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Related to Florida's current health education programs such as Zika Free Florida, Tobacco Free Florida, consider what part the media plays in such disease prevention programs.

Identify a specific public health issue ( none of the examples, no Zika, no tobacco free Florida) that you believe needs to be highlighted in health policy and based on your textbook readings discuss how social media can be used as a health promotion tool to improve public awareness on the selected topic.

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Policy & Politics in Nursing and Health Care Seventh Edition Diana J. Mason, PhD, RN, FAAN Rudin Professor of Nursing Co-Director of the Center for Health, Media, and Policy School of Nursing Hunter College City University of New York New York, New York Deborah B. Gardner, PhD, RN, FAAN, FNAP Health Policy and Leadership Consultant, LLC Honolulu, Hawaii Freida Hopkins Outlaw, PhD, RN, FAAN Adjunct Professor Peabody College of Education Vanderbilt University Nashville, Tennessee Eileen T. O'Grady, PhD, NP, RN Nurse Practitioner and Wellness Coach McLean, Virginia 2 Table of Contents Cover image Title page Copyright About the Editors Contributors Reviewers Foreword Preface What's New in the Seventh Edition? Using the Seventh Edition Acknowledgments Unit 1 Introduction to Policy and Politics in Nursing and Health Care Chapter 1 Frameworks for Action in Policy and Politics Upstream Factors Nursing and Health Policy Reforming Health Care Nurses as Leaders in Health Care Reform Policy and the Policy Process Forces That Shape Health Policy The Framework for Action Spheres of Influence Health Health and Social Policy Health Systems and Social Determinants of Health Nursing Essentials Policy and Political Competence 3 Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 2 An Historical Perspective on Policy, Politics, and Nursing “Not Enough to be a Messenger” Bringing Together the Past for the Present: What We Learned From History Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 3 Advocacy in Nursing and Health Care The Definition of Advocacy The Nurse as Patient Advocate Consumerism, Feminism, and Professionalization of Nursing: the Emergence of Patients' Rights Advocacy Philosophical Models of Nursing Advocacy Advocacy Outside the Clinical Setting Barriers to Successful Advocacy Summary Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 4 Learning the Ropes of Policy and Politics Political Consciousness-Raising and Awareness: the “Aha” Moment Getting Started The Role of Mentoring Educational Opportunities Applying Your Political, Policy, Advocacy, and Activism Skills Political Competencies Changing Policy at the Workplace Through Shared Governance Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 5 Taking Action: How I Learned the Ropes of Policy and Politics Mentors, Passion, and Curiosity Chapter 6 A Primer on Political Philosophy Political Philosophy The State 4 Gender and Race in Political Philosophy The Welfare State Political Philosophy and the Welfare State: Implications for Nurses Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 7 The Policy Process Health Policy and Politics Unique Aspects of U.S. Policymaking Conceptual Basis for Policymaking Bringing Nursing Competence Into the Policymaking Process Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 8 Health Policy Brief: Improving Care Transitions Improving Care Transitions: Better Coordination of Patient Transfers among Care Sites and the Community Could Save Money and Improve the Quality of Care1 References Online Resources Chapter 9 Political Analysis and Strategies What is Political Analysis? Political Strategies Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 10 Communication and Conflict Management in Health Policy Understanding Conflict The Process of Conversations Listening, Asserting, and Inquiring Skills Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 11 Research as a Political and Policy Tool So What is Policy? What is Research When It Comes to Policy? The Chemistry between Research and Policymaking 5 Using Research to Create, Inform, and Shape Policy Research and Political Will Research: Not Just for Journals Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 12 Health Services Research: Translating Research into Policy Defining Health Services Research HSR Methods Quantitative Methods and Data Sets Qualitative Methods Professional Training in Health Services Research Competencies Fellowships and Training Grants Loan Repayment Programs Dissemination and Translation of Research Into Policy Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 13 Using Research to Advance Health and Social Policies for Children Research on Early Brain Development Research on Social Determinants of Health and Health Disparities Advancing Children's Mental Health Using Research to Inform Policy Research on Child Well-Being Indicators Research on “Framing the Problem” Gaps in Linking Research and Social Policies for Children Nursing Advocacy Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 14 Using the Power of Media to Influence Health Policy and Politics Seismic Shift in Media: One-to-Many and Many-to-Many The Power of Media Who Controls the Media? Getting on the Public's Agenda Media as a Health Promotion Tool Focus on Reporting Effective Use of Media Analyzing Media 6 Responding to the Media Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 15 Health Policy, Politics, and Professional Ethics The Ethics of Influencing Policy Reflective Practice: Pants on Fire Discussion Questions Professional Ethics Reflective Practice: Foundational Nursing Documents Personal Questions Reflective Practice: Negotiating Conflicts between Personal Integrity and Professional Responsibilities Personal Question U.S. Health Care Reform Reflective Practice: Accepting the Challenge Personal Question Reflective Practice: the Medicaid 5% Commitment—an Appeal to Professionalism Discussion Question Reflective Practice: Your State Turned Down Medicaid Expansion Personal Question Reflective Practice: Barriers to the Treatment of Mental Illness Personal Question Ethics and Work Environment Policies Mandatory Flu Vaccination: the Good of the Patient Versus Personal Choice Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Unit 2 Health Care Delivery and Financing Chapter 16 The Changing United States Health Care System Overview of the U.S. Health Care System Public Health Transforming Health Care Through Technology Health Status and Trends Challenges for the U.S. Health Care System Health Care Reform Opportunities and Challenges for Nursing Discussion Questions References 7 Online Resources Chapter 17 A Primer on Health Economics of Nursing and Health Policy Cost-Effectiveness of Nursing Services Impact of Health Reform on Nursing Economics Discussion Questions References Chapter 18 Financing Health Care in the United States Historical Perspectives on Health Care Financing Government Programs The Private Health Insurance and Delivery Systems The Problem of Continually Rising Health Care Costs The ACA and Health Care Costs Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 19 The Affordable Care Act: Historical Context and an Introduction to the State of Health Care in the United States Historical, Political, and Legal Context Content of the Affordable Care Act Impact on Nursing Profession: Direct and Indirect Overall Cost of the Aca Political and Implementation Challenges Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 20 Health Insurance Exchanges: Expanding Access to Health Care What is a Health Insurance Exchange? Exchange Purchasers Other Health Insurance Options Federal or State Exchanges State-Based EXCHANGES Development of the Exchanges Establishing State Exchanges The Federal Exchange Rollout: ACA Setback New York's Success Story The Oregon Story Exchange Features 8 Marketplace Insurance Categories Role of Medicaid Nurses' Roles with Exchanges Consumer Education State Requirements Include Aprns in Exchange Plans Assessing the Impact of the Exchanges and Future Projections Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 21 Patient Engagement and Public Policy: Emerging New Paradigms and Roles Patient Engagement Within Nursing Patient Engagement and Federal Initiatives The VA System: an Exemplar of Patient-Centered Care From Patient Engagement to Citizen Health Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 22 The Marinated Mind: Why Overuse Is an Epidemic and How to Reduce It Commonly Overused Interventions Reasons for Overuse Financial Incentives as the Major Cause of Overuse The Marinated Mind Physician and Nurse Acknowledgment of Overuse Public Reporting to Reduce Overuse Journalists Advocate for More Transparency About Overuse Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 23 Policy Approaches to Address Health Disparities Health Equity and Access Policy Approaches to Address Health Disparities Evaluating Patient-Centered Care Summary Discussion Questions References Online Resources 9 Chapter 24 Achieving Mental Health Parity Historical Struggle to Achieve Mental Health Parity Implications for Nursing: Mental Health Related Issues and Strategies Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 25 Breaking the Social Security Glass Ceiling: A Proposal to Modernize Women's Benefits1 Benefits for Women Strengthening the Program Changes We Oppose Strengthening Financing Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 26 The Politics of the Pharmaceutical Industry Globalization Concerns Values Conflict Direct to Consumer Marketing Conflict of Interest Education Gifts Samples Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 27 Women's Reproductive Health Policy When Women's Reproductive Health Needs are Not Met Why Do We Need Policy Specifically Directed at Women? Women's Health and U.S. Policy Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 28 Public Health: Promoting the Health of Populations and Communities The State of Public Health and the Public's Health Impact of Social Determinants and Disparities on Health Major Threats to Public Health Challenges Faced by Governmental Public Health 10 Charting a Bright Future for Public Health Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 29 Taking Action: Blazing a Trail...and the Bumps Along the Way—A Public Health Nurse as a Health Officer Getting the Job: More Difficult Than You Might Think Creating Access to Public Health Care in West New York On-the-Job Training Political Challenges Safe Kid Day Arrives Nurses Shaping Policy in Local Government Successes and Challenges References Chapter 30 The Politics and Policy of Disaster Response and Public Health Emergency Preparedness Purpose Statement Background and Significance Presidential Declarations of Disaster and the Stafford Act Policy Change After September 11 The Politics Underlying Disaster and Public Health Emergency Policy The Homeland Security Act Project Bioshield 2004 Pkemra 2006 and Disaster Case Management National Commission on Children and Disasters 2009 Threat Level System of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 31 Chronic Care Policy: Medical Homes and Primary Care The Experience of Chronic Care in the United States Medical Homes The Role of Nursing in Medical Homes Patient-Centered Medical Homes: the Future Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 32 Family Caregiving and Social Policy 11 Who are the Family Caregivers? Unpaid Value of Family Caregiving Caregiving as a Stressful Business Supporting Family Caregivers Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 33 Community Health Centers: Successful Advocacy for Expanding Health Care Access Community Health Centers Demonstrate the Advocacy Process for Innovation The Creation of the Neighborhood Health Center Program Program Survival and Institutionalization Continuing Policy Advocacy The Expansion of Community Health Centers Under a Conservative President Community Health Centers in the Era of Obamacare Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 34 Filling the Gaps: Retail Health Care Clinics and Nurse-Managed Health Centers Retail Health Clinics Access and Quality in Retail Clinics Retail Clinics and Cost Challenges and Reactions to the Model Nurse-Managed Health Clinics Future Directions for Retail Clinics and NMHCs Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 35 Developing Families The Need for Improvement Social Determinants and Life Course Model Innovative Models of Care Health Care Reform Barriers to Sustaining, Spreading, and Scaling-Up Models Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 36 Dual Eligibles: Issues and Innovations 12 Who are the Duals? What are the Challenges? Health Care Delivery Reforms That Hold Promise Implication for Nurses Policy Implications Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 37 Home Care and Hospice: Evolving Policy Defining the Home Care Industry Home Health Hospice Home Medical Equipment Home Infusion Pharmacy Private Duty Reimbursement and Reimbursement Reform Hospital Use and Readmissions and the Focus on Care Transitions Quality and Outcome Management The Impact of Technology on Home Care Championing Home Care and Hospice and the Role of Nurses Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 38 Long-Term Services and Supports Policy Issues Poor Quality of Care Weak Enforcement Inadequate Staffing Levels Corporate Ownership Financial Accountability Other Issues Home and Community-Based Services Public Financing Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 39 The United States Military and Veterans Administration Health Systems: Contemporary Overview and Policy Challenges The MHS and VHA Budgets 13 Advanced Nursing Education and Career Progression Contemporary Policy Issues Involving MHS and VHA Nurses Post-Deployment Health-Related Needs References Seamless Transition Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Unit 3 Policy and Politics in the Government Chapter 40 Contemporary Issues in Government Contemporary Issues in Government The Central Budget Story Fiscal Policy and Political Extremism How Will the Nation's Economic Health be Addressed? The Impact of Political Dysfunction Polarization Loss of Congressional Moderates Gerrymandering Congressional Gridlock: Where is the President's Power? Beleaguered Health Care Reform Implementation Challenges Increasing Access Affordable Care Act Costs and Savings Legal Challenges to the ACA Immigration Reform: Will Health Care be Included? Current Health Care Access The Ethics and Economics of Access Immigration Health Care Reform Options Rising Economic Inequality Measuring Wealth The Great Recession Reshaped the Economy Costs of Economic Inequality Impact of Economic Inequality on Health Equity Effectively Addressing Economic Inequality Proposed Policy Strategies Climate Change: Impacting Global Health Climate Change: It's Happening Mitigation Versus Adaptation International Progress Adaptation is Local 14 Examples of Health in All Policies Nursing Action Oriented Leadership Conclusion Discussion Questions References Chapter 41 How Government Works: What You Need to Know to Influence the Process Federalism: Multiple Levels of Responsibility The Federal Government State Governments Local Government Target the Appropriate Level of Government Pulling It All Together: Covering Long-Term Care Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 42 Is There a Nurse in the House? The Nurses in the U.S. Congress The Nurses in Congress Evaluating the Work of the Nurses Serving in Congress Political Perspective Interest Group Ratings Campaign Financing Sources of Campaign Funds References Online Resources Chapter 43 An Overview of Legislation and Regulation Influencing the Legislative Process Regulatory Process Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 44 Lobbying Policymakers: Individual and Collective Strategies Lobbyists, Advocates, and the Policymaking Process Lobbyist or Advocate? Why Lobby? Steps in Effective Lobbying How Should You Lobby? Collective Strategies Discussion Questions 15 References Online Resources Chapter 45 Taking Action: An Insider's View of Lobbying Getting Started Winds of Change Coming in State Legislatures Political Strategies There Really is a Need for Lobbyists Chapter 46 The American Voter and the Electoral Process Voting Law: Getting the Voters to the Polls Calls for Reform Voting Behavior Answering to the Constituency Congressional Districts Involvement in Campaigns Campaign Finance Law Types of Elections The Morning After: Keeping Connected to Politicians Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 47 Political Activity: Different Rules for Government-Employed Nurses Why Was the Hatch Act Necessary? Hatch Act Enforcement Penalties for Hatch Act Violations U.S. Department of Defense Regulations on Political Activity Internet and Social Media Influence Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 48 Taking Action: Anatomy of a Political Campaign Why People Work on Campaigns Why People Stop Working on Campaigns The Internet and the 2012 Election Campaign Campaign Activities Discussion Questions References Online Resources 16 Chapter 49 Taking Action: Truth or Dare: One Nurse's Political Campaign Stepping Into Politics Ethical Leadership Making a Difference Lessons Learned Chapter 50 Political Appointments What Does It Take to be a Political Appointee? Getting Ready Identify Opportunities Making a Decision to Seek an Appointment Plan Your Strategy Confirmation or Interview? Compensation After the Appointment Experiences of Nurse Appointees Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 51 Taking Action: Influencing Policy Through an Appointment to the San Francisco Health Commission Democracy and Service to the Health Commission Checks and Balances of Health Commission Activities Scope of Work of the Health Commission Infrastructure of the Health Commission Balancing Health Commission Service with Academia Introspection: Re-Experiencing Decision Making on the Health Commission References Chapter 52 Taking Action: A Nurse in the Boardroom My Political Career My Campaign Campaign Preparation Launching the Campaign Lessons Learned The Future References Chapter 53 Nursing and the Courts The Judicial System 17 Judicial Review Reference The Role of Precedent the Constitution and Branches of Government Impact Litigation Expanding Legal Rights Reference Enforcing Legal and Regulatory Requirements Antitrust Laws and Anticompetitive Practices Criminal Courts Influencing and Responding to Court Decisions Nursing's Policy Agenda Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 54 Nursing Licensure and Regulation Historical Perspective The Purpose of Professional Regulation Sources of Regulation Licensure Board Responsibilities Licensure Requirements The Source of Licensing Board Authority Disciplinary Offenses Regulation's Shortcomings Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 55 Taking Action: Nurse, Educator, and Legislator: My Journey to the Delaware General Assembly My Political Roots Volunteering and Campaigning There's a Reason It is Called “Running” for Office A Day in the Life of a Nurse-Legislator What I've Been Able to Accomplish as a Nurse-Legislator Tips for Influencing Elected Officials' Health Policy Decisions Is It Worth It? References Unit 4 Policy and Politics in the Workplace and Workforce 18 Chapter 56 Policy and Politics in Health Care Organizations Financial Pressures From Changing Payment Models The Broadening Influence of Outcome Accountability A Door Opens—Policy to Support the Role of the Nurse Practitioner Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 57 Taking Action: Nurse Leaders in the Boardroom Getting Started Are You Ready? Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 58 Quality and Safety in Health Care: Policy Issues The Environmental Context The Policy Context: Value-Driven Health Care Value-Based Payment and Delivery Models Impact of Value-Driven Health Care on Nursing Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 59 Politics and Evidence-Based Practice and Policy The Players and Their Stakes The Role of Politics in Generating Evidence The Politics of Research Application in Clinical Practice The Politics of Research Applied to Policy Formulation Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 60 The Nursing Workforce Characteristics of the Workforce Expanding the Workforce Increasing Diversity Retaining Workers Addressing the Nursing Workforce Issues Conclusion 19 Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 61 Rural Health Care: Workforce Challenges and Opportunities What Makes Rural Health Care Different? Defining Rural Rural Policy, Rural Politics The Opportunities and Challenges of Rural Health Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 62 Nurse Staffing Ratios: Policy Options The Establishment of California's Regulations What Has Happened as a Result of the Ratios? What Next? Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 63 The Contemporary Work Environment of Nursing Primary Factors Secondary Factors American Hospital Association (AHA) Report Crucial Communication Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 64 Collective Strategies for Change in the Workplace Building a Culture of Change Workplace Cultures Differ Implementing the Change Decision Examples of Change Decisions Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 65 Taking Action: Advocating for Nurses Injured in the Workplace Life Lessons 20 Becoming a Voice for Back-Injured Nurses Establishing the Work Injured Nurses Group USA (WING USA) Legislative Efforts to Advance Safe Patient Handling The Future References Chapter 66 The Politics of Advanced Practice Nursing Political Context of Advanced Practice Nursing The Political Issues Toward New APN Politics: Overcoming Appeasement and Apathy Discussion Questions References Chapter 67 Taking Action: Reimbursement Issues for Nurse Anesthetists: A Continuing Challenge Nurse Anesthesia Practice Nurse Anesthesia Reimbursement Advocacy Issues in Anesthesia Reimbursement TEFRA: Defining Medical Direction Physician Supervision of CRNAs: Medicare Conditions of Participation Medicare Coverage of Chronic Pain Management Services Conclusion References Chapter 68 Taking Action: Overcoming Barriers to Full APRN Practice: The Idaho Story Background Nurturing the Passion to Achieve Statutory Change Building Broad Coalitions and Relationships Sustaining the Effort and the Vision Removing Barriers to Autonomous APRN Practice The Stars Align The 2012 NPA Revision Conclusion Chapter 69 Taking Action: A Nurse Practitioner's Activist Efforts in Nevada Being a Leader Activism Means Leaving Your Comfort Zone Honing Your Verbal and Nonverbal Messages Activism Requires Funding Knowledge Developing Activist Skills Through Experience References Chapter 70 Nursing Education Policy: The Unending Debate over Entry into Practice and the 21 Continuing Debate over Doctoral Degrees The Entry Into Practice Debate The Entry Into Advanced Practice Debate Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 71 The Intersection of Technology and Health Care: Policy and Practice Implications Public Policy Support for HIT Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Unit 5 Policy and Politics in Associations and Interest Groups Chapter 72 Interest Groups in Health Care Policy and Politics Development of Interest Groups Functions and Methods of Influence Landscape of Contemporary Health Care Interest Groups Assessing Value and Considering Involvement Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 73 Current Issues in Nursing Associations Nursing's Professional Organizations Organizational Life Cycle Current Issues for Nursing Organizations Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 74 Professional Nursing Associations: Operationalizing Nursing Values The Significance of Nursing Organizations Evolution of Organizations Today's Nurse Organizational Purpose Associations and Their Members 22 Leadership Development Opportunities to Shape Policy Influencing the Organization Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 75 Coalitions: A Powerful Political Strategy Birth and Life Cycle of Coalitions Building and Maintaining a Coalition: the Primer Pitfalls and Challenges Political Work of Coalitions Evaluating Coalition Effectiveness Discussion Question References Online Resources Chapter 76 Taking Action: The Nursing Community Builds a Unified Voice The Necessity of Coalitions Coalition Formation Defining a Coalition's Success: the Importance of Leadership and Goal Setting A Perspective on Nursing's Unified Voice Nursing Unites: the Nursing Community Conclusion References Chapter 77 Taking Action: The Nursing Kitchen Cabinet: Policy and Politics in Action The Context Discussion Questions References Chapter 78 Taking Action: Improving LGBTQ Health: Nursing Policy Can Make a Difference LGBTQ Rights in the United States Nursing and LGBTQ Advocacy Taking Action Conclusion References Online Resources Chapter 79 Taking Action: Campaign for Action The Future of Nursing Report 23 A Vision for Implementing the Future of Nursing Report Success at the National Level Success at the State Level Conclusion References Online Resources Chapter 80 Taking Action: The Nightingales Take on Big Tobacco Tobacco Kills Ruth's Story The Personal Becomes Political Compelling Voices Strategic Planning Kelly's Story Policy Advocacy Shareholder Advocacy: “the NURSES are Coming…” Extending the Message What NURSES Can Do Nursing is Political Lessons Learned: Nursing Activism Discussion Questions References Online Resources Unit 6 Policy and Politics in the Community Chapter 81 Where Policy Hits the Pavement: Contemporary Issues in Communities What is a Community? Healthy Communities Partnership for Improving Community Health Determinants of Health Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 82 An Introduction to Community Activism Key Concepts Taking Action to Effect Change: Characteristics of Community Activists and Activism Challenges and Opportunities in Community Activism Nurses as Community Activists Discussion Questions References Online Resources 24 Chapter 83 Taking Action: The Canary Coalition for Clean Air in North Carolina's Smoky Mountains and Beyond Lessons in Communicating Persuasion: the Integrated Resource Plan Example Speaking to Power Clean Air: a Mixed Blessing The Crucible of Financial Challenge Efficient and Affordable Energy Rates Bill Nurses' Role in Environmental Stewardship References Chapter 84 How Community-Based Organizations Are Addressing Nursing's Role in Transforming Health Care Community as Partner and the Community Anchor Accountable Care Community Superstorm Sandy the Population Care Coordinator Hospital Partnerships and Transitional Care Vulnerable Patient Study Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 85 Taking Action: From Sewage Problems to the Statehouse: Serving Communities Sewage Changed My Life My Campaigns The Value of Political Activity in Your Community Leadership in the International Community Mentoring Other Nurses for Political Advocacy Recommendations for Becoming Involved in Politics Chapter 86 Family and Sexual Violence: Nursing and U.S. Policy Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Against Women State Laws Regarding Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Federal Laws Related to Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Health Policies Related to Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Child Maltreatment State and Federal Policies Related to Child Maltreatment Health Policies Related to Child Maltreatment Older Adult Maltreatment State and Federal Legislation Related to Older Adult Maltreatment 25 Health Care Policies Related to Older Adult Maltreatment Opportunity for Nursing Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 87 Human Trafficking: The Need for Nursing Advocacy Encountering the Victims of Human Trafficking Advancing Policy in the Workplace Role of Professional Nursing Associations Advocating for State Legislation and Policy on Human Trafficking Advancing Policy Through Media and Technology Trafficking as a Global Public Health Issue The World of the Victims International Policy U.S. Response to Human Trafficking Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 88 Taking Action: A Champion of Change: For Want of a Hug What Happened? The Struggle to Find Help We Got Help, but What About Others? Commitment in My Community Meeting Basic Needs Gang Violence Prevention It Takes a Village References Chapter 89 Lactivism: Breastfeeding Advocacy in the United States Why Advocate for Breastfeeding? The Historic Decline in Breastfeeding in the United States Culture of Breastfeeding Action to Support Breastfeeding The Need for Breastfeeding Advocacy Education Discussion Questions References Online Resources Chapter 90 Taking Action: Reefer Madness: The Clash of Science, Politics, and Medical Marijuana 26 A Plant with an Image Problem Once upon a Time, Cannabis Was Legal How and Why Did the Marijuana Prohibition Begin? My Introduction to the Problem of Medical Cannabis Use An Opportunity for Education Barriers and Strategies Patients Out of Time The Tide is Shifting Looking Ahead at a Paradigm Shift References Chapter 91 International Health and Nursing Policy and Politics Today: A Snapshot Globalization Migration Global Health The Policy Role of the World Health Organization The Millennium Development Goals Beyond the Millennium Development Goals Human Resources for Health Advanced Nursing Practice The World Health Organization and Nursing Nursing's Policy Voice Getting Involved Discussion Questions References Chapter 92 Infectious Disease: A Global Perspective Background Determinants of Infectious Disease Introduction and Transmission Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak: West Africa, 2014 Surveillance and Reporting Conclusion Discussion Questions References Online Resources Index 27 Copyright 3251 Riverport Lane St. Louis, Missouri 63043 POLICY & POLITICS IN NURSING AND HEALTH CARE ISBN: 978-0-323-24144-1 Copyright © 2016 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publisher's permissions policies, and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency can be found at our website: www.elsevier.com/premissions. This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein). Notices Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary. Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility. With respect to any drug or pharmaceutical products identified, readers are advised to check the most current information provided (i) on procedures featured or (ii) by the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose or formula, the method and duration of administration, and contraindications. It is the responsibility of practitioners, relying on their own experience and knowledge of their patients, to make diagnoses, to determine dosages and the best treatment for each individual patient, and to take all appropriate safety precautions. To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein. The views expressed in this book are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense, Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Veterans Affairs, any other government agency, or the U.S. Government. Previous editions copyrighted 2014, 2012, 2007, 2002, 1998, 1993, and 1985. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Policy & politics in nursing and health care / [edited by] Diana J. Mason, Deborah B. Gardner, Freida Hopkins Outlaw, Eileen T. O'Grady.—Seventh edition. p.; cm. Policy and politics in nursing and health care Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-323-24144-1 (pbk. : alk. paper) I. Mason, Diana J., 1948-, editor. II. Gardner, Deborah B., editor. III. Outlaw, Freida Hopkins, editor. IV. O'Grady, Eileen T., 1963-, editor. V. Title: Policy and politics in nursing and health care. 28 [DNLM: 1. Nursing–United States. 2. Delivery of Health Care–United States. 3. Politics–United States. 4. Public Policy–United States. WY 16 AA1] RT86.5 362.17′3–dc23 2015008880 Senior Content Strategist: Sandra Clark Content Development Manager: Laurie Gower Senior Content Development Specialist: Karen Turner Content Development Specialist: Jennifer Wade Publishing Services Manager: Jeff Patterson Senior Project Manager: Clay S. Broeker Design Direction: Ashley Miner Printed in the United States of America Last digit is the print number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 29 About the Editors DIANA J. MASON, PhD, RN, FAAN, is the Rudin Professor of Nursing and Co-Founder and CoDirector of the Center for Health, Media, and Policy (CHMP) at Hunter College and Professor at the City University of New York. She served as President of the American Academy of Nursing (20132015) and as Strategic Adviser for the Campaign for Action, an initiative to implement the recommendations from the Institute of Medicine's Future of Nursing report, to which she contributed. From 2012 to 2015 she served as Co-President of the Hermann Biggs Society, an interdisciplinary health policy salon in New York City. Dr. Mason was editor-in-chief of the American Journal of Nursing for over a decade. Under her leadership, the journal received numerous awards for editorial excellence and dissemination, culminating in the journal being selected by the Specialized Libraries Association in 2009 as one of the 100 most influential Journals of the Century in Biology and Medicine—the only nursing journal to be selected for this distinction. As a journalist, she has produced and moderated a weekly radio program on health and health policy (Healthstyles) for 30 years. She blogs for HealthCetera (www.centerforhealthmediapolicy.com) and for the JAMA News Forum. In 2009, she was appointed to the National Advisory Committee for Kaiser Health News—the only nurse and health professional on the Committee. She is the lead co-editor of The Nursing Profession: Development, Challenges, and Opportunities, part of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health Policy Book Series. She has been the lead co-editor of all seven editions of Policy & Politics in Nursing and Health Care. She is the recipient of numerous honors, including Honorary Doctorates from Long Island University and West Virginia University; fellowship in the New York Academy of Medicine; and the Pioneering Spirit Award from the American Association of Critical Care Nurses. DEBORAH B. GARDNER, PhD, RN, FAAN, FNAP, is a health policy and leadership consultant. She has more than 35 years of health care experience as a clinician, manager, trainer, and consultant delivering care across diverse institutional and community settings. Dr. Gardner practiced as a psychiatric mental health clinical nurse specialist for 15 years. She received a PhD in Nursing Administration and Health Policy from George Mason University. At the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center she established and held the position as the Director of Organizational Planning and Workforce Development for 10 years. She served at the Bureau of Health Professionals, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) as a senior consultant collaborating on the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) (2010-2012). As the Director of the Hawaii State Center for Nursing, she led the State's Campaign for Action Coalition, a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Initiative to support the Institute of Medicine's Future of Nursing report. In 2012 she served as a member of the Hawaii Governor's Healthcare Transformation Steering Committee to assess and refocus Hawaii's health care delivery system for alignment to the ACA goals. A Fellow in the American Academy of Nursing and in the National Academy of Practice, she was instrumental in establishing the National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education in Minneapolis, Minnesota. She has received numerous awards, including the HRSA Administrator's Special Citation for National Leadership in Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice, an International Coaching Federation Award for Excellence in the Establishment of an Outstanding Executive Coaching Program, the NIH Director's Award for Outstanding Mentoring and Innovation in Organizational Development Strategies, and the “Profiles in Excellence” alumni honors award from Oklahoma Baptist University. Dr. Gardner has written numerous book chapters and articles. She serves on the Editorial Board for 30 Nursing Economic$ and writes the Policy and Politics column. She is a professional speaker on interprofessional practice and education teams, advanced practice nursing, and health policy issues. FREIDA HOPKINS OUTLAW, PhD, RN, FAAN, is an adjunct professor in the Peabody College of Education, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. She served as the Assistant Commissioner, Division of Special Populations, Tennessee Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services. In this role, she helped to develop policies and initiatives that improved treatment for children with mental health and substance abuse issues. She provided leadership in securing $32 million of federal funding to support transforming the mental health system for children and their families and was part of the leadership instrumental in passing legislation to create the Children's Mental Health Council, which developed a plan for a statewide system of care implementation, which continues today. She participated in the American Nurses Association Minority Fellowship Legislative Internship Program. Her passion was further ignited when state and national policies impacted delivery of mental health services to children and their families to which she provided mental health services at the University of Pennsylvania nurse-managed health center. Dr. Outlaw received a Department of Health and Human Services Policy Academy Grant to lead a team of child-serving agencies, community stakeholders, families, and youth to work on transforming mental health care for children and families through planning, policy, and practice. Dr. Outlaw a member of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) Collaborative National Advisory Committee, whose function is to advise the faculty of the RWJF Nursing and Health Policy Collaborative, University of New Mexico, College of Nursing. She is a Fellow in the American Academy of Nursing and is an active member of the Psychiatric Mental Health and Substance Abuse Expert Panel. She has written frequently on the areas of depression, impact of racism, and stress on the health of African Americans; management of aggression; seclusion and restraint; religion, spirituality, and the meaning of prayer for people with cancer; and children's mental health. She has received recognition for her excellence in clinical practice and for her work to improve the mental health of children and their families. EILEEN T. O'GRADY, PhD, NP, RN, is a certified Nurse Practitioner and Wellness Coach who uses an evidence-based approach with people to reverse or prevent disease. She believes deeply that more attention must be paid to getting us unstuck from lifestyles that do not support wellness. She speaks professionally at universities, associations, corporations, schools, and communities on the importance of thoughtful self-care, patient engagement, and how to identify and remedy a life that is out of balance. She is currently adjunct faculty in the Graduate Schools of Nursing at Pace University, Georgetown University, Duke University, and George Washington University, where she was given an Outstanding Teacher Award. She has held a number of leadership positions with professional nursing associations, most notably as a founder and vice chair of the American College of Nurse Practitioners (now the American Association of Nurse Practitioners). She was a 1999 Policy Fellow in the U.S. Public Health Service Primary Care Policy Fellowship and in 2003 was given the American College of Nurse Practitioners Legislative Advocacy Award for her leadership on nurse practitioner policy issues. She is the 2013 recipient of the Loretta Ford Lifetime Achievement Award and the Virginia Council of Nurse Practitioners Advocate of the Year Award. She is a co-editor and author of Advanced Practice Nursing: An Integrative Approach, 5th edition (Elsevier, 2013) and has authored numerous articles and book chapters as well as a monthly column on advanced practice nursing and health policy for 10 years in Nurse Practitioner World News. She has taught nurses and physicians both nationally and internationally with the U.S. Peace Corps. Dr. O'Grady has practiced as a primary care provider for 15 years and is now certified as a life coach through the International Coaching Federation and as an Adult Nurse Practitioner through the American Nurses Credentialing Center. Dr. O'Grady holds three graduate degrees: a Master of Public Health from George Washington University, a Master of Science in Nursing, and a Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing/Health Policy from George Mason University. She has dual citizenship in Ireland and the United States. www.eileenogrady.net 31 32 Contributors Greg Abell Principal Sound Options Group, LLC Bainbridge Island, Washington Charles R. Alexandre PhD, RN Director Quality and Regulation Butler Hospital Providence, Rhode Island Carmen Alvarez PhD, C-NP, CNM Julio Bellber Post-Doctoral Fellow Department of Health Policy George Washington University Washington, DC Angela Frederick Amar PhD, RN, FAAN Assistant Dean for BSN Education and Associate Professor Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing Emory University Atlanta, Georgia Coral T. Andrews MBA, RN, FACHE Founding Executive Director Hawaii Health Connector Honolulu, Hawaii Susan Apold PhD, RN, ANP-BC, FAAN, FAANP Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Executive Nurse Fellow Clinical Professor of Nursing New York University New York, New York Kenya V. Beard EdD, GNP-BC, NP-C, ACNP-BC, CNE Associate Vice President for Curriculum and Instruction Director Center Multicultural Education and Health Disparities Jersey College Teterboro, New Jersey Mary L. Behrens MS, FNP-BC, FAANP Family Nurse Practitioner Westside Woman's Clinic Casper, Wyoming Susan I. Belanger PhD, MA, RN, NEA-BC Director Education, Training, and Research Sibley Memorial Hospital/Johns Hopkins Medicine 33 Assistant Professor School of Nursing and Health Studies Georgetown University Washington, DC Katherine N. Bent RN, PhD, CNS Assistant Commissioner, Compliance Policy U.S. Food and Drug Administration Silver Spring, Maryland Jonathan Bentley BS, RN RN Care Coordinator Harris Regional Hospital Sylva, North Carolina Carmina Bernardo MA, MPH Doctor of Public Health Student Health Policy and Management Track Graduate Center City University of New York New York, New York Virginia Trotter Betts MSN, JD, RN, FAAN President and Chief Executive Officer HealthFutures, Inc. Nashville, Tennessee Linda Burnes Bolton DrPH, RN, FAAN Vice President, Nursing and Chief Nursing Officer Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Los Angeles, California Marilyn Waugh Bouldin MSN, RN, PNP Member Board of Directors Heart of the Rockies Regional Medical Center Retired Director Chaffee County Public Health Salida, Colorado Rebecca (Rice) Bowers-Lanier EdD, MSN, MPH, RN President B2L Consulting Richmond, Virginia Patricia K. Bradley PhD, RN, FAAN Associate Professor College of Nursing Villanova University Villanova, Pennsylvania Edie Brous MS, MPH, JD, RN Nurse Attorney New York, New York Mary Lou Brunell MSN, RN Executive Director Florida Center for Nursing 34 Co-Lead Florida Action Coalition Orlando, Florida Kelly Buettner-Schmidt PhD, RN Associate Professor of Nursing North Dakota State University Fargo, North Dakota Josepha E. Burnley DNP, FNP-C Nurse Consultant Health Resources and Services Administration Rockville, Maryland Rachel Burton Research Associate Health Policy Center Urban Institute Washington, DC Ann Campbell MPH, MSN, AGPCNP-BC, RN Primary and Palliative Care Nurse Practitioner Mary Manning Walsh Home Integrative Health Nurse Practitioner The Original Bloom New York, New York Demetrius Chapman PhD(c), MPH, MSN(R), APRN, PHCNS-BC Associate Director New Mexico Board of Nursing Albuquerque, New Mexico Peggy L. Chinn PhD, RN, FAAN Professor Emerita University of Connecticut Editor Advances in Nursing Science Oakland, California Yoon Jeong Choi MSN, MPhil, RN PhD Candidate School of Nursing Columbia University New York, New York Glenda Christiaens PhD, RN, AHN-BC Former President American Holistic Nurses Association Salt Lake City, Utah Mary Ann Christopher MSN, RN, FAAN Consultant Avon, New Jersey Angela K. Clark MSN, PhD(c), RN 35 Graduate Student College of Nursing University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio Sean P. Clarke PhD, RN, FAAN Professor and Associate Dean Undergraduate Programs William F. Connell School of Nursing Boston College Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts Sally S. Cohen PhD, RN, FAAN IOM/AAN/ANA/ANF Distinguished Nurse Scholar-in-Residence (2014-2015) Virginia P. Crenshaw Endowed Chair Director Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nursing and Health Policy Collaborative College of Nursing University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico Judith B. Collins RNC, MS, WHNP, FAAN Faculty Emerita Schools of Nursing and Medicine Founding Director Health Policy Office and Women's Health Center Virginia Commonwealth University Richmond, Virginia Karen S. Cox PhD, FACHE, RN, FAAN Executive Vice President and Co-Chief Operating Officer Children's Mercy Kansas City Kansas City, Missouri Barbara I.H. Damron PhD, RN, FAAN Secretary New Mexico Higher Education Department Santa Fe, New Mexico Patricia D'Antonio PhD, RN, FAAN Killebrew-Censtis Term Professor in Undergraduate Nursing Education Senior Fellow Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics School of Nursing University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania C. Christine Delnat MSN, RN Assistant Professor Department of Nursing St. Mary-of-the-Woods College Terre Haute, Indiana Erin M. Denholm MSN, RN, RWJENF SVP Clinical Transformation Centura Health Denver, Colorado 36 Catherine M. Dentinger FNP, MPH Career Epidemiology Field Officer New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene Centers for Disease Control and Prevention New York, New York Betty R. Dickson BS Retired Contract Lobbyist Barnardsville, North Carolina Michele J. Eliason PhD Associate Professor Department of Health Education San Francisco State University San Francisco, California Jeanette Ives Erickson RN, DNP, FAAN, NEA-BC Chief Nurse and Senior Vice President for Patient Care Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, Massachusetts Carroll L. Estes PhD Professor of Sociology Founding Director Institute for Health and Aging University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, California Robin Dawson Estrada PhD, PNP-BC, RN Assistant Professor College of Nursing University of South Carolina Columbia, South Carolina Sandra Evans MAEd, RN Executive Director Idaho Board of Nursing Boise, Idaho Julie Fairman PhD, RN, FAAN Nightingale Professor in Nursing Director Barbara Bates Center for the Study of the History of Nursing Co-Director Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Future of Nursing Scholars Program School of Nursing University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Lola M. Fehr MS, CAE, PRP, RN, FAAN President Fehr Consulting Resources Greeley, Colorado Loretta C. Ford PNP, EdD, RN, FAAN, FAANP Professor and Dean Emerita School of Nursing 37 University of Rochester, New York Elizabeth B. Froh PhD, RN Clinical Supervisor Lactation Team and Human Milk Management Center Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Beth Gharrity Gardner MA, PhD(c) PhD Candidate Department of Sociology University of California, Irvine Irvine, California Catherine Alicia Georges EdD, RN, FAAN Professor and Chairperson Department of Nursing Lehman College Bronx, New York Rosemary Gibson MSc Senior Advisor The Hastings Center Garrison, New York Greer Glazer PhD, RN, CNP, FAAN Dean University of Cincinnati College of Nursing Schmidlapp Professor of Nursing Cincinnati, Ohio Barbara Glickstein MPH, MS, RN Co-Director Center for Health, Media and Policy Hunter College City University of New York New York, New York Bethany Hall-Long PhD, RNC, FAAN State Senator State of Delaware 10th District Professor of Nursing University of Delaware Newark, Delaware Mary Mincer Hansen PhD, RN Adjunct Associate Professor MPH Program and Global Health Department Des Moines University Des Moines, Iowa Tine Hansen-Turton MGA, JD, FCPP, FAAN Chief Executive Officer National Nursing Centers Consortium Chief Strategy Officer Public Health Management Corporation Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Charlene Harrington PhD, RN 38 Professor Emeritus of Nursing and Sociology School of Nursing University of California San Francisco, California Mary Ann Hart MSN, RN Program Director Graduate Program in Health Administration Assistant Professor of Nursing and Health Administration School of Nursing, Science, and Health Professions Regis College Weston, Massachusetts Heidi Hartmann PhD President Institute for Women's Policy Research Research Professor George Washington University Washington, DC Susan B. Hassmiller PhD, RN, FAAN Senior Adviser for Nursing Director Future of Nursing: Campaign for Action Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Princeton, New Jersey Barbara Hatfield RN Former Delegate West Virginia House Charleston, West Virginia Pamela J. Haylock PhD, RN, FAAN Oncology Care Consultant Medina, Texas Adjunct Instructor Schreiner University Kerrville, Texas Margaret Wainwright Henbest MSN, RN Executive Director Nurse Leaders of Idaho Boise, Idaho Karrie Cummings Hendrickson PhD, MSN, RN Finance Clinical Coordinator Department of Analytic Strategy Yale New Haven Health System New Haven, Connecticut Linda Hirota Hevenor MPH, MS, RN Director of Patient Safety Department of Quality and Operational Excellence Lifespan Providence, Rhode Island Sarah Hexem JD Law and Policy Program Manager National Nursing Centers Consortium 39 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Anne Hudson RN, C, BSN Founder Work Injured Nurses Group USA Public Health Nurse Coos County Public Health Department Coos Bay, Oregon Randall Steven Hudspeth PhD, MS, APRN-CNP/CNS, FRE, FAANP Executive Clinical Consultant Hudspeth LLC Boise, Idaho Lauren Inouye MPP, RN Associate Director of Government Affairs American Association of Colleges of Nursing Washington, DC Brenda Isaac RN, BSN, MA, NCSN Lead School Nurse Kanawha County Schools Charleston, West Virginia Jean E. Johnson PhD, RN, FAAN Professor and Founding Dean (retired) School of Nursing George Washington University Washington, DC Jane Clare Joyner RN, MSN, JD Senior Policy Fellow American Nurses Association Silver Spring, Maryland Louise Kahn MSN, MA, RN, CPNP Specialty Nurse Center for Development and Disability University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico David M. Keepnews PhD, JD, RN, NEA-BC, FAAN Professor and Director of Graduate Programs Hunter-Bellevue School of Nursing Hunter College, City University of New York New York, New York Karren Kowalski PhD, RN, NEA-BC, ANEF, FAAN President and Chief Executive Officer Colorado Center for Nursing Excellence Denver, Colorado Professor School of Nursing Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center Lubbock, Texas Mary Jo Kreitzer PhD, RN, FAAN Director Center for Spirituality and Healing 40 Professor School of Nursing University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota Bryan Krumm MSN, CNP Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner Sage Neuroscience Center Albuquerque, New Mexico Ellen T. Kurtzman MPH, RN, FAAN Assistant Research Professor School of Nursing George Washington University Washington, DC Susan R. Lacey RN, PhD, FAAN Leadership, Research, and Empowerment Consultant Huntsville, Alabama Jean Larson RN, MSN Board Member Canary Coalition Leicester, North Carolina Kathryn Laughon PhD, RN, FAAN Associate Professor School of Nursing University of Virginia Charlottesville, Virginia Roberta P. Lavin PhD, APRN-BC Associate Dean for Academic Programs and Professor University of Missouri, St. Louis St. Louis, Missouri Judith K. Leavitt RN, MEd, FAAN Health Policy Consultant Barnardsville, North Carolina Sandra B. Lewenson EdD, RN, FAAN Professor Lienhard School of Nursing College of Health Professions Pace University Pleasantville, New York Elena Lopez-Bowlan APRN, MSN, FNP-BC Examiner, Compensation and Pension Veterans Administration Sierra Nevada Health Care System Reno, Nevada Robert J. Lucero PhD, MPH, RN Associate Professor of Nursing College of Nursing University of Florida Research Health Scientist HSR&D Center of Innovation on Disability and Rehabilitation Research North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System 41 Gainesville, Florida Beverly Malone PhD, RN, FAAN Chief Executive Officer National League for Nursing Washington, DC Ruth E. Malone PhD, RN, FAAN Professor and Nursing Alumni/Mary Harms Endowed Chair Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences School of Nursing University of California San Francisco, California Mary Lynn Mathre RN, MSN, CARN President and Co-Founder Patients Out of Time President and Founding Member American Cannabis Nurses Association Howardsville, Virginia DeAnne K. Hilfinger Messias PhD, RN, FAAN Professor College of Nursing and Women's and Gender Studies University of South Carolina Columbia, South Carolina Gina Miranda-Diaz DNP, MS/MPH, RN New Jersey State Licensed Health Officer Director Health Department West New York, New Jersey Assistant Professor Department of Nursing Lehman College Bronx, New York Suzanne Miyamoto PhD, RN Senior Director of Government Affairs and Health Policy American Association of Colleges of Nursing Washington, DC Wanda Montalvo MSN, MPhil, RN Montalvo Consulting Staten Island, New York Alan Morgan MPA Chief Executive Officer National Rural Health Association Washington, DC Ellen S. Murray MS Colin Powell School for Civic and Global Leadership City College of New York City University of New York New York, New York Colonel (Retired) John S. Murray PhD, RN, CPNP-PC, CS, FAAN Pediatric Nurse Consultant and Graduate Student 42 Online Master of Science in Global Health Program Feinberg School of Medicine and Professional Studies Northwestern University Boston, Massachusetts Len M. Nichols PhD Professor of Health Policy Director Center for Health Policy Research and Ethics George Mason University Fairfax, Virginia Karen O'Connor PhD, JD Jonathan N. Helfat Distinguished Professor of Political Science American University Washington, DC Terry O'Neill JD President National Organization of Women (NOW) President NOW Foundation New York, New York Douglas P. Olsen PhD, RN Associate Professor College of Nursing Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan Katie Oppenheim BSN, RN Staff Nurse Birth Center Von Voigtlander Women's Hospital University of Michigan Health System Ann Arbor, Michigan Judith A. Oulton RN, BN, MEd, DSc (Hon) Partner Oulton, Oulton, and Associates Tatamagouche, Nova Scotia, Canada Sharon Pappas PhD, RN, NEA-BC, FAAN Chief Nursing Officer Porter Adventist Hospital Chief Nurse Executive Centura Health Denver, Colorado Lynn Price JD, MSN, MPH Professor and Chair Graduate Nursing School of Nursing Quinnipiac University Hamden, Connecticut Chad S. Priest JD, MSN, RN Assistant Dean for Operations and Community Partnerships School of Nursing 43 Indiana University Adjunct Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine Co-Director Disaster Medicine Fellowship Program School of Medicine Indiana University Indianapolis, Indiana Joyce A. Pulcini PhD, RN, PNP-BC, FAAN, FAANP Professor Director of Community and Global Initiatives School of Nursing George Washington University Washington, DC Frank Purcell BS Senior Director, Federal Government Affairs American Association of Nurse Anesthetists Washington, DC Susan C. Reinhard PhD, RN, FAAN Senior Vice President AARP Public Policy Institute Chief Strategist Center to Champion Nursing in America Washington, DC Victoria. L. Rich PhD, RN, FAAN Associate Professor Nursing Administration School of Nursing University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nancy Ridenour PhD, APRN, BC, FAAN Dean and Professor College of Nursing University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico Karen M. Robinson PhD, PMHCNS-BC, FAAN Gerontology Professor Executive Director Caregivers Program of Research School of Nursing University of Louisville Louisville, Kentucky Beth L. Rodgers PhD, RN, FAAN Professor College of Nursing University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico Carol A. Romano PhD, RN, FAAN Rear Admiral (Retired) USPHS Dean and Professor Graduate School of Nursing 44 Uniformed Services University Bethesda, Maryland Carol F. Roye EdD, RN, CPNP, FAAN Associate Dean for Faculty Scholarship Professor Lienhard School of Nursing Pace University New York, New York Angie Ross MEd Consultant Winter Park, Florida Alice Sardell PhD Professor Department of Urban Studies Queens College City University of New York Faculty Doctorate of Public Health Program School of Public Health City University of New York Flushing, New York Chelsea Savage DNP, MSHA, BA, RN, CPHRM Professional Liability Investigator Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center Richmond, Virginia Christine Ceccarelli Schrauf PhD, RN, MBA Associate Professor School of Nursing Elms College Chicopee, Massachusetts James Mark Simmerman PhD, RN Asia Pacific Regional Director of Epidemiology Sanofi Pasteur Vaccines Bangkok, Thailand Arlene M. Smaldone PhD, CPNP, CDE Associate Professor of Nursing Assistant Dean Scholarship and Research School of Nursing Columbia University New York, New York Andréa Sonenberg PhD, WHNP, CNM-BC Associate Professor Graduate Program Lienhard School of Nursing College of Health Professions Pace University Pleasantville, New York Diane L. Spatz PhD, RN-BC, FAAN Professor of Perinatal Nursing 45 Helen M. Shearer Professor of Nutrition School of Nursing University of Pennsylvania Nurse Researcher and Director of the Lactation Program The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Joanne Spetz PhD, FAAN Professor Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies Associate Director for Research Strategy Center for the Health Professions University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, California Caroline Stephens PhD, MSN, APRN, BC Assistant Professor Department of Community Health Systems Associate Director Hartford Center of Gerontological Nursing Excellence School of Nursing University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, California Elaine D. Stephens MPH, FHHC, RN Executive Vice President National Association for Home Care and Hospice Washington, DC Patricia W. Stone PhD, RN, FAAN Centennial Professor in Health Policy Director of the Center for Health Policy School of Nursing Columbia University Visiting Professor for Faculty of Health University of Technology, Sydney Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Lisa Summers CNM, DrPH Director of Policy and Advocacy Centering Healthcare Institute Boston, Massachusetts Elaine Tagliareni EdD, RN, CNE, FAAN Chief Program Officer National League for Nursing Washington, DC Carol R. Taylor PhD, MSN, RN Professor of Nursing, Senior Clinical Scholar Kennedy Institute of Ethics Georgetown University Washington, DC Clifton P. Thornton MSN, BS, BSN, RN, CNMT Pediatric Nurse Practitioner Research Nurse School of Nursing John Hopkins University 46 Baltimore, Maryland Cora Tomalinas BSN, PHN, Retired RN Commissioner FIRST 5 Santa Clara County Member Governing Board Santa Clara County Re-Entry Collaborative Member San Jose Mayor’s Gang Prevention Task Force Policy and Technical Team San Jose, California Brian Valdez JD Policy and Development Specialist National Nursing Centers Consortium Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Tener Goodwin Veenema PhD, MPH, MS, RN, FAAN Associate Professor School of Nursing John Hopkins University Center for Refugee and Disaster Response Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore, Maryland Antonia M. Villarruel PhD, RN, FAAN Professor and Margaret Bond Simon Dean of Nursing School of Nursing University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Elizabeth Waetzig JD Founding Partner Change Matrix, LLC Granger, Indiana Laura M. Wagner PhD, RN, GNP, FAAN Assistant Professor School of Nursing University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, California Jamie M. Ware JD Policy Director National Nursing Centers Consortium Manager of Strategic Policy Initiatives Public Health Management Corporation Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Joanne R. Warner PhD, RN Dean and Professor School of Nursing University of Portland Portland, Oregon Catherine M. Waters PhD, RN, FAAN Professor Department of Community Health Systems School of Nursing 47 University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, California Ellen-Marie Whelan PhD, CRNP, FAAN Senior Advisor Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Innovation Center Washington, DC Kathleen M. White PhD, RN, NEA-BC, FAAN Associate Professor and Track Coordinator Health Systems Management and MSN/MBA Director Master's Entry into Nursing Program Department of Acute and Chronic Care School of Nursing John Hopkins University Baltimore, Maryland Marie Davis Williams MSW, LCSW Deputy Commissioner Tennessee Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services Nashville, Tennessee Shanita D. Williams PhD, MPH, APRN Chief Nursing Education and Practice Branch Division of Nursing and Public Health Bureau of Health Workforce Health Resources and Services Administration Rockville, Maryland Rita Wray BC, MBA, RN, FAAN Founder and Chief Executive Officer Wray Enterprises, Inc. Jackson, Mississippi Alixandra B. Yanus PhD Assistant Professor of Political Science High Point University High Point, North Carolina 48 Reviewers Phyllis S. Brenner PhD, RN, NEA-BC Professor of Nursing and Nursing Administration Program Director College of Nursing and Health Madonna University Livonia, Michigan Dian Colette Davitt PhD, RN Associate Professor Webster University St. Louis, Missouri Michelle L. Edmonds PhD, FNP-BC, CNE Professor of Nursing School of Nursing Jacksonville University Jacksonville, Florida Teresa Keller PhD, RN Associate Director for Undergraduate Studies School of Nursing New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico Karen Kelly EdD, RN, NEA-BC Director Continuing Education Associate Professor School of Nursing Primary Care and Health Systems Nursing Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville Edwardsville, Illinois Carol A. Mannahan EdD, RN, NEA-BC Assistant Professor Kramer School of Nursing Oklahoma City University Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Brenda B. Rowe MN, JD, RN Associate Professor Georgia Baptist College of Nursing of Mercer University Atlanta, Georgia Melissa V. Sirola BSN, MSN, MBA, RN Adjunct Instructor Caldwell University Caldwell, New Jersey Annette Weiss PhD, RN, CNE Assistant Professor Expressway RN Program Director 49 Misericordia University Dallas, Pennsylvania 50 Foreword In 2010, the Institute of Medicine challenged the nation and the nursing profession to ensure that nurses are participating as leaders in decision making about health, health care, and health policy. The landmark report The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health is bringing attention to this most valuable resource for transforming health in the United States. I've had the privilege of serving as Chairperson of the Strategic Advisory Committee for the Future of Nursing: Campaign for Action that is charged with overseeing the implementation of the report's recommendations. Specifically, the report recommends the expansion of “opportunities for nurses to lead and diffuse collaborative improvement efforts,” including in health systems, and aims to “prepare and enable nurses to lead change to advance health.” For this latter recommendation, the report specifically calls for “public, private, and governmental health care decision makers at every level [to] include representation from nursing on boards, on executive management teams, and in other key leadership positions.” Leading—as a clinical bedside leader, executive in a health care organization, member of a state or federal health advisory body, or a legislator at the local, state, or federal level—requires knowing how private and public policies are made, exquisite political skills, and the confidence and willingness to guide the decisions and actions of individuals and groups. These are not easy skills to learn but are essential for every nurse who wants to lead. I know the importance of learning how to lead. For more than 10 years, I was Chief of Staff for former Senate Majority Leader and presidential candidate Bob Dole of Kansas, after working as a professional staff member for the Senate Committee on Finance and, later, as Deputy Staff Director of that committee. These superb opportunities gave me a deep understanding of policymaking and of the leadership and political skills that are required to shape policy. I never questioned that nurses should do this kind of work. It was my good fortune to “learn the ropes” as President of the California Student Nurses Association and later as Program Director for the National Student Nurses Association. Society must recognize the important perspectives that nurses can bring to decision-making tables, but nurses must be ready to fully engage in the important health-related decisions of our day. Policy & Politics in Nursing and Health Care is an invaluable resource for nurses to learn the ropes of being leaders in local, state, national, and international organizations—from the bedside to the boardroom to the backrooms of policymaking. It provides guidelines and an important framework for developing leaders. For the more sophisticated nurse leaders, it offers in-depth 51 analyses of important policy issues within a political context. Policy & Politics in Nursing and Health Care has been in publication for 30 years. This essential resource continues to prepare the current and future generations of nurse leaders. We must use it wisely if we're to achieve the recommendations in The Future of Nursing. Our nation's health depends upon nurses being leaders in transforming health and health care in the United States and globally. Sheila Burke MPA, RN, FAAN Faculty Research Fellow, Malcolm Weiner Center for Social Policy Adjunct Lecturer, John. F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University Chair, Government Relations and Public Policy, Baker, Donelson, Bearman, Caldwell & Berkowitz On the threshold of significant change, we find ourselves at a pivotal time for health care in the United States. For far too long, Americans have been served by a fragmented health care system and one that has heavily emphasized acute care, at the expense of keeping people well. It has come with a price tag of about $2.7 trillion a year. Costs have been ticking ever upward until recently. As a result, health care services have been unaffordable and largely inaccessible to millions of Americans. For all Americans, consistent care quality could not be guaranteed. The Affordable Care Act has been instrumental in helping the nation reset this picture. Even in the midst of heated rhetoric and misinformation, the law is moving us forward on insurance coverage for previously uninsured Americans, access to care, improved care quality, and new payment mechanisms. Addressing these things is crucial to improving health care and the health of the nation. Nurses are already central to this law and the change that it seeks to produce. The law includes opportunities to spread models of care that nurses were instrumental in developing, such as home visitation programs for high-risk mothers, programs for all-inclusive care of elders, nurse-managed health centers, and transitional care. The law uses provider-neutral language and improves the Medicare payment rate for nurse midwives. It also includes substantial funding to increase the primary care workforce, including nurses. These and other elements of the law reflect engagement of various constituencies, including nursing. Policymaking is not for the timid. It requires mastery of knowledge and skills in the art and science of politics and the policy process. Though nursing organizations have long had influential leaders at national, state, and local levels, this set of competencies hasn't been universal across members of the profession. I know well the growth in nursing's policymaking savvy. I have been a part of some of the important health policy discussions of our day and have watched as other nurses have sought to use their knowledge to inform laws and regulations that govern health care. Some years ago, as the director of a Center for Health Policy, Research and Ethics, I led an annual policy program on policy and political development for nurses. I also have had the privilege of serving as Chief of Staff to two U.S. Senators, serving as a member of the Institute of Medicine and the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, and chairing the National Advisory Council for the Agency for Healthcare Research 52 and Quality. In his first term, President Barack Obama appointed me to serve as the Administrator of the Health Resources and Services Administration, a division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In this capacity, my responsibilities included helping to lead the nation's efforts to ensure that we have a well-prepared nursing and health care workforce that can meet the vast and varied health needs of the nation. However, we need many more nurses at the multitude of policy tables at local, state, and federal levels. There may be as many opportunities for nurses to engage in this arena as there are nurses. The health of the nation can directly benefit when nurses have sophisticated knowledge and skill in policymaking and its political context. We should expect no less of members of our profession— and deliver no less for our nation. Mary Wakefield PhD, RN, FAAN Acting Deputy Secretary U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 53 Preface The Affordable Care Act (ACA) had just become the law of the land as the prior edition of Policy & Politics in Nursing and Health Care (sixth edition) was going to press. Now, its implementation is benefiting many of the previously uninsured, reducing health care costs, and moving our nation on the path toward the Triple Aim: improving people's experiences with care, improving health outcomes for the population, and reducing health care costs. And yet, it has illuminated the complexities and failures of a health care system that lags behind other nations in promoting health. Indeed, there is a growing recognition that health care's consumption of approximately 18% of the U.S. gross domestic product is undermining efforts to promote the health of families and communities rather than treating preventable illnesses—and at a very high price in humanistic and monetary terms. This current edition of Policy & Politics in Nursing and Health Care focuses on the changes that the ACA has brought about, its deficiencies that mandate further reform in health care, and the importance of social determinants of health, or “upstream factors,” that must be addressed if we are to have communities and a nation that thrive in terms of economic, social, and health dimensions. In concert with the Institute of Medicine's report The Future of Nursing: Leading Health, Advancing Change, this book highlights the role that nurses and other health professionals can play in leading the transformation of health care and creating healthy communities. The book does this with the continuing aim of appealing to all nurses, from novice to expert, as well as other health professionals, although in this edition we have placed a stronger emphasis on the implications of the issues discussed for advanced practice nurses, including those pursuing or holding the doctorate of nursing practice (DNP). The DNP was designed to prepare nurses as clinical leaders who could develop evidence-based approaches to improving the health of specific populations. The book's emphasis on both reforming health care and addressing upstream factors that promote health is particularly suited to nurses with DNPs. However, we maintain that every nurse has a social responsibility to shape public and private policies to promote health. As such, this edition is designed to appeal to undergraduate, master's, DNP, and PhD students, as well as to practicing health professionals. 54 What's New in the Seventh Edition? This edition continues the almost 30-year approach of prior editions that have led others to describe the book as a “classic” in nursing literature. However, classics become stagnant if not refreshed. A new team of editors has brought a fresh perspective to this edition. The order of authorship on the cover does not reflect effort; rather, the editing of this book was truly a team effort. The new team is a result of transitions in the lives of former co-editors Judith Leavitt and Mary Chaffee. Certainly, their imprint, and that of the first-co-editor, Susan Talbott, continues to manifest throughout the book, but there is much that has changed. Central to these changes are updates on the Affordable Care Act and its implementation, its impact on nursing and the health of people, the role of politics in our health care system, and the need for further policy reforms. As noted previously, the importance of improving the health of people while reducing health care spending by addressing upstream factors or social determinants of health is a major theme. We have also further developed the conceptual framework for the book, as described in Chapter 1. This chapter also emphasizes the competencies that nurses are expected to demonstrate at the conclusion of undergraduate and graduate programs. Evidence-based policy is another major theme that continues in this edition, but with more emphasis. Throughout the book, authors have provided more depth and breadth to the evidence that undergirds policy issues and potential responses, with the understanding that evidence is necessary, but often not sufficient, for policy change. Indeed, it is the political context of policy change that must be addressed for success in many policy-related endeavors. As such, individual and community activism continue to be emphasized as ways for nurses and other health professionals to contribute to and lead policy change. New and updated vignettes (called Taking Action) provide real-life examples of such activism. Some of the continuing chapters have new authors with fresh perspectives. Other new content includes: • Using research to advance health and social policies • Highlights of the ACA, with implications for nurses and other health professionals • The politics of advanced practice nursing • Ethical dimensions of policy and politics • The new health insurance exchanges • Patient engagement • Overtreatment • Social Security and women • Women's reproductive health • Public health • Emergency preparedness • Developing families • Dual eligibles • Nurses in boardrooms • Quality and safety in health care • Nurses' work environments • The intersection of technology and health care • Community-based organizations addressing health 55 56 Using the Seventh Edition Using the book as a course text. Faculty will find content in this book that will enhance learning experiences in policy, leadership, community activism, administration, research, health disparities, and other key issues and trends of importance to courses at every educational level. Many of the chapters will help students in clinical courses understand the dynamics of the health system. Students will find chapters that assist them in developing new skills, building a broader understanding of nursing leadership and influence, and making sense of the complex business and financial forces that drive many actions in the health system. The book presents an in-depth view of the issues that impact nurses and suggests a variety of opportunities for nurses to engage in the policy issues about which they care deeply. Using the book in government activities. The unit on policy and politics in the government includes content that will benefit nurses considering running for elective office, seeking a political appointment, and learning to lobby elective officials about health care issues. Using the book in the workplace. Policy problems and political issues abound in nursing workplaces. This book offers critical insights into how to effectively resolve problems and influence workplace policy as well as how to develop politically astute approaches to making changes in the workplace. Using the book in professional organizations. Organizations use the power of numbers. The unit on associations and interest groups will help groups determine strategies for success and how to capitalize on working with other groups through coalitions. Using the book in community activism. With an expanded focus on community advocacy and activism, readers will find information they need to effectively influence remedies to policy problems in their local communities. 57 Acknowledgments In every edition of this book, the co-editors have expressed their sincere gratitude to the many authors who have contributed their time and expertise to write a chapter out of a commitment to furthering the education of nurses and other health professionals on policy and politics. This edition is no exception. We are grateful for the thoughtful contributions of more than 100 authors and hope that readers will learn from them. We are also grateful for the enduring contributions and imprint of the prior co-editors of this book that have made it the leading resource in its field. Susan Talbott was the co-editor on the first edition; Mary Chaffee on the fourth through sixth editions; and Judith Leavitt on the second through sixth editions. We hope that they are pleased with the continued development of the book. We owe a huge debt of thanks to Beth Gardner, the book's editorial manager for this edition. She tracked and managed 92 manuscripts, kept the co-editors moving along, coordinated our communications, and was simply amazingly organized. In the midst of this, she married, pursued a doctoral dissertation, and remained in good humor. Beth, we are grateful for your superb work. We also acknowledge the continuing support of Elsevier and the editorial team that worked with Sandy Clark, including Karen Turner. We are indebted to Clay Broeker, an extraordinary production manager who has worked on the last three editions of the book. Thank you, Clay, for your continued commitment to excellence in publishing. Each of us has some special people to acknowledge. Diana Mason I want to acknowledge my husband, James Ware, for his continued support of my long days of work, including on this book. My thanks, too, for the support I have received from Dean Gail McCain, Graduate Director David Keepnews, Barbara Glickstein, and my colleagues at Hunter College; the Center for Health, Media and Policy; and the City University of New York. Deborah Gardner Undertaking this editing experience would not have been possible without the consistent support of my husband, Dan. I also want to express my great joy in sharing this project with my daughter and colleague, Beth Gardner. I also thank Mary Wakefield, who mentored me through my first experience in writing a policy chapter. As a co-author with her back in 1998, I learned from the best. Last but not least, Judith Leavitt, co-editor of four editions of this text, supported me as an author in other editions and believed I could take on this editing role. Freida Outlaw Special thanks to my husband, Lucius Outlaw, Jr., my greatest supporter; my delightful sons and the two lovely wives and one special woman in their lives; my mother, sister, and her family; my wonderful friends who have been with me from the beginning (BFF Lois Oliver); and my new friends. You are my village. I would like to express my gratitude to Martha Pride, PhD, RN, my psychiatric nursing professor at Berea College, and to Dr. Hattie Bessent and the Minority Fellowship Program for the support and guidance given to me. Eileen O'Grady A heartfelt thanks to Dr. Loretta Ford, founding mother of the nurse practitioner role. Writing a chapter with her is a privilege. We are so fortunate to see true leadership firsthand. She has shown us, with a sparkle in her eye, how to live courageously and be of maximal service. It is fortunate to know somebody so fearless and funny. 58 Thank you to all of those (including each author in this book) who stepped out of the safety of their clinical roles and took a risk to speak out on behalf of better health care in a larger venue. 59 UNIT 1 Introduction to Policy and Politics in Nursing and Health Care OUTLINE Chapter 1 Frameworks for Action in Policy and Politics Chapter 2 An Historical Perspective on Policy, Politics, and Nursing Chapter 3 Advocacy in Nursing and Health Care Chapter 4 Learning the Ropes of Policy and Politics Chapter 5 Taking Action: How I Learned the Ropes of Policy and Politics Chapter 6 A Primer on Political Philosophy Chapter 7 The Policy Process Chapter 8 Health Policy Brief: Improving Care Transitions Chapter 9 Political Analysis and Strategies Chapter 10 Communication and Conflict Management in Health Policy Chapter 11 Research as a Political and Policy Tool Chapter 12 Health Services Research: Translating Research into Policy Chapter 13 Using Research to Advance Health and Social Policies for Children Chapter 14 Using the Power of Media to Influence Health Policy and Politics Chapter 15 Health Policy, Politics, and Professional Ethics 60 CHAPTER 1 61 Frameworks for Action in Policy and Politics Eileen T. O'Grady, Diana J. Mason, Freida Hopkins Outlaw, Deborah B. Gardner “The most common way people give up their power is by thinking they don't have any.” Alice Walker March 31, 2013 marked an important deadline in the implementation of landmark legislation, the Affordable Care Act (ACA)1, also known as Obamacare. By that date those eligible to enroll for insurance coverage through the marketplace had to purchase a plan if they were to avoid a 2015 tax penalty of $95 or 1% of their annual income (whichever was higher). Amid a frenzy of media attention, an estimated 8 million people signed on for coverage during open enrollment—the period between October 2012 and the deadline—exceeding the revised target of 6.5 million (Kennedy, 2014). And the numbers kept increasing, as millions more enrolled in Medicaid or the Children's Health Insurance Program (known as CHIP) (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services [CMS], 2014). Nurses were essential to these enrollments. For example, Adriana Perez, PhD, ANP, RN, an assistant professor at Arizona State University College of Nursing, used her role as president of the Phoenix Chapter of the National Association of Hispanic Nurses to organize town hall meetings with Spanish-speaking state residents to explain the ACA and encourage enrollment among those with a high rate of un- or under-insurance. She also developed a training model in partnership with AARP-Arizona and used it to empower Arizona nurses to educate multicultural communities on the basic provisions of the ACA. Through many such initiatives, the United States reduced the number of uninsured people by over 10 million in 2014; the number is projected to be 20 million by 2016 (Congressional Budget Office [CBO], 2014). However, access to coverage does not necessarily mean access to care, nor does it ensure a healthy population. Health care access means having the ability to receive the right type of care when needed at an affordable price. The U.S. health care system is grounded in expensive, hightech acute care that does not produce the desired outcomes we ought to have and too often damages instead of heals (National Research Council, 2013). Despite spending more per person on health care than any other nation, a comparative report on health indicators by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2013) shows that the United States performs worse than other nations on life expectancy at birth for both men and women, infant mortality rate, mortality rates for suicide and cardiovascular disease, the prevalence of diabetes and obesity in children, and other indicators. In 1999, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) issued a report, To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System, which estimated that health care errors in hospitals were the fifth leading cause of death in the U.S. (IOM, 1999). By 2011, preventable health care errors were estimated to be the third-leading cause of death (Allen, 2013; James, 2013). The ACA includes elements that can begin to create a high-performing health care system, one accountable for the provision of safe care, as well as improved clinical and financial outcomes. It aims to move the health care system in the direction of keeping people out of hospitals, in their own homes and communities, with an emphasis on wellness, health promotion, and better management of chronic illnesses. For example, the ACA uses financial penalties to prod hospitals to reduce 30-day readmission rates. It also provides funding for demonstration projects that improve “transitional care,” services that help patients and their family caregivers to make a smoother transition from hospital or nursing home to their own homes to help reduce preventable hospital readmissions. Based, in part, on research by Mary Naylor, PhD, RN, FAAN, professor of nursing at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, these demonstrations are stimulating creative methods of accountability across health care settings, with most using nurses for care coordination and transitional care providers (CMS, n.d.; Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, n.d.; Naylor et al., 2011). 62 63 Upstream Factors Promoting health requires more than a high-performing health care system. First and foremost, health is created where people live, work, and play. It is becoming clear that one's health status may be more dependent on one's zip code than on one's genetic code (Marks, 2009). Geographic analyses of race and ethnicity, income, and health status repeatedly show that financial, racial, and ethnic disparities persist (Braveman et al., 2010). Individual health and family health are severely compromised in communities where good education, nutritious foods, safe places to exercise, and well-paying jobs are scarce (Halpin, Morales-Suárez-Varela, & Martin-Moreno, 2010). Creating a healthier nation requires that we address “upstream factors”; the broad range of issues, other than health care, that can undermine or promote health (also known as “social determinants of health” or “core determinants of health”) (World Health Organization [WHO], n.d.). Upstream factors promoting health include safe environments, adequate housing, and economically thriving communities with employment opportunities, access to affordable and healthful foods, and models for addressing conflict through dialogue rather than violence. According to Williams and colleagues (2008), the key to reducing and eliminating health disparities, which disproportionately affect racial and ethnic minorities, is to provide effective interventions that address upstream factors both in and outside of health care systems. Upstream factors have a large influence on the development and progression of illnesses (Williams et al., 2008). The core determinants of health will be used to further elucidate and make concrete the wider, more comprehensive set of upstream factors that can improve the health of the nation by reducing disparities. Figure 1-1 depicts the core determinants of health developed by the Canadian Forces Health Services Group. FIGURE 1-1 Surgeon General's Mental Health Strategy: Canadian Forces Health Services Group—An Evolution of Excellence. (From www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-health/surg-gen-mental-health-strategy-ch-2.page.) A focus on such factors is essential for economic and moral reasons. Even in the most affluent nations, those living in poverty have substantially shorter life expectancies and experience more illness than those who are wealthy, with high costs in human and financial terms (Wilkinson & Marmot, 2003). To date however, most of the focus on reducing disparities has been on health policy that addresses access, coverage, cost, and quality of care once the individual has entered the health care system–despite the fact that for more than a decade research has established that most health care problems begin long before people seek medical care (Williams et al., 2008). Thus, changing the paradigm requires knowledge about the political aspects of the social determinates of 64 health and the broader core determinants. Political aspects of the social determinants of health appear in Box 1-1. Box 1-1 Political Aspects of the Social Determinants of Health • The health of individuals and populations is determined significantly by social factors. • The social determinants of health produce great inequities in health within and between societies. • The poor and disadvantaged experience worse health than the rich, have less access to care, and die younger in all societies. • The social determinants of health can be measured and described. • The measurement of the social determinants provides evidence that can serve as the basis for political action. • Evidence is generated and used in a continuous cycle of evidence production, policy development, implementation, and evaluation. • Evidence of the effects of policies and programs on inequities can be measured and can provide data on the effectiveness of interventions. • Evidence regarding the social determinants of health is insufficient to bring about change on its own; political will combined with evidence offers the most powerful strategy to address the negative effects of the social determinants. Adapted from National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2007). The Social Determinants of Health: Developing an Evidence Base for Political Action. Final report to the World Health Organization Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Lead authors: J. Mackenbach, M. Exworthy, J. Popay, P. Tugwell, V. Robinson, S. Simpson, T. Narayan, L. Myer, T. Houweling, L. Jadue, and F. Florenza. The ACA begins to carve out a role for the health care system in addressing upstream factors. For example, the law requires that nonprofit hospitals demonstrate a “community benefit” to receive federal tax breaks. Hospitals must conduct a community health assessment, develop a community health improvement plan, and partner with others to implement it. This aligns with a growing emphasis on population health: the health of a group, whether defined by a common disease or health problem or by geographic or demographic characteristics (Felt-Lisk & Higgins, 2011). Consider the 11th Street Family Health Services. Located in an underserved neighborhood in North Philadelphia, this federally qualified, nurse-managed health center (NMHC) was the brainchild of public health nurse Patricia Gerrity, PhD, RN, FAAN, a faculty member at Drexel University School of Nursing. She recognized that the leading health problems in the community were diabetes, obesity, heart failure, and depression. Working with a community advisory group, Gerrity realized that the health center had to address nutrition as an “upstream factor” that could improve the health of those living in the community. With no supermarket in the neighborhood until 2011, she invited area farmers to come to the neighborhood as part of a farmers' market. She also created a community vegetable garden maintained by the local youth. And area residents were invited to attend nutrition classes on culturally relevant, healthful cooking. 11th Street Family Health Services is one of over 200 NMHCs in the United States that have improved clinical and financial outcomes by addressing the needs of individuals, families, and communities (American Academy of Nursing, n.d., b). The ACA authorizes continued support for these centers, although the law does not mandate they be funded. Congress would have to appropriate funding for NMHCs but has not done so. (See Chapter 34 for a more detailed discussion of NMHCs.) The ACA may not go far enough in shifting attention to the health of communities and populations. One approach gaining notice is that of “health in all policies,” the idea that policymakers consider the health implications of social and economic policies that focus on other sectors, such as education, community development, tax codes, and housing (Leppo et al., 2013; 65 Rudolph et al., 2013). As health professionals who focus on the family and community context of the patients they serve, nurses can help to raise questions about the potential health impact of public policies. 66 Nursing and Health Policy Health policy affects every nurse's daily practice. Indeed, health policy determines who gets what type of health care, when, how, from whom, and at what cost. The study of health policy is an indispensable component of professional development in nursing, whether it is undertaken to advance a healthier society, promote a safer health care system, or support nursing's ability to care for people with equity and skill. Just as Florence Nightingale understood that health policy held the key to improving the health of poor Londoners and the British military, so are today's nurses needed to create compelling cases and actively influence better health policies at every level of governance. With national attention focused on how to transform health care in ways that produce better outcomes and reduce health care costs, nursing has an unprecedented opportunity to provide proactive and visionary leadership. Indeed, the Institute of Medicine's landmark report, The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health (2011), calls for nurses to be leaders in redesigning health care. But will nurses rise to this occasion? Health care opinion leaders in a 2010 poll identified two reasons nurses would fall short of influencing health care reform: too many nurses do not want to lead, and with over 120 national organizations, nursing often fails to present a united front (Gallup, 2010). As the largest health care profession, nursing has great potential power. Yet, similar to many professions, it has struggled to collaborate within its ranks or with other groups on pressing issues of health policy. The IOM report has provided a rallying point for nursing organizations to work together and engage other stakeholders to advance its recommendations. 67 Reforming Health Care The Triple Aim In 2008, Don Berwick, MD, and his colleagues at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) first described the Triple Aim of a value-based health care system (Berwick, Nolan, & Whittington, 2008): (1) improving population health, (2) improving the patient experience of care, and (3) reducing per capita costs. This framework aligns with the aims of the Affordable Care Act. The Triple Aim represents a balanced approach: by examining a health care delivery problem from all three dimensions, health care organizations and society can identify system problems and direct resources to activities that can have the greatest impact. Looking at each of these dimensions in isolation prevents organizations from discovering how a new objective, decreasing readmission rates to improve quality and reduce costs, for instance, could negatively impact the third goal of population health, as scarce community resources are directed to acute care transitions and unintentionally shifted away from prevention activities. Solutions must also be evaluated from these three interdependent dimensions. The Triple Aim compels delivery systems and payors to broaden their focus on acute and highly specialized care toward more integrated care, including primary and preventive care (McCarthy & Klein, 2010). The IHI (n.d.) identified these components of any approach seeking to achieve the Triple Aim: • A focus on individuals and families • A redesign of primary care services • Population health management • A cost-control platform • System integration and execution Note that these possess the goal of creating a high-performing health care system but do not focus on geographic communities or social determinants per se. However, these two concepts can be incorporated into the Triple Aim of improving the health of populations and reducing health care costs. The Triple Aim is easy to understand but challenging to implement because it requires all providers, including nurses, to broaden their focus from individuals to populations. The success of the nursing profession's continued evolution will hinge on its ability to take on new roles, more cogently and creatively engaging with patients and stepping into executive and leadership roles in every sector of heath care. But it must do so within an interprofessional context, leading efforts to break down health professions' silos and hierarchies and keeping the patient and family at the center of care. The ACA and Nursing The ACA is arguably the most significant piece of social legislation passed in the United States since the enactment of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. Implementation continues to be a vexing process and a political flashpoint. It has defined the ideologies of U.S. political parties, and yet the public remains largely uninformed and misinformed about the legislation; 3 years after its passage, 4 out of 10 Americans were still unaware of many of its provisions and unsure that the ACA had become law (The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2013). (Chapter 19 provides a thorough description of the ACA.) The ACA is ov...
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Running head: ASSIGNMENT 2


Assignment 2



Assignment 2

Role of media in disease prevention programs in Florida
The media helps in providing insight to the people of Florida, especially on health
matters as it outlines the various effects of consumption of harmful products like tobacco
(Strekalova & Damiani, 2018). It is worth noting that the media helps in educating the public on
various health matters which would affect their lives. Moreover, the media helps in fostering
campaigns aimed at providing education to the people to help them make viable decisions about
their lifestyles.
Public health issue
Chronic care policy aims at ensuring that patients with chronic disorders receive quality
care. Social media plays a vital role in promoting the chronic care policy as it advocates for the
implementation of the policy to the latter to ensure that patients with chronic diseases receive the
best care (Gardner et al, 2016). Additionally, social media assists in s...

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