Reason and Reality, Homework help

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Test the deductive validity of the following arguments: If you find that the arguments are deductively valid, then discuss their corresponding valid pattern. If you find them to be deductively invalid, then discuss why they are deductively invalid. Supply a missing premise if and when you think that this is right (not in the moral sense) thing to do.

I. All whales are mammals. 

   All mammals have lungs.

  Therefore, all whales have lungs.


II.   If I owned all the gold in Fort Knox, then I would be wealthy.  

      I do own all the gold in Fort Knox.

     Therefore, I am wealthy.


III. If I owned all the gold in Fort Knox, then I would be wealthy.  

       I am wealthy.

     Therefore, I own all the gold in Fort Knox.



IV. I think. Therefore, I am. 


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PHL101: Summer 2016 First Quiz: Test the deductive validity of the following arguments: If you find that the arguments are deductively valid, then discuss their corresponding valid pattern. If you find them to be deductively invalid, then discuss why they are deductively invalid. Supply a missing premise if and when you think that this is right (not in the moral sense) thing to do. I. All whales are mammals. All mammals have lungs. Therefore, all whales have lungs. II. If I owned all the gold in Fort Knox, then I would be wealthy. I do own all the gold in Fort Knox. Therefore, I am wealthy. III. If I owned all the gold in Fort Knox, then I would be wealthy. I am wealthy. Therefore, I own all the gold in Fort Knox. IV. I think. Therefore, I am. Dear students, 1. For your quiz 1, you need to read my class lecture Note 1 from the e-reserve. 1. I have provided you with a handout on a list of useful deductively valid argument patterns ( the file is called PHL (Valid Arguments or something like that). There are infinitely many such valid (hereafter I will drop deductive) patterns. I have simplified your life. You need to know that list. For our course, it will be good enough. 2. Good news is that I won't ask you anything about the soundness or how strong/weak an argument is. So for your quiz, only confine your attention to the deductive validity of an argument. 3. In your quiz when I ask you to test the validity of the following arguments, I mean "deductively validity" and nothing else. 4. How to test them? In your quiz 1, I will allow you to adopt a mechanical way to test them. If an argument matches any of the patters from the list then call it "valid". If it does not match any of the patterns then brand it as "invalid". If it does not match any of the patters, then one way to show that it is invalid is to produce a counter-example. But, for this course, if you just say that the argument in question in invalid since it does it agree with any of the structures from the list then you will be fine. However, here is a proviso. 5. You might find an argument of the following structure, e.g., I walk. Therefore, I exist. This argument does not apparently match any of the patters from your handout. But, in fact, it does match one of the patterns because it requires a suppressed premise of the form "If I walk then I exist." Once that premise has been supplied then the entire argument would be of the form: 1. I walk 2. If I walk then I exist. Therefore, I exist. Now the argument is valid and follows the structure 1 of your handout. Please be on the look-out for such an argument in your quiz. For arguments like them, you need to provide a premise to make the argument valid. 6. Please drop your quiz at the drop-box. 7. Please let me know whether you have any question about quiz 1 or course in general. FIRST LECTURE ON CRITICAL REASONING III. Introduction to philosophic method: a"l-guments ~ (A ~= nature and role of 2rgumen~5 j,n prlilosc'ph·~/~ 1) QUESTION: D I SC~USS. --2 set of re2sons (or premises) given in support of some claim which is said to be the conclusion QUESTION: the point of -=-.rg'-lment? DISCUSS. --to persuade someone to believe some claim; --to persuade someone to do something; --t~ establish the truth concerning some matter; --to persuade oneself or to get oneself in a position to believe the truth on some matter. [t:~is last goal IS the main focus of our attention in this course] (]) types o~ argument~ (rational versus rhetorical persuasion). D~fferent CONSIDER th.;? fc 11 cJ~'>Ii "ng in i\~,o¥t 'i support t~~jC; ,;,rguments, each of the claim that one should given recycle ?-G~ A,"~~~e,-: AF:GUMENT #:() 1 : 2.;-CiJ.nc! " :~ makes good. economic sense extend the useful life of the soaring costs of solid SInce ecological sense, cuts -::')';-.:::·st:-e::::·:")':·'ce~), all sense for cities~ since recycling landfills and will help F:ecyc 1 i ;lg waste disposal. i t significantly slows the on be +:1-·1 the .3i'l- 2.nd dC,l'JD ~'Jater dwindl~.. nl;. pollutic1i'j ~S'~QCi2t~= w~,th paper production and uses far less energy (64% less -02;-~· is needed to produce recycled pape~ products). nelping ease pressures on ·fuel e>:ploration and prodllc·~iDn. Finallv. ,r makes good aesthe·tic sense, since recycled paper prGdltct~ ~-e virtually indistingu~shible from products made with vl~gin ~'Jc'8d pulp and these help save our forests and wilderness '';:''''-;"::::'3.;::. ,":-,:-:-: the ugl"/ :::;Ci:H-S of c 1 e.,::.x-cut lc.qgin';l. Ii-' sum, then~ the ':D~~~ 0f recyclin~ pape~ 2re low and the benefits sL:bst2n+~=~. I~ m~,~es G80d sense. ARGUMENT :i:;:02: great country hes f~ceri ~ to SOlV~ thE problem. .:- 1 il--=' ~~~Ch2d ::= -::' ] .... ;... J ',~ -:02~her c1·".=;; - ~ d .:;p C !:,2.} "1 So '·-i;:;:tiDn l.i.nited. j I.. '.s t h.~ .i. .,;:. nc, t her all have The problem a.(:~,·)ng the posed p ,- c'~: l.=:!ms n'f us in America--ev9ry b~ t.oJE ~ 1 -: man~ '••.1':,. ~.'~t· .-:,.-,~ .. ,i; , ; -'r:.: ...-.,_. i ·,-rp: reSDllrces. ~ut the inevitable d2mands of empire building hav~ strained E~en the resources of this grand nation and we now fac~ desper2te choices in the years ahead. Together we must for9~ ahead tc ffieet the future with heads raised. ~e must be willi~q to go t~at extra mile for the sake of our children and thei~ children~ we must seek to minimize our presence~ we must seek t~ reuse and recycle what we can and to restrict our consumption of raw m2ter~als so that cur great nation~ united under God, may forever shlne forth as a beacon to free people everywhere. Wit~ our foreslght and restraint~ we can be sure that we will always be e.1!!.~c1.s.·t. tt.~ £.~.§.ldt!..f'dl.· (a) QUESTION: What can we say about these ~1;gUiI~~!}·.~_s·~ ~e.g. ~ the chal-actET of each argument; what each argument accomplishes and how it accomplishes it~ etc~) DISCUSS. [put the suggestions on the board] [add the following to the board. i f not there] (i) In argumen·t I: --pertinent facts are presented that bear directly on the issue of recycling; --tt1E argument persuades by giving facts that concern the issue; dispute the facts 2.nd 9 i 'v'en wonder about their accuracy, but 1: correct they do support the conclusion; --1;''\8 --the <:lrgument app~a.ls consequences of our actions; Cii) In argument 11: --an appeal is made sense as Americans; ~­ ,~ l.' --the argument persuades (if it does) hy a gener21 appeal, not directed at an~ sp~cific facts but by emotional appeal; argument raises claims (God-given) rights as ---the natu,-31 --the argument calls shapers Gf histor"y yet i-This swells us wlth sel·f-importance.) divide 3rquments of the 2b0Y~ int0 tWD --ra.1: ic:nall·'~~ ;" ', .. 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[on trar6parencyJ A ph~lsical sentence is a token of SOf!H? ·:;':d-t--f'cn- e}~.;.mp le, as,:,,,,: of pencil o~ chalk marks, or a string of sounds--that may be usac to Express a number of distinct stateme!lts (or propositions). A statement (or proposition) is tha fully detailed wt,at 1S ~~prEssed (more or less completely) b/ sentence. CClntent 0": dec l.=;d-a t i \/~ Notice that the vEry same sentence may be use~ to Express a variety of different statements: e.g.~ pass around a card with "I feel all warm and happy inside" written on i t . For each o~ US~ it would express a different statement. QUESTION: Why is this distinction important t~· us concerning arguments and cri·tical reasoning? DISCLJSS~ --We can imagine having an contains the following claim: "Eden is par.:?dise." th2.t One person may claim it true~ another falsebut they may U~ thinking of differe~t statements made by this one sentence. --the biblical Eden; --Ed~n, NY (home of the k3Z00). *Until at the core of the the argument~ will see a further importa~t for this distinction in what lies ahe2d (in the Objective Theory of Truth). st~itement~: "·.Ji 11 be no resolving (b) [on trans~ "The Objective Theory of Truth." The i=iO .JE·-::: ~ i ve :·h-?::';-·:.~· -::4--f T"~uth (Cit) ·following three compr,nnnts: (i) Corresp~ndence Principle (CP' • l ! ) One +rwth valiJe :OTV)~ J ',:l]j,) The (OTT) ~f Objecti",e ~ill 2rg~ment rru~~h th~ F'··-iric!Dle. serve as tr!9 platform ~I:,r the meth~'­ that w~~]l use to wor~ thrDL';~ an2]ysi~ r:,:- ,) b ). ,:;, '";'15 :.':::'~I pn,-: 1 ..- - r. 3.tE·:'·'- til Correspondence Pr~l,cip]= (CP) We just agreed th2t are the is statements i~ e}:pres~ed by declarAtive of truth val.ue. 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Tutor Answer

jijo
School: New York University

Running head: REASON AND REALITY.

Reason and Reality
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation

1

REASON AND REALITY

2
Reason and Reality.

i.

All whales are mammals.
All mammals have lungs.

Therefore, all whales have lungs.
The argument is deductively valid. The reason to this is because the premises are in support
of the conclusion. The first argument argues that all whales are mammals and the second argument
goes further to state that all mammal have lungs. It, therefore, follows that all whales have lungs
since they are mamm...

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Anonymous
Good stuff. Would use again.

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