Your responses should be substantive, which means that you
should provide a significant level of detail in your reply and show
active engagement by referencing the readings, drawing on your own
experiences, giving your opinions, respectfully disagreeing where
appropriate or asking questions designed to generate further discussion
on the material and its implications outside the realm of the
question. Please help with a responsive response to the following postings: Only 150 words per questionswith citations please.
In the article: The Distorting Mirror of Hell, it
explains how Dante's world exist. Everyone has a particular role,
destination and fate because he believes that nothing happens by chance.
With this thinking evil
must exist also and be handled differently so that every soul and
receive it rewards and this is why Hell exist. Hell exists to punish
those who sin and justice triumphs. It is Gods power that puts people to
article explains to us how humans are the only beings that are capable
of salvation and are able to understand the language of that saints in
paradise. At the same time this means that humans must bear all
responsibility and for their sins and punishments. I believe that this
article does show the theme of good verse's evil because it explains how
people are rewarded for doing what they are put on the Earth for and
those who act out against God's will will be punished.
are several divisions and circles which are determined by the type of
sin committed. Sins are categorized according to their severity and
include, lust, murder,
fraud, taking bribe among others mainly depending on the level of
opposition from God’s will that we treat each other with the love he
extends to us as individuals. For instance, a sin punished in the Eighth
Circle of Hell, such as accepting a bribe, should
be considered worse than a sin punished in the Sixth Circle of Hell,
such as murder (Dante, White & Doré, 1948).
Three sins: Taking a bribe: Taking bribe makes someone become fraudulent and this affects care and love.
Lust: This is where a person desires someone else's property and may steal or cheat to get what they want.
Murder: This is one of the most sinful of sins because it ends
someone's life without God's will and that person cannot fulfill their
Hede, J. (2008). Jews and muslims in dante's vision.: European Review, 16(1), 101 – 114. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1062798708000112
This is an article about a man by the name
of Dante. Dante considered himself a medieval Christian, and his duties
were that of a spiritual adviser. Dante traveled through the nine stages
of hell, he saw first hand the levels of
sin, and he wanted to forewarn the people of their actions and its
consequences. In this writing, Dante speaks of the good and evil between
the righteous Christian and the corrupted Christian. Dante viewed Jews
and Muslims as cultural groups who were shown
the right path to Christianity, but each rejected the lifestyle and
beliefs of a righteous Christian. Though Dante saw himself as a
Christian, he saw the Jews and Muslims as non-Christians. Dante used his
life as a Christian to generalize the lifestyle of
all Christians; regardless of cultural background or religious beliefs.
Dante's personal bias towards the Jews and Muslims always led him to
place them beneath the religious standings of himself.
This journal article has a clearly
identified author with appropriate credentials. Jesper Hede holds a PhD
in European Studies and an MA in Italian and Medieval Studies. He has
authored articles such as: Printed in the United kingdom
Jews and Muslims in Dante's Vision, Ranking Types of Reading:
Descriptive and Epic Readings in Dante Studies, Dante's Exegetical
Pattern of Thoughts, Northern Time Travel in the Eighteenth Century, and
Unity and Difference in Dante's Universal Vision, to name
a few. In Denmark, at the University of Aarhus, Hede's doctoral
dissertation is on comparative literature and the history of rhetoric.
At the University of Copenhagen, Hede is Faculty of Humanities, and he
also serves as the head of deans.
According to The Inferno,
fraud is considered the worst sin. In the nine circles of hell, fraud
is ranked as the eighth (VIII) circle. What has been explained about the
nine circles of hell
is that the larger circles closest to the top are minor sins, and they
are in a position closest to heaven, and the smaller circles near the
bottom are major sins, and they are in a position closest to the pits of
hell. The circle of fraud has ten areas within
itself: (1) panderers and seducers, (2) flatterers, (3) simony, (4)
sorcerers, astrologers, and false profits, (5) barrators, (6)
hypocrites, (7) thieves, (8) fraudulent advisers, (9) those who promoted
social discord, and (10) falsifiers (South University
Online, 2014). Fraud is the complete opposite of God's love; for it
involves malicious acts. Three additional sins which contrast with God's
love are: Circle III: Gluttony, a lesser sin whereas man finds greater
pleasures in overindulging in eating, drinking,
and intoxicants, than in the love for God; Circle VII: Violence, a
greater sin whereas man becomes the taker of life and/or property, while
God is the giver of such life and property; and circle IX: Treason, a
sin whereas man has betrayed the love and trust
of those closest to him. While God has given mankind the gift of love,
man will take advantage of such a gift for his own personal gain.
is the third largest circle descending into the pits of hell. Gluttony
is not oftentimes viewed as a sin against God, but it is. To overindulge
in anything is a sign of
greed. Gluttony also reflects an area of importance. “Whose end is
destruction, whose god is their appetite, and whose glory is in their
shame, who set their minds on earthly things” (Philippians 3: 19 New
American Standard Bible). It is said, whatever a man
treasures the most becomes his god. “And he to me: Remember now your
science, which says that when a thing has more perfection, so much the
greater is its pain or pleasure” “Inferno, Canto 6.106). In the Inferno,
gluttons were blinded, they lived in filth,
and they endured a constant cold rain. This was a replica of their
VII: Violence, a sin I thought should have ranked in the ninth circle.
Violence against others, self, or property is a serious crime; far worst
than fraud or treason. God
is the giver of life, and He gave ten commandments for man to obey.
“Thou shall not kill” (Exodus 20:13 NIV). In the Inferno,
one who committed a violent act endured an
eternal life of fire storms and blood boiling rivers; rivers filled
with the blood they shed and their own. “Despondency was bursting from
their eyes; this side, then that, their hands kept fending off, at times
the flame, at times the burning soil:” (Inferno,
Canto 17.46). Each and everyday they were tortured as they tortured.
IX: Treason, the sin closest to the pits of hell. Though betraying
someone in close relationship is wrong, I believe violence and wrath are
far worst. Treason should have
ranked at circle five. To betray someone interferes with trust, in some
cases, betrayal has led to death/murder. In the event of death/murder,
this act range amongst violence. “The very tongue that first had wounded
me, sending the color up in both my cheeks,
was then to cure me with its medicine” (Inferno, Canto 31.1). In the Inferno,
treason is not considered the worst sin, but rather close to the worst
sin (fraud). Jesus
was betrayed by one of His disciples. “And Judas went to the chief
priests and the officers of the temple guards and discussed with them
how he might betray Jesus” (Luke 22: 4 New International Version). Judas
betrayed Jesus by handing Him over to His killers
to die on the cross.
Thank you for your help as I am having difficulty.