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## Explanation & Answer

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Ions Practice

Every atom is made up of 3 subatomic particles: protons (p+), neutrons (n0) and electrons (e-).

Figure out how many of each are in an atom is pretty straight forward once you get the hang of

it. The easiest number to figure out is the protons. The number of protons is what defines the

identity of an element. The number of protons will be the same as the atomic number of the

element. The number of neutrons can be determined using the atomic mass. The atomic mass

is equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons. The number of electrons can

be a little more difficult to figure out. If the atom has no charge, the protons will equal

electrons. If what you are dealing with is an ion, then the overall charge is equal to the number

of protons minus the number of electrons. That means if you have a positive ion, it will have

more protons than electrons. A negative ion has more electrons than protons.

Atomic number = p+

Atomic mass = p+ + n0

Charge = p+ - e-

1. Here you are given 2 atoms in isotope notation. In isotope notation, the atomic mass is

the number given at the top, with the atomic number given on the bottom. Sometimes

you will see isotope notation, with just the mass number.

Let’s start by figuring out the number of protons, since both are the same number the number

of protons will be the same.

p+ = 27

Then we can determine the number of neutrons, by subtracting the number of protons from

the mass. The mass is again the same in both atoms, so the number of neutrons will be equal.

n0 = 59 – 27 = 32

Finally determine the number of electrons. In the first atom, it will equal the number of

protons. In the other set up the equation and solve for electrons.

+2 = 27 – e-25 = -ee- = 25

59/27 Co: p+ = 27, n0 = 32, e- = 27

59/27 Co^2+: p+ = 27, n0 = 32, e- = 25

2. This time you are asked just for protons and electrons, you will have to look up the

atomic numbers on the periodic table to get the number of protons.

Fe: p+ = 26, e- = 26

Ca^2+: p+ = 20, e- = 18

3. This question asks only about the electrons, but in order to determine that you would

first have to find the protons. However only the electrons are needed for the answer.

O^2- : e- = 10

Mn^4+ : e- = 21

4. The number of protons will just be the atomic number. Charges only influence the

number of electrons.

Zn: p+ = 30

N^5+: p+ = 7

5. This time we are essentially working backwards by using the subatomic particles to

determine the nuclear symbol. This would be the isotope notation with both t...