Discussion post on Hume

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Question Description


Read David Hume, An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, Sections I-II and the first three paragraphs of Appendix I (pp. 152-162 and 179-181 in the course text).


What is David Hume's main argument in this week's reading? Make sure you quote from the text! Further, what do you think? Do you make your ethical decisions/choices based on your emotions or your thoughts? Give an example from your life and/or any significant news story that has taken place in the last week, that either proves or disproves David Hume's position. Make sure you cite your sources.


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Paracelsus (Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, 1493–1541) Aries Book Series Texts and Studies in Western Esotericism Editor Wouter J. Hanegraaff Editorial Board Jean-Pierre Brach Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke Advisory Board Roland Edighoffer – Antoine Faivre Olav Hammer – Andreas Kilcher Arthur McCalla – Monika Neugebauer-Wölk Marco Pasi – Mark Sedgwick – Jan Snoek Michael Stausberg – Kocku von Stuckrad György Sz,/onyi – Garry Trompf VOLUME 5 Paracelsus (Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, 1493–1541) Essential Theoretical Writings Edited and translated with a Commentary and Introduction by Andrew Weeks LEIDEN • BOSTON 2008 The cover design is a detail from the oldest image of the city of St. Gall, a woodcut by Heinrich Vogtherr (ca. 1545) printed in the Grosse Schweizerchronik of Johann Stumpf, Zurich 1547–48, reproduced with the permission of the Vadianische Sammlung, St. Gall. This book is printed on acid-free paper. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A C.I.P. record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISSN 1871-1405 ISBN 978 90 04 15756 9 Copyright 2008 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands. Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Hotei Publishing, IDC Publishers, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers and VSP. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Koninklijke Brill NV provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. printed in the netherlands To Dr. Horst Pfefferl (Director, Weigel Edition) and Dr. Hartmut Rudolph (Director, Leibniz Edition, Potsdam), friends and mentors in a time-honored tradition of textual scholarship PARACELSUS ESSENTIAL THEORETICAL WRITINGS Introduction: ......................................................................................... 1 Background and Summary of the Translated Writings.................... 6 Das Buch Paragranum .................................................................... 8 The First Pillar, Philosophy ........................................................ 10 The Second Pillar, Astronomy.................................................... 11 The Third Pillar, Alchemy .......................................................... 13 The Fourth Pillar, Proprietas or Virtue ...................................... 13 Opus Paramirum ........................................................................... 14 On the Origin and Cause of Diseases............................................ 19 On the Matrix................................................................................. 20 On the Invisible Diseases............................................................... 21 The Significance of Ambiguity ..................................................... 24 Unique and Commonplace Elements............................................. 29 The Objectives of Translation and Commentary ........................... 34 The Procedures for Editing and Translating .................................. 39 Bibliography of Works Consulted in Translating.......................... 47 I. Paragranum: German/ English ....................................................... 61 Preface ...................................................................................... 62/63 The First Foundation of Medicine: Philosophia................... 106/107 The Second Foundation of Medicine: Astronomia ............... 162/163 The Third Foundation of Medicine: Alchimia ...................... 210/211 The Fourth Foundation of Medicine: Proprietas.................. 258/259 II. Opus Paramirum: German/ English ............................................ 297 Book One........................................................................... 298/299 [Caput Primum] .............................................................. 300/301 Caput Secundum ............................................................. 316/317 Caput Tertium................................................................. 330/331 Caput Quartum ............................................................... 342/343 Caput Quintum................................................................ 356/357 Caput Sextum .................................................................. 370/371 Caput Septimum.............................................................. 382/383 Caput Octavum ............................................................... 396/397 viii ANDREW WEEKS Liber Secundus Caput Primum................................................................. 410/411 Caput Secundum ............................................................. 424/425 Caput Tertium................................................................. 446/447 Caput Quartum ............................................................... 456/457 Caput Quintum................................................................ 466/467 Caput Sextum .................................................................. 474/475 Caput Septimum.............................................................. 484/485 Caput Octavum ............................................................... 494/495 Conclusion to Dr. Joachim Watt........................................ 500/501 III. On the Origin and Cause of Diseases of Both Kinds (De Morborum Utriusque Professionis Origine et Causa. Liber Tertius Paramiri): German/ English Preface .................................................................................. 502/503 Tractatus Primus .................................................................. 506/507 Tractatus Secundus............................................................... 528/529 Tractatus Tertius................................................................... 544/545 Tractatus Quartus................................................................. 558/559 Tractatus Quintus ................................................................. 584/585 Tractatus Sextus.................................................................... 604/605 IV. On the Matrix (Paramiri Liber Quartus de Matrice): German/ English..................................................................... 616/617 V. On the Invisible Diseases (De Causis Morborum Invisibilium): German/ English Preface .................................................................................. 720/721 Argumentum.......................................................................... 736/737 Beginning of the First Book on those Things That Befall the Human Being Because of Faith ......................................... 738/739 How Faith Makes the Body Ill........................................... 748/749 Discernment of faith .......................................................... 754/755 On Saint Valentine’s Day Disease..................................... 772/773 On the Diseases that Result in Open Wounds, St. Cyril’s Penance, St. John’s Revenge ....................................... 774/775 On the Natural Burning, Saint Anthony’s Fire .................. 776/777 On Saint Vitus’ Dance ....................................................... 778/780 The Second Book. De Impressionibus Coeli Occulti [missing] TABLE OF CONTENTS ix The Third Book on the Invisible Works ............................... 794/795 Beginning of the Third Book ............................................. 796/797 The Fourth Book on the Invisible Works Preface ............................................................................... 840/841 Beginning of the Fourth Book ........................................... 844/845 The Fifth Book on the Invisible Works Preface ............................................................................... 884/885 Beginning of the [Fifth] Book ........................................... 886/887 General Index ................................................................................... 939 Index of Names ................................................................................ 964 Index of Paracelsus’ Life and Work................................................. 969 Index of Citations from the Bible..................................................... 973 Introduction Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, known as Paracelsus (1493-1541), was one of the most original and prolific authors of sixteenth-century Europe. Commonly remembered as an itinerate physician-surgeon, medical innovator, philosopher of nature, and alchemist, he was also a lay theologian, theorist of the supernatural, and rebel against institutions and traditions. In the course of the 1520s, he challenged academic and urban authorities in Switzerland and South Germany by demanding medical reforms. Rebuffed by his opponents, he continued wandering for the remainder of his life, disseminating as an author, polemicist, and physician his understanding of medicine and nature. He died an obscure death in Salzburg, but before the end of the century his influence had spread, resulting in posthumous partisan controversies between advocates and detractors. Paracelsus wrote prolifically on medicine, philosophy, theology, and a variety of related topics. The modern fourteen-volume Sudhoff edition, based on the Huser edition of 1589, comprises those writings which were not understood as mainly theological: the medical, philosophical, or alchemical writings. The Goldammer edition of theological and social-ethical writings, which is only about half complete, can be expected to surpass the Sudhoff edition in size. The scholarly reception of these works has always faced serious obstacles due to intrinsic ambiguities and unresolved editorial issues, with the result that among the influential authors of his century Paracelsus is perhaps the most difficult to interpret and integrate into an overall understanding of his time. Of all the editions, only Goldammer’s provides firstrate scholarly commentary and notes. The Sudhoff edition is bewildering in its riches, confronting readers with numerous textual variants and fragments without clarifying their relation to the more finished 2 ANDREW WEEKS versions.1 Despite Sudhoff’s splendid achievements, errors such as his misidentification of writings as seminal as of “around 1520,” though later rescinded, cast a long shadow in Paracelsus studies. The few English translations from his work are inadequate and outmoded. Arthur Edward Waite worked from early Latin translations of the original German to produce a potpourri of inauthentic and authentic works.2 Henry Sigerist, a medical historian and student of Sudhoff, oversaw and assisted in translating Four Treatises from the German (Seven Defensiones, On the Miner’s Sickness, The Diseases that Deprive Man of His Reason, and The Book of Nymphs, Sylphs, Pygmies, and Salamanders).3 Though each item is skillfully rendered, the four are no more than a colorful fistful from the puzzle of the entire corpus. The most readily available translations are florilegia or assortments of excerpts. An influential collection appeared in the Princeton Bollingen Series in 1951. A translation of the Jungian Jolande Jacobi’s Paracelsus. Lebendiges Erbe,4 it consists of memorable 1 The difficulties have been summarized by Joachim Telle. There are persistent problems of authenticity; Sudhoff’s edition does not approach the standards of a modern historical-critical edition; some theological writings still await their first edition; and research into the sources of Paracelsus’s inspiration is inadequate. See Telle, “Aufgaben der Paracelsusforschung,” in Medizinische Ausbildung und Versorgung zur Zeit des Paracelsus (Salzburg, Internationale Paracelsusgesellschaft, 2006), 9-28. 2 Paracelsus, The Hermetic and Alchemical Writings of Paracelsus, ed. Arthur Edward Waite (Berkeley: Shambhala, 1976). Based on a reprint of an earlier edition (London: J. Elliot, 1894), the translation from German via Latin lends the writings a facile surface clarity. The selection is dubious. Other translations have promoted the association of Paracelsus with the occult and the mystical: The Archidoxes of Magic; of the Supreme Mysteries of Nature; of the Spirits of the Planets; of the Secrets of Alchemy; of the Occult Philosophy; the Mysteries of the Twelve Signs of the Zodiac; the Magical Cure of Diseases; of Celestial Medicines, trans. from the Latin by Robert Turner (New York: Samuel Weiser, 1975; a reprint of a 1656 translation of De Spiritus Metallorum and De occulta Philosophia and Archidoxis Magica); and The Prophecies of Paracelsus, ed. Franz Hartmann (New York: Rudolf Steiner Publications, 1973). 3 Four Treatises of Theophrastus von Hohenheim, called Paracelsus, translated from the original German by C. Lilian Temkin (Seven Defensiones), George Rosen (On the Miners’ Sickness), Gregory Zilboorg (The Diseases that Deprive Man of His Reason), Henry E. Sigerist (A Book on Nymphs, Sylphs, Pygmies, and Salamanders), ed. with a preface by Henry E. Sigerist (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1941). The notes are minimal but helpful. 4 Jolande Jacobi, Paracelsus: Lebendiges Erbe (Bollingen Series, 28), trans. Norbert Guterman (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1951). INTRODUCTION 3 passages arranged with almost no attention to their sources. A more attentive and substantial anthology of selections was recently translated by Goodrick-Clarke.5 It is not surprising that Paracelsus has been studied in excerpts in English. More remarkable is the fact that his German-language reception rests to a considerable extent on de-contextualized passages. Rarely are his writings studied as organic literary wholes in relation to their specific historical or literary contexts. Since even the most intelligent and influential studies of Paracelsus in English have been reticent in citing directly from his writings, the primary and secondary literature are disparate reservoirs of information with too few connecting channels. Scholarship takes the form of isolated monologues. Notwithstanding the obstacles, Paracelsus has proven to be of enduring interest to scholars of the Renaissance and Reformation and to historians of science, medicine, and literature. Scholarly access to the thinker is the primary purpose of this volume. There is no better introduction than the writings composed between 1529 and 1532. Many if not all the themes of his earlier and later production are recapitulated or anticipated in these works of mid career. With their exalted tone, trademark Para-titles, and relentless laying of foundations and projecting of exhaustive surveys, these treatises represent themselves as the zenith of his authorial production. They have come down to us in versions that are largely completed, though often unrefined. This places them in a special category for an author who wrote under unpropitious circumstances and left behind many fragments and incomplete drafts. Das Buch Paragranum and the writings of 1531 which are associated with the Paramirum title, including his treatise on the “Invisible Diseases,” are relatively comprehensible when read on their own. We can therefore adapt his term in regarding these writings as a microcosm of the Paracelsian universe. As such, they can tell us a great deal about the material and intellectual culture of his era. To translate and provide commentary for the large corpus of Paracelsus might require more than the career of an individual scholar. 5 Paracelsus, Essential Readings, selected and translated by Nicholas GoodrickClark (Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1999). Goodrick-Clark attempts to provide a balanced selection of passages ranging from a few sentences to several pages in length arranged by date following Sudhoff and by theme with few notes but an introduction to the life and writings. 4 ANDREW WEEKS But if contextualized in their time, tradition, and corpus, the writings of the years 1530-31 can offer an essential access both to his work as a whole, and through it, to the source of a major current of early modern thought which is too often subordinated to abstractions or reduced to a few overworked quotations and concepts. The edited and unedited writings are fraught with uncertainties of dating and authenticity and burdened with preconceptions. By translating the writings of this key period, it should be possible to provide future scholarship with coordinates for orientation: laterally with regard to the concurrent developments of Paracelsus’ life and times, retrospectively with regard to his previous writings, prospectively with regard to those that follow, and thematically with regard to the entirety of his writings, including the many that cannot be dated with certainty. Context can clarify obscure terms and account for the urgency and expectation in Paracelsus’ writings. The year 1530 saw the publication of Girolamo Fracastoro’s Syphilis, Georg Agricola’s medicalmetallurgical Bermannus, sive de Re Metallica Dialogus, and Otto Brunfels’ Herbarum Vivae Eicones with its prefatory “Encomium Medicinae.” The pursuits of these contemporaries offer a measure of the erudition and curiosity of his age and a clue to the tensions he sensed and rendered extreme. In the study of nature, Paracelsus’ polemically proclaimed turn from classical learning to fresh experience is anticipated in the subtle tensions between ancient sources with their Mediterranean flora and fresh observations of native regions in the work of the Humanists. For example, Brunfels’ Latin compendium of 1530 extols Aristotle, Pliny, Dioscorides, Theophrastus, Galen, Celsus, and the mythical “Chiron Centaureus” as a name linked to the “herba centaurea” (Brun.-Lat. 6). However, without abandoning ancient authority in writing of native plants, Brunfels’ German Kreüterbuch of 1532 accords thoughtful consideration to the practitioner of surgery and distillation who died in 1512, Hieronymus Brunschwig, and exalts the virtues of the lowly nettle, favored allegorically by God, above the hyacinth of classical legend (Brunfels 1532 cxxiii). If not the sources, the themes of Paracelsus can be traced. In context, Paracelsus’ work reveals unnoticed patterns of allusion and affinity. He was responding to current issues in his discussions of mining, metallurgy, medical herbs, syphilis, medical education, and the reform of apothecaries, as well as in his Bible commentaries and doctrinal writings on the Eucharist and the Trinity. He reacted, albeit INTRODUCTION 5 idiosyncratically, to the prestige of astronomy and anatomy. The dual impact of theological and humanistic controversies is ingrained in the complexities of his writings in the form of extended complex allusions. The translation and commentary should bring the interrelations of these contexts to light. Paracelsus’ absorption of influences was neither systematic nor accidental. The writings translated here must be approached as products of a many-facetted dispute. The years and locations of his most intense authorial activity coincided with challenges in medicine and the study of nature, even as it fell within an epoch bounded by the Peasant Wars of the mid 1520s and the death of Zwingli in October 1531. During this period, Paracelsus witnessed a violent religious-social revolt in Salzburg, the consolidation of doctrinal-political independence in the Southwest in a rift catalyzed by the Eucharistic controversy, the bitter disputes between the Humanism of Erasmus and the theology of Luther’s Wittenberg and between the magiste ...
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David Hume Principles of Morals
David Hume describes in the reading that human nature is controlled by feelings rather
than reason. Our minds, according to this philosopher, get the training to act rationally according
to the situations in pale, which makes it necessary to educate people on training their emotions.
He states, “What each man feels within himself is the Standard of Sentiment” (Hume 4). Public...

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