Technological Factors: We all know how fast the technological landscape changes and how this impacts the way we market our products. Technological factors affect marketing and the management thereof in three distinct ways:
- New ways of producing goods and services
- New ways of distributing goods and services
- New ways of communicating with target markets
Social Factors: Also known as socio-cultural factors, are the areas that involve the
shared belief and attitudes of the population. These factors include –
population growth, age distribution, health consciousness, career
attitudes and so on. These factors are of particular interest as they
have a direct effect on how marketers understand customers and what
Political Factors: These are all about how and to what degree a government intervenes in the economy. This can include – government policy, political stability or instability in overseas markets, foreign trade policy, tax policy, labour law, environmental law, trade restrictions and so on. It is clear from the list above that political factors often have an impact on organisations and how they do business. Organisations need to be able to respond to the current and anticipated future legislation, and adjust their marketing policy accordingly.
Economic Factors: Economic factors have a significant impact on how an organisation
does business and also how profitable they are. Factors include –
economic growth, interest rates, exchange rates, inflation, disposable
income of consumers and businesses and so on.
Environmental Factors: These factors have only really come to the forefront in the last fifteen years or so. They have become important due to the increasing scarcity of raw materials, polution targets, doing business as an ethical and sustainable company, carbon footprint targets set by governments (this is a good example were one factor could be classes as political and environmental at the same time). These are just some of the issues marketers are facing within this factor. More and more consumers are demanding that the products they buy are sourced ethically, and if possible from a sustainable source.
Legal Factors: Legal factors include - health and safety, equal opportunities,
advertising standards, consumer rights and laws, product labelling and
product safety. It is clear that companies need to know what is and what
is not legal in order to trade successfully. If an organisation trades
globally this becomes a very tricky area to get right as each country
has its own set of rules and regulations.
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