to not only engage with them on a personal level about how they're feeling but also on an academic, intellectual level about what that might look like if they make that choice. Professor B shard that mentoring not just about teaching early childhood, but helping students be really successful as college students and as early childhood teachers: The teachers in the campus center were all my students, so even when they were done we met one day a week for lunch, and then we would just talk about how things were going, but I could give them some things to try. And again, it wasn't, "You guys are bad teachers," but it was, "Let's try this and see what happens to that," or "Let's find another way to communicate with parents besides a weekly newsletter." And I found that to be helpful.…If I had a student who couldn't pass the math test for getting a teaching license, I could suggest, "Take this class from this particular professor, and then tell him that you're trying to pass the test. And they will give you special things to help you do that math test in a better way." Professor E: I mentored students primarily in a master's degree thesis. And then early on I supervised student teachers a lot so I would become a mentor to them, kind of as their supervisor. And there were times like for new freshmen that came in, I would mentor. I signed up to take a few freshmen and I would work with them especially in their first year so that they got used to being at the university and things like that. I didn't do that as much in the last six years as dean. There was one student in particular……..I supervise student teachers and, you know, a lot of times they come to me as they were getting jobs. I would give them suggestions, or if they weren't sure about a position I'd let them talk through, you know, what worked or, you know, what the strengths and what the concerns were about the position. So I worked with them somewhat in that way, but not very much. Processor D shared that her biggest job as a professor to be mentor to her graduate students to empower them to develop and have bright future. As a professor of doctoral student and a Masters student but particularly of doctoral students my job is to mentor and to be stand beside and behind them. Ultimately a mentor is a side by side person and within moves behind the students from behind. So that you don't see a mentor you see the mentee……Going beyond on that's one of the things that I think is important. I do not want my students. To only do what I do. In the future they should be going beyond what I do I should be able to empower them. To do things that I have not done......There's a lot of people that have gone before us. And they have provided an example for us. Not here anymore but their examples live on. And that's what I think is important eventually you create examples and you create some logging company has called it a mini me. And I don't like that current for children imitating adults and dressing like adults……Conference presentations don't just happen overnight they happened over months and months of hard work. It isn't me the old professor telling you the new professor telling you what to do. It's a combination. Let's work together. I learn from you and you learn from me……And each of us have an important part in the presentation. It wasn't if it was a collaborative effort. I think that's another word. And that is an important one. In in mentoring or in teaching is to collaborate. Because collaborating requires me to learn from you. As well as you learn from me. Professor G: One of the courses in the graduate program is their final class they take in the master’s and they have to choose a mentor for eight. I've had I've had five graduate students that I mentor and in that in that case I take them through. They're developing like a mini research project and I just help them maybe developing their purpose statement their research question. They may have anything that comes up. How do they do the research. Those type of things. But that's at the graduate level. And then in the undergrad we don't have an official mentor program or a course where they have to have a mentor…….Students that might need some extra help then I will mentor them. And that is on an informal basis. So if a student comes to me and ask for more help I will certainly help. I've never turned any student away or if there's a student that I feel or how I will help them and that includes. They can bring me papers I will edit their papers for them before they turn to the man to help them get the best grade they can. I will I've mentored them through writing lesson plans and then I've mentored them you know watching them in a classroom and then giving them the civic feedback and techniques. Professor H provide resources and guide to her students to facilitate their education and teaching career: I serve as the program coordinator and in that role, I have this mentor while I get to say I have to but I get the idea of being able to mentor them throughout all of their four years of education and coordinate. So, I'm a mentor in the classroom most definitely but they come to me as more, so I mentor to various things. I mean it could be things of getting their resumé together I mentor them in school to make reach out that they might need a tutor for an hour or different job opportunities. I mentor them in helping them with their resume and so that when they graduate, they have a nice full resumé that they can share. I help them after graduation when they're trying to find jobs. They look to me to write them a letter of recommendation to be asked questions upon graduation. I also mentor them because they have to pass their Information and their content area test……I make sure that I work with them and give them the right resources that they need to pass those tests. And then I also set them up for their academic year, so they come to me and figure out what classes they're going to take what works best. So in that way I sort of mentor them for their educational career act and board. So I do a lot of different types of mentoring. Throughout their four years at the university. Participant answer of Question 3 Q3 R3: How do Early Childhood professors illuminate self-efficacy? Theme 3 Build Students Self-efficacy Self-efficacy refers to making someone believe in his or her ability to something. Leading by example promotes self-efficacy. Participants mentioned that students need to see the confidence in the professor while teaching in the classroom and the competent teaching strategies. Through this, the students can pick the attributes they like and apply them in their personal beliefs. To give self-efficacy to the next generation, one has to feel it first. The professor must ensure that the students realize the self-efficacy in them so that they can use it to build utilize their potential. Sub Theme 3.1 Relationships Participants building relationship with the students to help them have valuable learning environment. A simple conversation between professors and students without judgement help students to improve the areas they did not perform well. The ability of a professor to explain a concept in multiple ways helps students self-efficacy. Having confidence in the students before they have confidence on themselves and understanding what they know helps build their selfconfidence and strong the relationship between the professor and student. Participants building relationship by celebrating the successes and weaknesses of their students. Building relationship with student with providing feedback, individual meeting and talking about assignment, could help to develop students self-efficacy professor A share: It can. It can. I think it can. It depends on the philosophy and the disposition of the professor. And the ability of the professor. If the professor is not able to explain something in multiple ways then I don't think it's going to help the student’s self-efficacy. If the professor just says this isn't right. Then no it's not going to help. But again, if the professor has a relationship with you, a respectful relationship this can help In addition, the professor’s level of understanding of content, and understanding of their job responsibility, role and desire also impacts their ability to support the development of the student’s self-efficacy. If I do not take the time or my level of understanding isn't such that I can do that then the ability to support the student’s self-efficacy is diminished. I believe it is part of my job and my responsibility to the student. It's not going to help the selfefficacy of the student if I do not embrace the idea. I've heard too many times when students finish a course they will say: I'm more confused now then I was before talking to that professor. Now sometimes that happens because the professor has challenged them to think deeper and in that case, it's a good thing……I think it's really important at that point to talk to the student about perseverance. Because that's going to get them to the next level of understanding. They're going to persevere. But you don't, as a professor, want to say go and think about this and I know you are now even more confused. Professor C Part of it is the relationship you develop in the classroom. But mostly it's the relationship you develop outside of the classroom. I was also the only adviser to my students. So, if they had questions about their program, they came to me…..I had a lot of students come into my office with personal problems. I was always there to listen and I would tell them I am not a therapist and not a psychologist you know but I can listen, and I can help you find the resources you need. So that also developed relationships. Another piece of it was that I would see students outside of the classroom or off campus and I would stop and chat with them and that always helped to develop relationships…….I also occasionally because I didn't have a large program, I would take students to lunch just to get to know them better. I always took my graduating seniors out for lunch or dinner. One year I opened up a little l more funding and so we had a very nice dinner and there were only I think four of them graduating at that time and so we went to a very nice restaurant had a very nice dinner. And you know I just I was I was there for them. Professor D Students need a basic foundation of knowledge that enables them to expand their information and grow through continuous learning: Because I had an experience of people having confide on me before I had a confident on myself and teaching self-efficacy mean just that having confident on your students before they have it on them self………And then bringing them along through their zone of proximal development. You have to know what they know then you move them along slowly and gradually this secretly grows. Because this gets bigger and then what was it what's possible to learn it is bigger. Don't you find that think about your own doctoral program? Now it's possible to learn almost anything. When you came it wasn’t .... And my job as a professor is to make it feel a little bit easier than it really is. Because that's what creates confidence. Professor E With doctoral students and graduate students writing their thesis is I think again examples I gave to you before. We want your voice to be heard and we're going to work with you. This is a process. It’s not hurry up and get it done. …..It's going to be iterative it's going to go back and forth and back and forth and there's going to be times when you're going through a cognitive conflict and you're saying what did I get myself into. And then suddenly everything's going to come together and then all of a sudden you've gotten through the cognitive conflict you get hit with something new. Trying to talk them through those things so that they can see that this is part of the process as well……I’ll tell you this too. But I like it because it's what my adviser told me. A dissertation is like a baby bird. If you push it out of its nest before it's ready it will fall to the ground and die. But if you nurture it and give it, give it what it needs to blossom… when it's ready it will soar. So letting people know it's ok to take the time. Because sometimes people set certain deadlines. “I have to be done right now.” It's like, well maybe you're not. Maybe it's not ready yet and giving yourself permission to take a little bit more time is what you need. But then also, sometimes I'll have to say that the best dissertation is done dissertation…..That it is a journey. It's not a hurry up and get it done it's like enjoy the process while you're at it and I can honestly say I had fun with my dissertation and I never thought I would. You know it was just like I mean the part that I was dreading the most, but when I actually got into it and I loved the research I loved writing it. It was just like I couldn't wait to tell what I had come up with. But it was a process and there was a time I set a deadline for like one of the chapters and I needed another month to get it done and that's ok. Professor H the important of the reflection paper that her students write about their experiences and how help them to be successful: One thing that I have implemented the other thing too is I love to talk to them about we celebrate their successes and we celebrate the weaknesses of a lesson plan. So once they teach we come right back into the classroom and we talk about what went wrong. What went great and I even share with them what I thought it didn't go well…. That I've made sure that they know I'm not pinpointing anybody but if we don't talk about the things that went wrong then they're never going to feel as though they can reach that success. And so It's important that we talk a lot about celebrating kind of the things that. Maybe didn't go right and how we can improve next time. And then I reiterate that by they have to write a reflection paper that allows them to talk about the things that didn't go so well and I think that's important because it gives them that reflection that they need in order to learn how to be successful. Sub Theme 3.2 Student teacher Interactions Participants have a great contribution in building self-efficacy in their students. Participants play various roles within the classroom setup and beyond to support students to be successful in their future careers. They also discussed different ways of communicating and interaction with students, and how each student needs to be approached for effective communication based on their personality. They support students not only academically but also to help the students to develop a high level of self-efficacy. Professor A said having students in multiple classes really will help her to develop students selfefficacy: Self-efficacy is a really difficult. I think that sometimes people tend to confuse self-efficacy with self-esteem and self-confidence. But when you're talking about self-efficacy and you're talking about getting someone to believe in their own ability to be able to do something. You know that's a little harder. Especially in the way that our program is set up with our eight-week courses. This is a very short time to be able to do that…..Is it possible absolutely that is why I enjoy having student cohorts. Having students in multiple classes over a period of time, I can really help them develop self-efficacy. But how I communicate helps promote self-efficacy. Again, I think the feed-forward process support students with what they need to develop their self-efficacy. Making sure my feed-forward is specific. Not that I don't tell students: Oh you're doing a really great job. But I think it's important that I move beyond this. Telling them here is what you did really well. And give them specific evidence of this is what they did. And then ask a meaningful question to get them to a level that maybe they didn't quite address. They might know this information, and just not shared that with me. Then again to come back and say thank you for that information, you know here's kind of what I was thinking. What do you think about that? And getting them to be actively engaged and say share other resources or research that you have read. Professor D Well Self efficacy is a belief and the actions that I can do something important that I can do this myself. I can make a decision and I can do this and I know what I'm doing so for students to gain that qualities for themselves. I have to provide opportunities for them to be success. To be able to teach the rest of the class something. Think about the fact that I always have an assignment that says you have to present this and that is a scary idea at the beginning right……you have to do this and so in the process you experience self-efficacy you can use it in another setting. The important thing is if my students do not feel a sense of self efficacy, they never be able to communicate that to themselves and you have to feel it your own. In order to give it to the next generation. Professor E Before I was Dean I was the director of the Master of Arts and teaching program and that program, It's a one year very intensive master's degree plus earn your teaching certificate at the same time. And so, students are taking five or six courses in a 4-8 week time period and there’s a lot of stress. I get students coming in my office all the time, sometimes they were complaining, but I would also just invite them in to talk and check in. …..In that instance I had the students in their very first course, in the very first six weeks of their program. At the end of the first week I’d say, “OK. How many of you have had a breakdown so far? It’s OK. If you haven't had one yet you're probably going to have one in the next five days because everyone gets to that point. You may say,’ Oh my gosh I can't do it anymore. No, this is too much.’ It's like ok it's normal. You're OK. We’ve got your back. Student feel all kind of emotions during their education journey that need them to use different kind of strategies professor E commented that: You're going to feel all kinds of emotions and there are strategies that you can use. For example, create checklists and check off when you’ve accomplished it. Even if you don't put something on the checklist and you've done it, put it on the checklist after you did it. You can check it off .” Oh I did that too. I'm trying to help them just through. The emotions and the intensity of that one year program is so much. Just kind of stepping them through and saying, “OK you know by second semester You guys have become like family and you're really close, but now you're like siblings and you're starting to get on each other's nerves some time. That's to be expected. They're like. Oh OK. It's OK. You can meet with other people you know you don't have to be the same group all the time.” Professor G said students need to their professors have confidence and be able to use different learning strategies: I really think so to promote the self-efficacy see leading by example. I feel that they need to see. Competent teaching strategies and they need to see confidence in me that I'm confident in a classroom. And then they can take attributes that they like or don't like and then apply it to their own personal beliefs. So we have the strategies that we teach them. And then my job is to show them how do you put those strategies into your own Self and part a big part of that is the self-reflection. They have to practice it and then they have to think about what went wrong and what was right. What will I continue to do and what will I slowly move away from that didn't work. Professor H Help her students to understand that their ability in teaching can be improved through regular practice determine goal: I teach the methods courses where the students are actually in the field and going out and teaching. So I see them mainly when they're juniors and seniors for those classes and so at that point they won the educational basics but now they're going into the classroom so they don't feel very confident and I don't think they know themselves what goals they need to start. So it's one thing that we do. We have an assignment that actually has some set goals for themselves. It can be one. It can be upon graduation and then maybe five years after graduation. And those are professional goals and personal goals and I want them to be thinking about goals that they have. During their education during their undergraduate education. It's actually an assignment that is embedded into the coursework because I want them to really be thinking about how they can become successful how they can feel. As though they've reached at self-efficacy and so that's one area. Sub Theme 3.3 Feedback Giving feedback to the students is significant. Professor meet the students who they feel need to improve individually to help them know the areas that need to grow. Appreciating that everyone makes a mistake is essential. Professors, as well as students, make mistakes in their course of teaching and learning. Participants help students to have high level of understanding by encourage them to discuss and share their thinking just for discussion. Also asking students good questions to clarify different areas may provide the students with an opportunity to get feedback. This strategy helps the students understand that the professor is interested in their learning and not grades and gives the students different opportunities to develop and improve their understanding. Sometimes grading stress students and make them worry if they have the wrong answer, they may lose grad professor A stated: I do think that is true and that is why one of the things that I do in my course, especially on bigger assignments, is to give them time to submit for feed-forward. I also tell students that I know they are worried about their grade; therefore, I worry for them as well. But at the end of the course, my goal is not that they earned an A or a B. My goal is that their level of understanding has changed and grown. So some of the times what I do in my courses is I will put in checkpoints….I will break an assignment down. Allowing them to turn in different portions of a big assignment, not for a grade, but for feed-forward. Then I take the time to provide detailed information to support their revisions, so it's almost like I am pre grading the assignment without grading it. I give them feed-forward such as: Here are some things that are working, here you could probably share a little bit more, or this isn't really clear….In addition, I ask some questions to help them clarify different areas. After, their job is to go back into that assignment and to revise it so when they do turn it into that final assignment grade they have already had an opportunity to get the feedback, and they have already had an opportunity to revise. Professor G shard: I observe students when I'm observing there is an actual rubric I fell out. And then the students that I feel need to improve in certain areas I will meet with them individually. This feedback is not for grading. No grading related to this feedback after watching observation. So they get graded on their lesson plan before they go into the classroom. And then the implementation is where I use a rubric and then give them feedback on how they can improve.……There is an aspect that I see that if the lesson plan is not very good the implementation in the classroom is not is usually not done well. So they submit their lesson plan to me before they go in the classroom and they're not graded at that time. So I will read through the lesson plan and make sure that it's appropriate for the age. Yeah. And then they go into the classroom and implement it. If there's something in that lesson plan that I see this is not going to go well. Of course, not developmentally appropriate. I will have them change it before they go into the room. Professor H share with her students that we all made mistakes and we can learn and grow form these experiences to become better teachers: We all make mistakes so we're going to continue to learn from them and I said I do the same and I do try to put a lot of it back on me so that they realize I'm a human being to my teaching and I make mistakes I've made mistakes before and we learn from them. And that's how we get better and that's how we become better teachers. So are kind of just a few areas that I feel there's so much there's such a great question and I think there's so much more to it. You know how we can promote self-efficacy for the students, but I think my students an undergraduate. The takeaway is that they're really learning how to do that. They don't have a lot of background experiences where they feel very successful yet. And I think they've learned that mainly again when they didn't teach. I think that that's when they feel most successful. You know they're really able to take all of what they've learned. All of their teaching experiences and have their own classroom to practice them. I feel like that's a very good time for them to learn that…..I try to provide feedback for them and have them think about what goal we want to set for next time. And I kind of think do that because there's a lot about goals that because if you don't set the a goal. And have a purpose at the end of it. You're not going to be successful. Focus Group Participants Responses In this study, the focus group offered an opportunity for participants to discuss the topic of effective characteristics of Early Childhood Education college professors. The purpose of a focus group is to gather information from the participating individuals through sharing their perspectives, feelings, thoughts, and experiences. The focus group is designed to support the research and bring about responses to the research questions. The following are the questions asked and the responses obtained from the group. FQ1: What methodologies do you feel exemplify an effective Early Childhood Professor? The focus group participants discussed the methodologies that exemplify an effective early childhood professor. Participants agreed on the importance of visualization and the provision of examples by early childhood teachers. Teaching with examples helped students to have a better understanding of the theories and concepts being taught. Also, asking effective questioning helped the students to develop critical thinking and formulate a relationship between practices and theories. In addition to collaborative meetings, face to face video-chats or online video conferencing was a powerful method that professors could use to guide and support students. Participants also discussed the importance of using technology in teaching because it was part of the modern-day student life. The other effective method that is practiced in real classrooms to enable students to have real teaching experiences is through interactive hands-on sessions. The hands-on activities enable professors to interact with the students and this builds a good relationship between the professors and the students. Also, through interaction, professors help students to build their thinking skills. FQ2: What do you believe are the five (5) most important characteristics for you to have as an Early Childhood professor? Please choose from the following characteristics or you may add your own. (Leadership, creativity, respect, good listening skills, a sense of humor, flexibility, patience, high expectations for all students, love of learning, professionalism, fair and just, forgiving, be positive). The focus group participants discussed the most important characteristics of Early Childhood professor. Participants shared that professors should have several characteristics to be effective in teaching. The professors need to show leadership and professionalism in a way that helps their students to learn how to be leaders. Professors require to be creative to enable students to be creative as well through the application of critical thinking. Positivity was another trait that professors need to have, and it helps students to be optimistic about their education life. Professors mentioned that important of understand and respect student’s religion, culture, and backgrounds and how that give comfortable environment. Professors support that always necessary to have high expectations from your students one of the participants said, “I expect my students to go beyond me and it is their job to become better than me”. Another participant talked about high expectations and stated that “professor usually asks the students “Do you want to be a good enough doctor, or do you want to be the best doctor?” Another participant shared that, “Professors need to be very flexible and organized in their duties including teaching, planning, and being part of the family. Therefore, whatever are you doing, you have to be organized and the more organized you are, the more successful you are likely to be in life”. Conclusion Through the individual interviews of eight professors and a focus group of the seven professors, the eight participants, from the university located in a Mid-western location in the United States, addressed the three research questions: RQ 1: What are the characteristics of an effective Early Childhood Professor? RQ 2: How do Early Childhood Professors exemplify the skills of their field? RQ 3: How do Early Childhood professors illuminate self-efficacy? The results of this study indicate three main themes and eight sub-themes from the interviews and a focus group which shows that professors have characteristics that impact themselves and, on their students, who would like to become teachers of children in the future. Professors guide the student to have characteristics such as flexibility, preparedness, positivity, fairness with the students, forgiveness, listening skills, and application of personal field experiences to the theories. Professors shared information about different ways of communicating, and how to communicate effectively with each student based on their personality to support students academically and also to have a high level of self-efficacy.
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