level of measurement—
nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio—is
used in the following examples.
The Association of Accountants is conducting a
survey to determine the ranking of the top 100 accounting firms in the world.
How many years did it take you to earn your
On a questionnaire which asks for gender, males
are coded as 1 and females are coded as 2.
Respondents are asked to rate a list of
high-tech companies as excellent, good, fair, or poor in terms of
their service delivery.
Cereal brands are arranged in an ordered
sequence in which an equal interval exists between each point.
LeBron James wears the number 23 on his jersey.
The length of time it takes the winner of a
marathon to cross the finish line.
Students are asked to rank computer
The brand of charge card used by a customer.
The pin number used to access your checking
random, systematic, stratified, cluster, convenience, judgment, quota, or
appropriate for the following examples?
The unemployment rate is calculated each month
by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The survey consists of 50,000
households in about 2,000 counties and cities in all 50 states.
A researcher for Kraft Foods selects five states
randomly, and then selects 10 supermarkets chains within each state to call for
a phone survey as test markets for a new cookie.
A new product researcher would like to
investigate the use of virtual teams. After conducting an interview with a
manager, she asks for the names of other managers that use virtual teams.
A news reporter asks people on the street their
opinion about the president’s new bill.
Jamie select Denver, Colorado; Chicago,
Illinois; and San Diego, California as test markets for a new potato chip line
base on her experience with these markets.
A researcher instructs field interviewers to
interview customers of different cell phone companies in a nearby shopping mall
so that they each interview 10 AT&T, 8 T Mobile, 6 Verizon, and 4 owners of
other cell phone providers.
The Consumer Price Index represents a sampling
of 90,000 items from 364 categories, chosen from 20,000 retail stores in 85
geographically distributed areas that are chosen to be as similar as possible.
A finance professor wants to know how many MBA
students would be willing to take a course in international finance this
summer. She surveys students in the class she is currently teaching.
hypothesis-testing procedure would you use in the following situations?
The mean time an American family lives in a
particular single-family dwelling is 11.8 years. A sample of 100 families in
the Sycamore, OK area shows the mean time living in a single family residence
is 12.7 years. Can we conclude that the time people live in Sycamore is
significantly more than the national average?
A researcher would like to know if there is a
significant difference in clothing purchases between full-time working women,
part-time working women, and women who are homemakers.
Eighty percent of those who play the state
lottery never win more than $100 in one play. A sample of 500 players was drawn
and the mean winning was $125.
A drug manufacturing company conducted a survey
of customers. The research question was as follows: Is there a significant
relationship between packaging preference (size of the bottle purchased) and
economic status? There were four packaging sizes: small, medium, large, and
jumbo. Economic status was categorized as follows: lower, middle, and upper.
A company has 24 salespeople. The test must
evaluate whether their product knowledge has improved or remained unchanged
after a training program.
A computer company has a brand loyalty rating of
6.8 on a 7 point scale. Is this company’s rating significantly different from
the industry average of 6.4?
The manager of an office supply store wanted to
determine which color folders she should discontinue based on low sales. The
colors stocked were black, blue, red, green, and purple.