First quarterly writing (Conflict & Negotiations)


Question Description

I need 4 paragraph based on the first 4 chapter of the book called Kellett, P. M. (2007). Conflict dialogue: Working with layers of meaning for productive relationships, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. I have uploaded the instruction for the writing as well. Also I've uploaded slides for all 4 chapters.

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Instructions : Each quarterly writing should directly respond to its prompt. I will post each prompt on the class’s D2L newsfeed and reiterate each in class. Each quarterly writing needs to be typed, single-spaced, free of spelling and grammar errors, and should use Times New Roman 12 pin font and standard margins. Each quarterly writing should be FOUR robust paragraphs** in length (see What constitutes a robust paragraph). Use the APA format to cite in-the-text-of-your-paper all outside source material, including the textbook and supplemental readings. Include a proper works cited page (it can appear beneath your writing on the same page). Each quarterly writing must be submitted on D2L. Quarterly writings will not be accepted after their deadline. I do not accept course assignments via email. Late work is never accepted. Make-up work is never offered. Each quarterly writing is to be an original work by you. Do not recycle work or writing from another class or this class. Avoid plagiarism as well. Such behavior constitutes academic dishonesty. Academic dishonesty will be treated very seriously. See the section Academic dishonesty for further clarification as well as for guidance in avoiding plagiarism. Chapter 1: Stories and the meaning of conflict Good stories generate good questions – xi The stories we tell…guide and direct the way we feel, think, and act: stories constitute – 3 Story can be better than direct observation – 4 Conflict is often about specific disputes and deeper relational themes or issues – 4 Specific behavior/disputes often are symbolic – 6 We have access to the meaning of conflicts through the stories people tell: stories reflect – 6 Conflict = patterns and cycles of expression between “interdependent people who perceive incompatibility and the possibility of interference from others as a result of this incompatibility” – 6-7 A good conflict story has/does… – 6-7 A good conflict story speaks to… – 12 Carolyn Ellis’ criteria for personal narratives – 13-14 Stories are people’s efforts to communicate the meaning of experience to themselves and often an audience: stories are spun – 14 Guidelines on meaning/interpretation of stories for the narrative researcher – 15-18 The meaning of the conflict in its fullest form is the relationship between all of the issues and the interaction that occurs in the conflict, as well as the possibilities for alternative approaches and where they might take the participants – 16 Much depends on your ability to move beyond the existing story/stories to explore and imagine and perhaps manage the conflict through the development of a new story – 17 Stories can close down dialogue or open up its possibility – 17 Telling the story should lead to understanding for the person narrating it as well as those listening to it (e.g., aha moments): stories can illuminate – 17 Learning how to tell the conflict stories you want to tell (cf. sociological imagination) – 18 The challenges and opportunities of meaning for the narrative researcher – 19-24 People often do not have a clear picture of what they are fighting about on a thematic or symbolic level – 20 Perhaps we should approach meaning in terms of probability rather than assuming that we can definitively state what it is about (cf. smart guesswork) – 20 One of the best things that we can do as interpretive researchers is to bring to light how communication and meaning interrelate and use this as the basis for discussing how new meanings might be shaped through communication so that people can live and work together more effectively and peacefully – 21 Apotelesma/being telesmatic: reflective insight into what our talk accomplishes, what it limits, and how alternative talk might accomplish different things – 21-22 A multifaceted sense of the truth and tolerance – 22-23 Systemic intelligence – 23-24 Patterns: echo, repeating, convergence, metamorphic, transformative – 23-24 To seek part of the meaning of a conflict in the background of behavior and as a manifestation of underlying forces and factors is the basis of interpretive understanding – 23-24 How to collect/generate narrative data – 26-28 Real dialogue begins with narrative honesty – 27 Hammersley’s + Bochner & Eisenberg’s criteria for useful narratives – 28 Conflicts are about expressing and working with differences in meaning – 30 The key to getting started as a narrative researcher of conflict is to appreciate the complex challenge of documenting, representing, and discovering the meaning of conflicts – 30 Chapter 2: From meaning—to dialogic negotiation—to new meaning The struggle of our time is to build the practices of working together. This is the hope of a dialogic theory of communication – 32 The thing being fought over is often, for us, far less important than the symbolic meaning of the conflict (i.e., its deeper, more personal meaning) – 33 Most often, conflicts are about both tangible and symbolic meanings – 34 Often, conflict is about different and opposing meaning for the same behavior – 34 It is, therefore, of utmost importance to understand the rich interplay of the layers of meaning in a conflict, both for understanding it and knowing how to manage it effectively, as it can often be a multilayered, multidimensional dispute with multiple meanings – 34 Expectations, life scripts, roles, and goals – 38-39 The basic function and meaning of being together: why are we together and what are we after? – 40 Dynamics, stages, and cycles/patterns – 40-41 Part I: Analyzing the meaning of the conflict: Description, reduction, interpretation – 42-45 Uncovering the layers of meaning that form the structure beneath the surface – 43 Try to reduce the list of symbolic, deeper issues discovered in your description to the essential oppositions between these people on central themes that are under the surface of this conflict – 44 Also identify issues and themes you think the participants may be connected to more than this conflict illustrates – 44 Come to a plausible account of why the conflict happened and why it happened as it did – 44 Part II: Developing dialogic negotiation strategies – 46-53 Dialogue in conflict happens when people engage with each other’s perspectives in meaningful ways and that they allow the process of talking to generate both their shared understanding of their personal meanings of the conflict and the most collaborative solution that is possible for them – 46 The basis of collaborative negotiation is that negotiators approach differences as opportunities to engage in reasoned discussion that focuses on shared understanding that serves as the basis for agreements – 46 Exchange concessions and demands; negotiation exchanges – 46 Good questions are those that are designed to get all of the people in the conflict to think critically about their own behavior and related meanings in the conflict and to promote open and equal discussion between them – 49 Questions should also stimulate recognition of the needs and negotiation goals of the others – 49 Win-win solutions – 49-50 A systemic analysis can lead to a more commonly understood version of the conflict – 51 Dialogue is usually marked by emergent meanings that may not have existed or been conscious to the participants before the talking began – 52 What you are doing as you bring people together to solve conflicts is (a) inviting each of them to present the story of the conflict that represents their version of events, (b) encouraging them to question their own and each other’s stories of the conflict; and (c) developing a new story from the exchange of demands and concessions that are based on their ideal and acceptable solutions – 52 It is much more difficult to see opportunities when one is locked into the conflict and focused on differences and oppositions – 53 Part III: Using meaning to build lasting conflict communication skills – 53 Three dialectical tensions that generate dialogic energy – 57-58 Meaning is fluid, flexible, partisan, obscured, changing, multileveled, and multifaceted – 60 Interpretation is fraught with important issues and caveats – 60 Chapter 3: Language as the fabric of conflict—and the foundation for dialogic negotiation My speech surprises me and teaches me my thoughts – 61 If our talk can surprise us, then perhaps we can make choices that have surprising and constructive results for all of the participants in the conflict – 62 Central or overarching image/metaphor – 62 Language intensity, energy, and meaning – 64-71 Intense, emotional language can actually be productive for the conflict – 66-67 Less dramatic forms of nonverbal communication (e.g., avoidance) may also show the intensity of feelings in a conflict – 67 Hateful language shows a vibrant intensity in the perceived oppositions between people in a conflict – 68 There is a balance between intensity of emotion and reasoned discussion that, if done well, is ideal dialogic negotiation – 69 If the conflict starts to center around one meaning, this focus will move the conflict in particular escalatory spirals that will reduce the level of reasonableness between people – 69 The twofold relationship of language and meaning: The meaning of a conflict structures the language and the intensity of the language that is used in it. At the same time, the language that is available to us and that we habitually choose to engage in conflict with also structures the dynamics and end result of those conflicts – 71 Metaphors, imagery, and symbolic fabric of conflict – 71-77 The language we use to engage in conflict and to represent those processes and experiences in narrative form provides a concrete way of bringing to mind and expressing and constituting and perhaps further guiding the meaning and dynamics of the conflict – 71 Being able to express through metaphor, imagery, and other vivid language the depth and intensity of our experience for both ourselves and others is a crucial dialogic skill – 71 At the same time that language provides a vivid and evocative fabric through which to create and represent conflicts, it may also limit our expression and perhaps even structures our experience of a conflict in important ways – 72 The enabling/creative and constraining/limiting functions of language – 73 It might be possible to use vivid and evocative language to create alternatives going forward – 73 Very often the images used also contain and connect to the desire for a different or oppositional image 73 Speech, silence, and the possibility for dialogue – 77-83 Silence intersects with language in some important ways for us – 77-78 In everyday life, we feel comfortable most of the time because we know what to say – 77-78 Silence is richly informative in that at once it reveals the constraints of language, the limitations of the people in the conflict, and the underlying or hidden possibilities for alternative forms of talk that might be more productive between them – 78 In the silence are the choices not made and clues to the reasons why – 79 This is a crucial aspect of silence—the things surrounding the conflict that are not so much in it (e.g., contextual and personal constraints, limitations, motives) but which might nonetheless have a strong influence on choices made – 79 Dialogic negotiation tactics include trying to see and acknowledge the perspective of the other, allowing each other to express themselves fully, allowing the interaction to emerge and evolve toward mutually beneficial solutions, and acknowledging and working from the foundation of commonalities and shared interests – 93 If you tend to use the language of war to structure how you think about, act, and make sense of your conflicts with others (or with very specific people), then perhaps you can step back from that and ask some good questions about why this is the case – 93 The way that we use language in conflicts necessarily means that certain choices are not made – 93 I encourage you to express yourself as fully as possible in your conflicts, invite others to do the same, and at the same time, explore and play with the creative opportunities that language embodies for all of us. This ideal is at the heart of our goal—that you use meaning and an understanding of how meaning systems, such as language, are used and can be used for managing conflicts more effectively, perhaps in ways that surprise everyone involved – 94 Chapter 4: We belong together but we still have conflict: Negotiating synchronicity in relationships Synchronicity has to do with the belief that people are brought together with us into relationships by forces or circumstances that are unexplainably beyond chance and therefore meant to be – 98 The work of maintaining and consciously evolving a relationship through communication – 98 Synchronicity occurs when there is a perceived connection between events and people in relationships that cannot be explained by chance; these momentous events are deeply symbolic in that they are connections between the often unconscious desires of people and their interpretation of events in the outside world – 99 Conflicts can be difficult, and they can also be opportunities for growth and learning – 99 Deeper thematic conflict issues – 100 Effective/ineffective balance of boundaries, expectations, and appropriate role behavior – 100 The conflict may provide metacommunication by pointing to and talking about deeper issues and the tensions that result as they manifest in the participants’ daily lives together – 100 The conflict’s narration may point to framings (e.g., construction of a relationship as…) – 100 Step 1: Describe the specific conflicts that are a part of the everyday relationship—i.e., the present and tangible nature of the interaction/communication/conflict Step 2: Reduce these conflicts to the more symbolic or thematic issues that these surface conflicts point to—i.e., what this conflict symbolizes and/or centers upon Step 3: Interpret how these surface conflicts are interconnected around a core set of meanings that divide the participants and show them to be in opposition—i.e., what is the basis for this this conflict, which is largely unstated in the surface conflicts; what is getting in the way here; where might it go; how can it be different/more shared – 102+ Stuck in an angry mode of saying something symbolically through metacommunication but not really saying it – 104 An instance where conflict played a symbolic and tangible role in creating the experience of relational fusion—the coming together into a well-balanced relationship—where the timing seemed perfect – 110 Graveside dialogues – 110+ Absent, mistimed, or misplaced expressions of love – 110-111 Misalignment generates conflict when conversations that need to happen and conflicts that need to be expressed remain hidden or muted – 111 The presence of conflict is often symbolically expressive of a lack of something more connective and fulfilling that might have happened at a given moment but did not – 111 Conflicts are often ways of symbolically working with things you would have done differently— sometimes called “the woulda-coulda-shoulda experience”—within the conflict is expressed a deeper sense of loss and a desire to have done something in a different way – 111 Conflict as an expression of absence – 111 Asynchronous love – 113 Relationships that seem to be born of perfect moments of synchronicity often leave little room for the necessary discussion of differences and asymmetries that can grow and threaten them – 114 The need to constantly negotiate change in relationships – 114 Relationships and their meaning for us are organic and ever-evolving things in which changes are often achieved and expressed through conflicts—especially if handled through dialogic negotiation – 114 Conflict often serves the creative functions of (1) forcing partners into a different relational definition and understanding and (2) allowing relational partners to express built-up tension and resentments that show that things have changed – 114 Rebalance the dialectical tensions and meaningful themes that define the terms of the new relationship – 115 Being united despite differences v. being divided by differences – 117 Conflict ought to be a perfectly normal part of the ongoing and ever-changing work of trying to discover and maintain balance or symmetry in relationships – 120 Conflict provides valuable clues or windows into relationships in a variety of ways that can be useful in understanding deeper themes or issues and as good starting points for dialogue and negotiation – 120 Conflict can constrain, balance, question, and rebalance the dynamics of relationship – 120 ...
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Tutor Answer

School: Purdue University


Running head: CHAPTERS 1-4


Chapter 1-4



Conflicts management requires mutual understanding which is facilitated by effective
communication between conflicting parties (Hassanzadeh, 2010). Peter M. Kellet author of the
book “Conflict Dialogue: Working with layers of meaning for productive relationships” addresses
real-life stories and how they contribute to conflict resolution. In chapter one, the author
emphasizes the importance of analyzing conflict stories to deduce its meaning and gain insights
on personal experiences told in a given story. According to, Peter one needs to identify the meaning
of conflicts to be in a position to collect viable data from a story (Kellett). Having a prior
understanding of the meaning of conflict enables one to create a connection between a conflict
story. A good conflict story according to him must exhibit interdependence, communication, and
inferences towards interconnected people entangled in the conflict. Moreover, a good conflict story
provides deeper meaning and patterns relating to disputing parties. In regards to written materials,
the author argues that the narrative should be pointed out as the source of conflict by focusing

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