Running head: TITLE OF PAPER
Title of Paper Goes Here APA Format Sixth Edition
TITLE OF PAPER ALL CAPS
The body of your paper, which begins with the introduction but do not use the title
“Introduction”. It is assumed the first paragraph is an introduction. APA style specifies that
major sections of the paper (abstract, body, references, etc.) each begin on a new page with the
heading centered at the top of the page. Sections can be further divided into subsections with
headings. Unlike in earlier editions of the APA manual, in APA 6th edition you bold the titles
within the paper (but not the title above or anything on the title page), as you see in the examples
below. You should also have 2 spaces after a period, so please remember that.
Heading Level 1
Heading Level 2
Citations and References
There is plenty of information available on citation methods in the Kaplan Writing
Center. When in doubt, follow the latest edition of the APA manual and any additional
information you get in class.
The following is an example of a properly formatting citation used within a paragraph in
APA. Notice that there are several types of in-text citations which are used in the paragraph
below. No one type of citation is best, and the type of citation you choose will depend on your
writing and the information you are using or providing:
“Educators have long suggested that having a large contingent of part time workers (in
this case faculty) can lead to a bifurcated work force” (Gappa & Leslie, 1997, p. 1). According
to Johnson (2006) most part time faculty are either full time faculty at other institutions or have
made a professional career out of adjunct work at various institutions. Faculty therefore have no
long term commitment to or from the institution (Maldonado & Riman, 2008). They rarely
TITLE OF PAPER ALL CAPS
become part of the community of the institution and therefore, they never become part of the
culture of the institution (Bergquist & Pawlak, 2008).
Notice in the above paragraph that several types of citation are used. The first citation is
a direct quote which is indicated by the quotation marks. Therefore author last name or names,
year and page all go in the parenthetical reference (the part within the parentheses). In the
second citation the author is being used in the sentence itself rather than at the end, and therefore
author name is outside of parentheses while year is within parentheses. In the third citation there
is no direct quote and the information is paraphrased, or put into your own words, and therefore
only author names and year is listed. The final citation is the same as the third one in terms of
An example of a References section is located later this template and shows use of
capitalization and use of the hanging indent. Otherwise, the easiest way to do this is to type each
reference without worrying about the hanging indent. Then, when you are finished, select all the
references at once (and nothing else) and apply the hanging indent. You may need to check the
box in word that keeps it from adding a space between paragraphs (same location as the hanging
indent feature) so that you do not have too much space between entries on the reference page).
Also remember that ONLY the first word in the title of a book or article should be capitalized
unless there is a punctuation mark (period, colon, question mark) within the title. In that case the
first word after the punctuation is also capitalized.
Assuming we have now finished the document, you will want to formulate the references
page. You would insert a page break after the last sentence in the paper to ensure that the
reference page begins on a new page. Notice on the reference page that several types of outside
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sources are given as examples. Carefully review the use of italics, where they are used (journal
name or book name in most cases, and the volume of a journal if there is one) and pay careful
attention to the capitalization used in the references. Hope this helps!
TITLE OF PAPER ALL CAPS
Bergquist, W. & Pawlak, K. (2008). Engaging the six cultures of the academy. San Francisco,
CA: John Wiley & Sons.
Gappa, J. & Leslie, D. (1997). Two faculties or one? The conundrum of part-timers in a
bifurcated workforce. New Pathways: Faculty career and employment for the 21st
century. Working Papers Series, Inquiry #1. Washington, DC: American Association for
the Advancement of Science.
Johnson, I.Y. (2006). Examining part-time faculty utilization and its impact on student retention
at a public research university. Online Submission, Paper presented at the Annual Forum
of the Association for Institutional Research (AIR) (46th, Chicago, IL, May 14-18, 2006).
Maldonado, E., & Riman, J. (2008). The adjunct advocate @ FIT: Bringing part time faculty
Robbins, S., & Judge, T. (2013). Organizational behavior. (15th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Pearson Prentice Hall Publishing.
In this Assignment you will apply the concepts you read about in Chapter 1
relative to both defining organizational behavior and the impact of organizational
behavior on business outcomes. As you could see in our Discussions, many of
the POLC functions of management are impacted by organizational behavior
The Assignment for this section is Case Incident 1: “Lessons for ‘Undercover’
Bosses” (found at the end of Chapter 1 of your text). Please use the Assignment
template, which is provided in this section only. It will give you an idea of the
general format for subsequent Assignments.
Respond in essay format to the following 4 questions regarding case incident as
seen in the Assignment document below.
Address the following questions in your 2—3 page essay adding an
additional title and references page:
What are some of the things managers can learn by walking around
and having daily contact with line employees that they might not be able
to learn from looking at data and reports?
As an employee, would you appreciate knowing your supervisor
regularly spent time with workers? How would knowing top executives
routinely interact with line employees affect your attitudes toward the
What ways can executives and other organizational leaders learn
about day-to-day business operations besides going “undercover?”
Are there any dangers in the use of a management by walking
around strategy? Could this strategy lead employees to feel they are
being spied on? What actions on the part of managers might minimize
The minimum page count requirement for this Assignment is 2–3 pages in a
Microsoft® Word® document using correct APA format and citation style; this
does not include the cover page or the references page.
CASE INCIDENT 1 “Lessons for ‘Undercover’
Executive offices in major corporations are often far removed from the day-today work that most employees perform. While top executives might enjoy the
perquisites found in the executive suite, and separation from workday concerns
can foster a broader perspective on the business, the distance between
management and workers can come at a real cost: top managers often fail to
understand the ways most employees do their jobs every day. The dangers of this
distant approach are clear. Executives sometimes make decisions without
recognizing how difficult or impractical they are to implement. Executives can
also lose sight of the primary challenges their employees face.
The practice of “management by walking around” (MBWA) works against the
insularity of the executive suite. To practice MBWA, managers reserve time to
walk through departments regularly, form networks of acquaintances in the
organization, and get away from their desks to talk to individual employees. The
practice was exemplified by Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard, who used this
management style at HP to learn more about the challenges and opportunities
their employees were encountering. Many other organizations followed suit and
found that this style of management had advantages over a typical desk-bound
approach to management. A recent study of successful Swedish organizations
revealed that MBWA was an approach common to several firms that received
national awards for being great places to work.
The popular television program Undercover Boss took MBWA to the next level by
having top executives from companies like Chiquita Brands, DirectTV, Great
Wolf Resorts, and NASCAR work incognito among line employees. Executives
reported that this process taught them how difficult many of the jobs in their
organizations were, and just how much skill was required to perform even the
lowest-level tasks. They also said the experience taught them a lot about the core
business in their organizations and sparked ideas for improvements.
Although MBWA has long had its advocates, it does present certain problems.
First, the time managers spend directly observing the workforce is time they are
not doing their core job tasks like analysis, coordination, and strategic planning.
Second, management based on subjective impressions gathered by walking
around runs counter to a research and data-based approach to making
managerial decisions. Third, it is also possible that executives who wander about
will be seen as intruders and overseers. Implementing the MBWA style requires a
great deal of foresight to avoid these potential pitfalls.
What are some of the things managers can learn by walking around and
having daily contact with line employees that they might not be able to
learn from looking at data and reports?
As an employee, would you appreciate knowing your supervisor regularly
spent time with workers? How would knowing top executives routinely
interact with line employees affect your attitudes toward the organization?
What ways can executives and other organizational leaders learn about
day-to-day business operations besides going “undercover?”
Are there any dangers in the use of a management by walking around
strategy? Could this strategy lead employees to feel they are being spied
on? What actions on the part of managers might minimize these
Sources: Based on T. Peters and N. Austin, “Management by Walking
About,” Economist (September 8, 2008),www.economist.com; F. Aguirre, M. White, K.
Schaefer, and S. Phelps, “Secrets of an Undercover Boss,”Fortune (August 27, 2010), pp. 41–44; J.
Larsson, I. Backstrom, and H. Wiklund, “Leadership and Organizational Behavior: Similarities
between Three Award-Winning Organizations,” International Journal of Management Practice
3 (2009), pp. 327–345.
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