Chamberlain College of Nursing Nursing History Discussion

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Health Medical

Chamberlain College of Nursing


Hello, good afternoon. I need assistance with responding to two initial post for my Nursing History Class

This is the first post that needs a response:

Professor and Class,
The introduction of the Nurse Practitioner in the 1960s has been a significant change in nursing, as well as healthcare in general. Loretta Ford, along with her peer, introduced a Nurse Practitioner program in 1965 (Judd & Sitzman, 2014). The program was needed to assist primary care physicians that could not care for all who needed medical services. The addition of the Nurse Practitioner or Clinical Nurse Specialists allowed nurses to practice with much more autonomy. With more autonomy came an increase in responsibility and authority (Judd & Sitzman, 2014). By the 1970s the programs had escalated and were focused on clinical specialties, teaching or administration (Kalisch & Kalisch, 1995). Becoming a Nurse Practitioner requires a master’s degree or even a doctoral for those who want to further their career. There are over 234,000 nurse practitioners licensed in the United States( Nurse practitioners are increasingly playing a key role in Healthcare today. I currently work with two Nurse Practitioners that are vital to department. At times they are caring for twice the number of patients as our physicians. They are respected by the staff and the patients they care for. With the increasing population and the increasing need for healthcare providers, the Nurse Practitioner is essential in healthcare today.

Judd, D., & Sitzman, K. (2014). A History of American Nursing: Trends and Eras. Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. P. 233

Kalisch, P. A., & Kalisch, B. J. (1995). The advance of American nursing (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: J. B. Lippincott. 

This is the second post that needs a response:

This week’s lesson and readings highlighted some awesome advancements in medicine. I enjoyed reading about the development of penicillin for medical use in 1945, The start of the ADN programs in 1952, and the development of the polio vaccine that was distributed starting in 1955 (Judd & Sitzman, 2014). However, that event that I want to focus on was barely mentioned in the text and was not mentioned in the lesson. Virginia Apgar was a physician that focused her research in Obstetrics and in 1953 she introduced Apgar scoring to assess the health of newborns (Tan & Davis, 2018). At that time infant mortality rates had dropped overall but the rate remained unchanged for the first 24 hours after birth (Tan & Davis, 2018). While the medical professions at the deliveries could tell which babies were in distress or distress was imminent she carefully formulated a series of significant objective observations into the Apgar score (Tan & Davis, 2018). The Apgar score “assessed how well a newborn was doing in five areas (i.e. color, heart rate, reflex response, muscle tone, and respiratory effort) using a reverse acronym or backronym: Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration” (Tan & Davis, 2018). Each item is assigned a number 0, 1, or 2; with 0 being the worst and 2 the best and a total score of 10 being perfect (Tan & Davis, 2018). According to Judd and Sitzman Apgar scoring is still used in delivery rooms today (2014). In my experience, Apgar scoring is done primarily by nurses. I have used this tool, as a labor nurse and believe it has made a difference in saving the lives of many neonates.


Judd, D., & Sitzman, K. (2014). A History of American Nursing: Trends and Eras. Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.

Tan, S. Y., & Davis, C. A. (2018). Virginia Apgar (1909–1974): Apgar score innovator. Singapore Medical Journal, 395-396. 

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Explanation & Answer


Response 1
Nursing practitioners (NPs) are licensed independent clinicians who focus on managing patient's
health conditions and also preventing diseases. In some cases, nursing practitioners specialize by
the population of the patients, including adult-gerontological, women's health, cardiovascular,
oncology, dermatology, and pediatric. The role of nursing has steadily been evolving since 1965
since it was introduced. NPs are overseen by an APRN consensus model that has a set of rules
and regulations that outline the accredited education, preparation, certification, and licensure that
are a requirement before becoming a nurse practitioner. Nursing practitioners provide quality
services to their patients as there is fewer hospital readmission, high patients satisfaction, lower
unnecessary ER visits, and h...

Excellent! Definitely coming back for more study materials.


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