Assignment 3: Direct Manipulation Early computer systems relied on command line interfaces to perform all actions, Computer Science Homework Help

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Assignment 3: Direct Manipulation
Due Week 8 and worth 80 points

Early computer systems relied on command line interfaces to perform all actions. Today, the majority of systems use direct manipulation rather than a command line interface. The goal of designing a direct manipulation interface is to make use of the system intuitive to the end user. One industry that has been extremely successful designing intuitive direct manipulation inputs is the video game industry. Most game players are able to learn controls as they play a game and then apply the same controls to similar games.  Rarely do they need to read a user manual.

Write a four to five (4-5) page paper in which you:

  1. Describe the three (3) principles of direct manipulation and give examples as to how they are used in video game controls.
  2. Analyze video game-type interfaces and discuss three (3) reasons why video game-type interfaces would not be effective for real-world applications.
  3. Describe at least three (3) advantages of direct manipulation versus command line interfaces.
  4. Evaluate direct manipulation and describe three (3) problems with it.
  5. Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources. 

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

Tutor Answer

School: Carnegie Mellon University



Direct manipulation gives a description of the human-machine interaction design which
enables this interaction to possess a natural appearance, in the essence that an intermediary is
minimally utilized. Direct manipulation in computer science is a technique of the humancomputer interaction which authorizes the interface users to act directly on the objects in the
interface. The aim of this direct manipulation is to stimulate the idea that the interfaces users are
perform tasks individually. Through this, the human-computer interaction becomes fascinating in
its feel. Direct manipulation is mostly utilized in the video games arena. However, direct
manipulation can be sometimes known as graphical user interface since they are mostly made up
of graphical concepts

Direct manipulation is based on a number of principles. In a nut shell, these are the basic
principles of direct manipulation. The following are these principles. Foremost, the computer
instruments cannot be visually distinguished from the actual life objects that they make a
representation on (Ben, Shneiderman, 1993). For instance, in video games, this principle is
applied whereby guns representing actual guns in any aspect. Moreover, a car in the video arena
will tend to represent an actual world car in all the circumstances.
Another principle of direct manipulation is that the tasks that are performed on the
instruments of the computer are similar to those undertaken in the actual world. This can be
illustrated in video games whereby a traffic light installed in a video arena is serves a similar
purpose of guiding and controlling traffic as the traffic light installed in the actual world.
Furthermore, in a video game, tankers are used for military purposes which are also the same
case in the real world.
In addition to that, there is a principle of direct manipulation which states that there is
maintenance of the conceptual linkage in relation to the objects on the computer and the tasks
performed on them. (Thomas, W. Malone 1981) An illustration can be drawn whereby a car will
always be driven in a video game normally just like in the actual world. As a continuation, direct
manipulation has a principle such that physical actions such as pressing of buttons are uses. An

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