CHDEV 001 East LA College Infant & Toddler Development Reflections Discussion

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First Two Years of Life Discussion

First Two Years of Life - Infant and Toddler Development

Prerequisites: Reviewing Modules 5, 6, 7

Biosocial, Cognitive & Emotional/Psychosocial Development: In this forum, you are to apply the ideas and terms in the chapters and enhance your knowledge. It also gives you the opportunity to have a scholarly discussion with your peers similar to the ones you have in a well-executed college classroom-- which makes a big difference in your enjoyment and comprehension of the subject matter. Please follow directions.

Instructions: Review the Modules and Read Chapters 5, 6, and 7 - The First Two Years and also the Lectures, PowerPoints, videos in the Modules.

In at least 4 paragraphs of 8 sentences, summarize what you have learned about in each of these 3 chapters.

Paragraph 1 & 2 - What two things you found the most interesting information or key points in Chapters 5 & 6? For this question, make sure that you respond in two full paragraphs (each paragraph must have at least 8 sentences each- least means minimum and may qualify for average grade dependent on the content). In parenthesis be sure to include the page numbers, PPT or video that relate to each key term. Relate the terms to what you thought and learned about.

Paragraph 3 - Chapter 7, examines concepts of child and parent's temperament, Goodness of Fit, Emotional development and social bonds. Look at the powerful Stages of Attachment and the signs of secure attachment or insecure attachment. Look at videos on Resilience. Answer all of these questions - What did you learn about attachment and impact on development? How does attachment influence our development and relationships for children and adults? Why is it so important to understand the concept of resilience?

Paragraph 4 - Which two video(s) did you like the most? Which key concept interested you the most and why? Why is all this knowledge so important to know as a parent, educator, or policymaker?

Videos:\

chapter 5:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KJyeu3YSY-M

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6XDwSrky3Mg

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ml04jFmV3G8

www.youtube.com/watch?v=1pD50ISxP3k

chapter 6:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Z0rvMbLP2o

The benefits of a bilingual brain - Mia Nacamulli
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a7WAfwKi88Q

chapter 7:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hsA5Sec6dAI

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pS5H7VfkuPk

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bAHQJSKZDB0

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ahdbmWNXAhY





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Professor Benavides WHAT WILL YOU KNOW? (Click twice) • What is Biosocial Development? Video: • • What part of an infant grows most in the first two years? Importance of brain development? Video: • Does brain wiring in the first two years depend on genes or experience? • Which of the five senses develops last: seeing, hearing, tasting, touching, or smelling? • What happens if a baby does not get his or her vaccinations? Body Changes Body size Birthweight doubles by month four and triples by 1 year Average weight at birth: 7 pounds Average length: 20 inches Birth catch-up Small babies experience extra gain to catch up to the norm. Body Changes Norms Defined standards of typical performance by which a child's development in a variety of domains can be measured These numbers are norms or average measurements; individuals vary. Percentile Number that indicates rank compared to other similar people of the same age Percentiles range from zero to 100. Weight by Gender: Birth to 24 Months Eat and Sleep The rate of increasing weight in the first weeks of life makes it obvious why new babies need to be fed, day and night. Same Boy, Much Changed All three photos show Conor, first at 3 months, then at 12 months, and finally at 24 months. Note the rapid growth in the first two years, especially apparent in the changing proportions of the head, compared to the body and use of the legs. Sleep Sleep specifics vary because of biology and the social environment. Newborns sleep about 15-17 hours a day, in oneto three-hour segments. Newborns' sleep is primarily active sleep. Newborns have a high proportion of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. Cultural difference are apparent in sleep patterns. More Sleep Information Over first months, relative amount of sleep time changes. Infants vary in how long they sleep at one time. Over the early weeks, transitional sleep declines and slow-wave sleep increases. Caregiver response to infant behavior during sleep hours also impacts sleep patterns. Co-Sleeping Asian and African mothers worry more about separation; European and North American mothers worry more about privacy and sex. Pros • Easier response time • Less parental exhaustion • More convenient for breastfeeding Cons • Higher SIDS • Ghosts in the nursery phenomenon Infant at Risk? Sleeping in the parents’ bed is a risk factor for SIDS in the U.S., but don’t worry about this Japanese girl. In Japan, 97 percent of infants sleep next to their parents, yet infant mortality is only 3 percent per 1,000-compared with 7 per 1,000 in the U.S. In this bed, or this mother, or this sleeping position protective? Connect https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1pD50ISxP3kions in the Brain Neuron One of billions of nerve cells in the central nervous system (CNS) Communication within CNS begins with neurons. Most neurons are created before birth, at a peak production rate of 250,000 new cells per minute in mid-pregnancy (Purves et al., 2004). In infancy, the human brain has billions of neurons. Brain Development Brain stem Midbrain Cortex • Region deep inside brain which control automatic responses • Area of brain that affects emotions and memory • Outer layers of the brain where most thinking, feeling, and sensing occurs. Prefrontal cortex • Area of the cortex at the very front of the brain that specializes in anticipation, planning, and impulse control. Brain Development: Dendrites Sprouting Axon • Fiber that extends from a neuron and transmits electrochemic al impulses from that neuron to the dendrites of other neurons. Dendrite • Fiber that extends from a neuron and receives electrochemic al impulses transmitted from other neurons via their axons. Synapse • Intersection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of other neurons. Neurotransmitter • Brain chemical that carries information from the axon of a sending neuron to the dendrites of a receiving neuron. How Two Neurons Communicate The infant brain contains billions of neurons, each with one axon and many dendrites. Every electrochemical message to or from the brain causes thousands of neurons to fire, each synapse to neighboring neurons. This electron micrograph shows neurons greatly magnified, with their tangled but highly organized and wellcoordinated sets of dendrites and axons. Video: Brain Architecture Brain Development Exuberance and pruning Specifics of brain structure and growth depend on genes and maturation, but even more on experience. Expansion and pruning of dendrites occur for every aspect of early experience. Unused dendrites whither postnatally to allow space between neurons in the brain, allowing more synapses and thus more complex thinking. Synapse Formation and Dendrite Formation Experience Shapes the Brain Necessary and possible experiences (Greenough and colleagues) Experience-expectant brain function Experience-dependent brain function Video: How Brains are Built Video: The most important lesson from 83,000 brain scans https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=esPRsT-lmw8 Experience Shapes the Brain Examples from twin studies Examples from bird brains Until about 10 months, experience-expectant circumstances not influenced by SES Birds inherit genes that produce the brain cells they need to learning new songs or find hidden seeds After 10 months, genetics vary more than context in high-SES families For the dendrites and neurons to connect, birds depend on specific experiences with songlearning or seed-finding REPRINTED FROM SCOTT, LISA S. & MONESSON, ALEXANDRA. (2010). EXPERIENCE-DEPENDENT NEURAL SPECIALIZATION DURING INFANCY. NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA, 48 (6), 1857-1861. DOI: 10.1016/J.NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA. 2010.02.008. COPYRIGHT 2010 WITH PERMISSION FROM ELSEVIER Iona Is Not Flora If you heard that Dario was quite different from Louis or Boris, would you stare at unfamiliar monkey faces more closely in the future? For 6-month-olds, the answer is yes Face Recognition Fusiform face area of brain Makes newborn infant adept at face recognition Experiences Refine face perception and trigger immediate recognition Own-race effect Apparent before first birthday and persists throughout life Harming the Infant Brain Lack of stimulation Intervention • Playing, allowing varied sensations, and encouraging movement necessary for brain connections • Shaken baby syndrome is a life-threatening injury that occurs when an infant is forcefully shaken back and forth. This motion ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks neural connections. Stress and the brain Severe social deprivation • Overabundance of stress hormones damages later brain functioning • Anecdotal evidence with human children and research with other mammals confirms that isolation and sensory deprivation harm the developing brain. Harming the Infant Brain Shaken baby syndrome Video: Shaken Baby Syndrome & Brain Injury https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZcF9Sneof1c https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YoXonRCHM1w • Is considered an abusive head trauma • Is a life-threatening injury • Occurs when an infant is forcefully shaken back and forth • Results in motion that ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks neural connections • Is not always the reason brain injury occurs; may lead to false accusations Sensation and Movement: The Senses Sensory development Typically precedes intellectual and motor development Sensation Response of a sensory system (eyes, ears, skin, tongue, nose) when it detects a stimulus Perception Mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation Perceiving and Moving: The Senses Perception follows sensation. Infants' brains are especially attuned to their own repeated social experiences and perception occurs. Infant brain and auditory capacity to hear sounds in the usual speech range. The parts of the cortex dedicated to the senses develop rapidly. Moving and Perceiving: Hearing and Seeing Hearing • Develops during the last trimester of pregnancy • Most advanced of the newborn's senses • Speech perception by 4 months after birth Moving and Perceiving: Hearing and Seeing Seeing Least mature sense at birth Newborns focus between 4 and 30 inches away Experience and maturation of visual cortex improve shape recognition, visual scanning, and details. Binocular vision at 3 months Moving and Perceiving: Smelling and Tasting Smell and taste Function at birth Rapidly adapt to the social world Related to family and cultural preferences May have evolutionary function Moving and Perceiving: Touch and Pain Touch Sense of touch is acute in infants. Although all newborns respond to being securely held, soon they prefer specific, touches. Pain and temperature Pain and temperature are often connected to touch. Some people assume that even the fetus can feel pain. Others say that the sense of pain does not mature until months or years later. Motor Skills: Gross Motor Skills Motor skills Learned abilities to move some part of the body, in actions ranging from a large leap to a flicker of the eyelid Course of development Cephalocaudal (head-down) and proximodistal (center-out) direction Motor Skills: Gross Motor Skills Gross motor skills • Physical abilities involving large body movements, such as walking and jumping Young Expert This infant is an adept crawler. Note the knees as well as the arm and leg strength needed to support the body in this early version of push-ups. Dynamic Systems Underlying Motor Skills Three interacting elements underlying motor skills • Muscle strength • Brain maturation • Practice Motor Skills: Fine Motor Skills Fine motor skills Physical abilities involving small body movements, especially of the hands and fingers, such as drawing and picking up a coin Shaped by culture and opportunity Moving and Perceiving: Dynamic Sensory Systems Most important experiences are perceived with interacting senses in dynamic systems. Sensations facilitate social interaction and comfort. By 6 months, infant are able to coordinate the senses. Dynamic SensoryMotor Systems The entire package of sensations and motor skills furthers three goals. •Social interaction •Comfort •Learning Success At 6 months, this baby is finally able to grab her toes. From a developmental perspective, this achievement is as significant as walking, as it requires coordination of feet and fingers. Note her expression of determination and concentration. Motor Skills: Cultural Variations All healthy infants develop skills in the same sequence, but the age of acquisition varies. Variations influences • Genes • Cultural patterns • Nutrition • Caregiving patterns Surviving in Good Health Statistics 8 billion children were born between 1950 and 2015; almost a billion of them died before age 5. World death rate in the first five years of life has dropped about 2 percent per year since 1990. • Improvement in clean water, nourishing food, immunization, medical treatments Well Protected Disease and early death are common in Africa, where this photo was taken, but neither is likely for 2-year-old Salem. Scientists At Work: SIDS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ml04jFmV3G8 Video: Sudden Infant Death Training https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6XDwSrky3Mg Video: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome – Dr. Paul Thomas In her research with young children, Beal found that almost all SIDS babies she studied were sleeping on their stomachs. Stomach sleeping is a proven, replicated risk. Other risks include low birthweight, being male, smoking parents, soft blankets and pillows, bedsharing, winter, and a variety of abnormalities. Most SIDS victims experience several risks. Surviving in Good Health Immunization Primes the body's immune system to resist a particular disease Contributes to reduced mortality and population growth; herd immunity Successes • • • • Smallpox Polio Measles Rotavirus Surviving in Good Health Immunizations are unsafe for: Embryos exposed to rubella Newborns People with compromised immune systems Problems No effective vaccine found for AIDS, malaria, cholera, typhoid, and shigellosis Many rural areas of world not reached Parental concerns about link between autism and immunizations Surviving in Good Health: Nutrition Adequate nutrition For every infant disease (including SIDS), breastfeeding reduces risk and malnutrition increases it, stunting growth of body and brain. Breastfed babies are less likely to develop allergies, asthma, obesity, and heart disease. As the infant gets older, the composition of breast milk adjusts to the baby's changing nutritional needs. National Trends in Breast-Feeding Rates Surviving in Good Health Malnutrition Protein-calorie malnutrition • Condition in which a person does not consume sufficient food of any kind that can result in several illnesses, severe weight loss, and even death Stunting • Failure of children to grow to a normal height for their age due to severe and chronic malnutrition Wasting • Tendency for children to be severely underweight for their age as a result of malnutrition Stunting Genetic? The data show that basic nutrition is still unavailable to many children in the developing world. AP PHOTO/SCHALK VAN ZUYDAM Effects of Chronic Malnutrition Brains may not develop normally. ©DANG NGO/ZUMAPRESS.COM Protection against common diseases may be reduced. Infant malnutrition is common in nations at war (like Afghanistan, bottom) or with crop failure (like Niger, top). Some diseases result directly from malnutrition • Marasmus • Kwashiorkor Failure to Thrive Failure to thrive (FTT), more recently known as faltering weight or weight faltering, is a term used in pediatric and adult medicine, as well as veterinary medicine (where it is also referred to as ill thrift), to indicate insufficient weight gain or inappropriate weight loss. John Hopkins Health Library http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/pediatric s/failure_to_thrive_90,P02297/ Professor Benavides WHAT WILL YOU KNOW? Why did Piaget compare 1-year-olds to scientists? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eznq75eBy2o Why isn’t Piaget’s theory of sensorimotor intelligence universally recognized as insightful? What factors influence whether infants remember what happens to them before they can talk? When and how do infants learn to talk? Sensorimotor Intelligence Sensorimotor intelligence • Piaget’s term for the way infants think by using their senses and motor skills during the first period of cognitive development Piaget • • • • Infants are active learners. Adaptation is the core of intelligence. Cognition develops in four distinct periods. Schemas are built Sensorimotor Intelligence Assimilation • Type of adaptation in which new experiences are interpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas Accommodation • Type of adaptation in which old ideas are restructured to include, or accommodate, new experiences Video: Cognitive Dev Sensorimotor Intelligence Stages one and two: Primary circular reactions • Circular reactions: Interaction of sensation, perception, and cognition • Primary circular reactions: Two stages of sensorimotor intelligence involving the infant’s own body • Stage one (Birth to 1month): Stage of reflexes • Stage two 1 to 4 months): First acquired adaptions or habits Infants adapt reflexes through information from repeated responses. Infants gain knowledge through their movements. FSTOP/PUNCHSTOCK Sensorimotor Intelligence Time for Adaptation Sucking is a reflex at first, but adaptation begins soon. She is about to make that adaptation and suck just her thumb from now on. Sensorimotor Intelligence Stages three and four: Secondary circular reactions • Secondary circular reactions: Interaction between baby and something else; mirror neurons begin to function • Stage three (4-8 months): Attempts to make interesting things last • Stage four (6-12 months): New adaptation and anticipation; means to the end Sensorimotor Intelligence Family Fun Peek-a-boo makes all three happy, each for cognitive reasons. The 9-month-old is discovering object permanence, his sister (at the concrete operational stage) enjoys making brother laugh, and their mother understands more abstract ideas—such as family bonding. BAMBU PRODUCTIONS/GETTY IMAGES Goal-direct behavior • Purposeful action that benefit from new motor skills resulting from brain maturation Object permanence • Realization that objects or people continue to exist when they are no longer in sight • Video: Elena Cabrera’s Infant Cognitive Development • (click on twice to view) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u3vGAltJM3 w Sensorimotor Intelligence Stages five and six: Tertiary circular reactions • Tertiary circular reactions: Involves active exploration and experimentation; exploration of range of new activities and variations in responses as way of learning • Stage five (12-18 months): New means through active exploration • Stage six (18-24 months): Mental combinations; intellectual experimentation via imagination Sensorimotor Intelligence Exploration at 15 Months One of the best ways to investigate food is to squish it in your hands, observe changes in color and texture, and listen for sounds. Taste and smell are primary senses for adults when eating, but it looks as if Jonathan has already had his fill of those. Stage Six TOOGA PRODUCTIONS, INC/GETTY IMAGES ARIEL SKELLEY/AGE FOTOSTOCK Stage Five Push Another Button Little scientists “experiment to see” as this 14-month-old does. Many parents realize, to their distress, that their infant has deleted a crucial file, or called a distant relative on a cell phone, because the toddler wants to see what happens. Piaget Reevaluated Many infants reach the stages of sensorimotor intelligence earlier than Piaget predicted. • Small sample size • Simplistic methods • Unseen brain activity Techniques Used by Neuroscientists to Understand Brain Function Technique: EEG (electroencephalogram) • Use: Measures electrical activity in the top layers of the brain, where the cortex is. • Limitations: Especially in infancy, much brain activity of interest occurs below the cortex. Technique: ERP (eventrelated potential) • Use: Notes the amplitude and frequency of electrical activity (as shown by brain waves) in specific parts of the cortex in reaction to various stimuli. • Limitations: Reaction within the cortex signifies perception, but interpretation of the amplitude and timing of brain waves is not straightforward. Technique: fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) • Use: Measures changes in blood flow anywhere in the brain (not just the outer layers). • Limitations: Signifies brain activity, but infants are notoriously active, which can make fMRIs useless. Techniques Used by Neuroscientists to Understand Brain Function Technique: PET (positron emission tomography) • Use: PET (like fMRI) reveals activity in various parts of the brain. Locations can be pinpointed with precision, but PET requires injection of radioactive dye to light up the active parts of the brain. • Limitations: Many parents and researchers hesitate to inject radioactive dye into an infant’s brain unless a serious abnormality is suspected. Technique: fNIRS (functional nearinfrared spectroscopy) • Use: Via light waves that indicate blood flow, the fNIRS measures activity in the cortex and beyond. The device is portable and noninvasive: no need for expensive equipment, electrodes, or special dye. This is especially useful for infants who do not stay still or for sports players who might have concussions. • Limitations: Does not show activity deep in the brain, so the amygdala and hippocampus, among other crucial areas, cannot be measured. Information Processing Information-processing theory • Modeled on computer functioning • Involves incremental details and step-by-step description of the mechanisms of thought • Adds insight to understanding of cognition at every age Gibson and Gibson • Perception requires selectivity. • Affordances provide opportunity for perception and interaction that is offered by a person, place, or object in the environment. LKIS - EMIELKE VAN WYK/GALLO IMAGES/GETTY IMAGES Affordances What Next? Information-processing research asks what these babies are thinking as they both pull on the same block. Will those thoughts lead to hitting, crying, or sharing? Affordances Selection of which affordance is perceived and acted upon is related to four factors. • • • • Sensory awareness Immediate motivation Current development Past experience Selective perception of affordances is also characteristic of every age and every culture. Research on Early Affordances Visual cliff • Infant performance depends on past experience, including social context. MARK RICHARDS/PHOTOEDIT • Experimental apparatus that gives the illusion of a sudden drop-off between one horizontal surface and another Movement and People All babies are attracted to two kinds of affordances. • Things that move • Dynamic perception: Focus on movement and change • People • People preference: Universal principle of infant perception; tied to evolution Memory Infant memory is fragile but can be activated with reminders, repetition, and retrieval cues. • According to classic developmental theory, infants store no memories in their first year (Freud/childhood amnesia). • Developmentalists now agree that very young infants can remember if the following conditions are met: • Experimental conditions are similar to real life • Motivation is high • Special measures aid memory retrieval Infant Memory Research Instrumental Learning • In Rovee-Collier’s experiment, a young infant immediately remembers how to make the familiar mobile move. • Unfamiliar mobiles do not provoke the same reaction. • He kicks his right leg and flails both arms, just as he learned to do several weeks ago. Infant Memory Research • 3-month-old infants could remember after two weeks if they had a brief reminder session before being retested. • Information about making the mobile move was stored in their brains, but they needed processing time to retrieve it. • 6-momth-olds retain information longer with less training or reminding. • Current research suggests there are several kinds of memory, lodged in various part of the brain, that reach maturation at about 10 months. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? Listening and responding • Before birth: Language learning via brain organization and hearing; may be innate • Newborn: Preference for speech sounds and mother’s language; gradual selective listening • Around 6 months: Ability to distinguish sounds and gestures in own language Too Young for Language? Developmental Milestones ARIEL SKELLEY/GETTY IMAGES No. • The early stages of language involve communication through noises, gestures, and facial expressions, very evident here. Universal sequence Video: (click 2x) • Timing of language acquisition varies but sequence is universal https://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=a7WAfwKi88Q Language Development Babbling • Involves repetition of certain syllables, such as baba-ba, that begins when babies are between 6 and 9 months old • Is experience-expectant • Begins to sound like native language around 12 months POP! STUDIO PHOTOGRAPHY/ALAMY/FUSE/GETTY IMAGES Are You Hungry? Pronunciation is far more difficult than hand skills, but parents want to know when their baby wants more to eat. One solution is evident here. This mother is teaching her 12month-old daughter the sign for “more,” a word most toddlers say several months later. Language Gesturing • All infants gesture. • Concepts with gesture are expressed sooner than speech. • Pointing emerges in human babies around 10 months. Language Learning First words: Gradual beginnings • At about 1 year: Speak a few words. • 6-15 months: Understand 10 times more words than produced • 12 months: Begin to use holophrases; recognize vocalization from universal to language-specific Naming explosion • Once spoken vocabulary reaches about 50 words, it builds quickly, at a rate of 50 to 100 words per month • 21-month-olds say twice as many words as 18-monthold The Development of Spoken Language in the First Two Years Age* Means of Communication Newborn Reflexive communication—cries, movements, facial expressions. 2 months A range of meaningful noises—cooing, fussing, crying, laughing. 3–6 months New sounds, including squeals, growls, croons, trills, vowel sounds. 6–10 months Babbling, including both consonant and vowel sounds repeated in syllables. 10–12 months Comprehension of simple words; speech-like intonations; specific vocalizations that have meaning to those who know the infant well. Deaf babies express their first signs; hearing babies also use specific gestures (e.g., pointing) to communicate. 12 months First spoken words that are recognizably part of the native language. 13–18 months Slow growth of vocabulary, up to about 50 words. 18 months Naming explosion—three or more words learned per day. Much variation. 21 months First two-word sentence. 24 months Multiword sentences. Half the toddler’s utterances are two or more words long. Language Learning • Cultural and family variation occurs in childdirected speech. • Infants seek best available language teachers. • Music tempo is culturespecific. JUPITERIMAGES/GETTY IMAGES Cultural differences appear in language use. Cultural Values Each culture encourages the qualities it values, and verbal fluency is not a priority in this community. Language Learning Cultural differences in language use: Parts of speech • Ratio of nouns to verbs and adjectives varies • Infants differ in use of various parts of speech • Young children are sensitive to the sounds of words Language Learning: Grammar Cultural differences in language use: Grammar • Includes all the devices by which words communicate meaning • Becomes obvious in holophrases between 18 and 24months • Correlates with size of vocabulary Language Learning: Grammar Mastering two languages • Quantity of speech in both languages the child hears is crucial. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MMmOLN5zBLY Bilingualism Video • Children implicitly track the number of words and phrases and learn those expressed most often. • Bilingual toddlers realize differences between languages, adjusting tone, pronunciation, cadence, and vocabulary when speaking to a monolingual person. Agree or Disagree? Most developmentalists find that, although some educational video may help older children, video during infancy are no substitute for face-to-face relationship with a responsive caregiver. Theories of Language Learning Theory One: Infants need to be taught. • B. F. Skinner (1957) noticed that spontaneous babbling is usually reinforced. • Parents are expert teachers, and other caregivers help them teach children to speak. • Frequent repetition of words is instructive, especially when the words are linked to the pleasures of daily life. • Well-taught infants become well-spoken children. • if adults want children who speak, understand, and (later) read well, they must talk to their infants Maternal Responsiveness and Infants’ Language Acquisition Theories of Language Learning Theory Two: Social impulses fosters infant language (socialpragmatic). • Infants communicate because humans have evolved as social beings. • The emotional messages of speech, not the words, that are the focus of early communication. • Each culture has practices that further social interaction, including talking. • The social content of speech is universal, which is why babies learn whatever specifics their culture provides. Theories of Language Learning Theory Three: Infants teach themselves • Language learning is innate; adults need not teach it, nor is it a by-product of social interaction. • Language itself is experience-expectant, although obviously the specific language is experience-dependent • Variations in children’s language ability correlate with differences in brain activity and perceptual ability Chomsky • Language too complex to be mastered through step-by-step conditioning. • Language acquisition device (LAD) • All babies are eager learners, and language may be considered one more aspect of neurological maturation Which Perspective Is Correct? All perspective offer insight into language acquisition. Hybrid theory • Some aspects of language learning may be best explained by one theory at one age and other aspects by another theory at another age • Multiple attentional, social and linguistic cues contribute to early language • Different elements of the language apparatus may have evolved in different ways Professor Julie Benavides • How do smiles, tears, anger, and fear change from birth to age 2? • Does a baby’s temperament predict lifelong personality? • What are the signs of a secure attachment between parent and infant? • What are opposing theories about the development of infant emotions? • Do babies benefit or suffer when they are placed in infant day care? EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT: INFANT EMOTIONS Early emotions COURTESY OF KATHLEEN BERGER • High emotional responsiveness • Reactive pain and pleasure to complex social awareness Now Happy Asa How does a crying baby become a happy toddler? A clue is here: devoted father and grandfather. Smiling and laughing • Social smile (6 weeks): Evoked by viewing human faces • Laughter (3 to 4 months): Often associated with curiosity INFANT EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Anger • First expressed at around 6 months • Is healthy response to frustration Sadness • Appears in first months • Indicates withdrawal and is accompanied by increased production of cortisol • Is stressful experience for infants INFANT EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Fear • Emerges at about 9 months in response to people, things, or situations Stranger wariness • Seem as infant no longer smiles at any friendly face but cries or looks frightened when an unfamiliar person moves too close Separation anxiety • Tears, dismay, or anger occur when a familiar caregiver leaves • If it remains strong after age 3, it may be considered an emotional disorder AGES WHEN EMOTIONS EMERGE Birth 6 weeks 3 months 4 months 4–8 months 9–14 months 12 months 18 months Distress; contentment Social smile Laughter; curiosity Full, responsive smiles Anger Fear of social events (strangers, separation from caregiver) Fear of unexpected sights and sounds Self-awareness; pride; shame; embarrassment TODDLER EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Toddlers emotions • Anger and fear become less frequent and more focused. • Laughing and crying become louder and more discriminating. • Temper tantrums may appear. New emotions • Pride • Shame • Embarrassment • Disgust • Guilt EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Self-awareness First 4 months • Person's realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose body, mind, and actions are separate from those of other people. • Infants have no sense of self and may see themselves as part of their mothers. 5 months • Infants begin to develop an awareness of themselves as separate from their mothers. 15-18 months • Emergence of the Me-self • Sense of self as the “object of one's knowledge” EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Mirror Recognition • Classic experiment (M. Lewis & Brooks, 1978) MACMILLAN EDUCATION ARCHIVE • Babies aged 9–24 months looked into a mirror after a dot of rouge had been put on their noses. Who Is That? • None of the babies younger than 12 months old reacted as if they knew the mark was on them. • 15- to 24-month-olds showed self-awareness by touching their own noses with curiosity. BRAIN AND EMOTIONS Experience and culture • Promote specific connections between neurons and emotions • Shape functional anatomy of self-representation Emotional social impulses • Directly connected to maturation of the anterior cingulate gyrus and other parts of limbic system • Related to development of preferences for specific others BRAIN AND EMOTIONS Learning about others: Social smile at 2 months • Every experience activates and and prunes neurons; firing patterns from one axon to dendrite reflect past learning • Research indicates that social anxiety has genetic and environmental influences BRAIN MATURATION AND THE EMOTIONS Stress • Impairs brain particularly in areas associated with emotions • In highly stressful environment, babies (at 7 months) have higher cortisol levels in relation to challenges (Mills-Koonce and colleagues) Synesthesia • Occurs when one sense triggers another in brain • Cross-modal perception more common in infants; may be basis for early social understanding EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT: TEMPERAMENT Temperament • Inborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity, and selfregulation • Temperament is epigenetic, originating in the genes but influenced by environmental influences and practices New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS) • Started in the 1960s • Found 4 categories of temperament EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT: TEMPERAMENT Longitudinal study of infant temperament (Fox et al., 2001) • Grouped 4-month-olds into three distinct types based on responses to fearful stimulation • Positive (exuberant) • Negative • Inhibited (fearful) • Less than half altered their responses as they grew older • Fearful infants were most likely to change • Exuberant infants were least likely to change • Maturation and child rearing has effect on inborn temperament EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT: TEMPERAMENT Do Babies' Temperaments Change? Sometimes. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT: GOODNESS OF FIT Goodness of fit – Similarity of temperament and values that produces a smooth interaction between an individual and his or her social context, including family, school, and community. Big Five dimensions of personality – Childhood temperament is linked to parent genes and personality – Personality often assessed using five dimensions – Do you know what these are? DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL BONDS Synchrony • Coordinated, rapid, and smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and an infant Synchrony in the first few months • Becomes more frequent and elaborate • Helps infants learn to read others' emotions and to develop the skills of social interaction • Usually begins with parents imitating infants IS SYNCHRONY NEEDED FOR NORMAL DEVELOPMENT? Experiments using the still-face technique • Experimental practice in which an adult keeps his or her face unmoving and expressionless in face-to-face interaction with an infant • Babies are very upset by the still face and show signs of stress. Conclusions • Parent's responsiveness to an infant aids psychological and biological development. • Infants' brains need social interaction to develop to their fullest. DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL BONDS • Attachment Watch Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cx4JY2xJ5Xo • Involves lasting emotional bond that one person has with another • Begins to form in early infancy and influence a person's close relationships throughout life • Synchrony – Attuned, responsive, mutually satisfying interactions with caregivers • Demonstrated through proximity-seeking and contact-maintaining • Trust - Attachment works on the premise that we are ‘hard wired’ to seek out relationships with others that promote our physical and internal/psychological sense of security. Attachment The first special relationship we experience develops between parent/caregiver and child. •Optimally begins during gestation •Foundation in infancy •A two-way process •Sets tone for subsequent relationship Why is it our Concern? • • • • • Foundation for learning Brain shaped by early experience Optimal brain development occurs within secure attachments Implications for infant’s sense of security Research: secure babies explore more Research behind Attachment John Bowlby (1907-1990), The Secure Base o Attachment behaviors rooted in survival Mary Ainsworth (1913-1999) o Strange situation (research model) Review Mary Ainsworth research. Strange Situation – Reaction of infant from separation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTsewNrHUHU&index=1&list=PLFAB9E3A8D0F FBA39 Strange Situation A laboratory procedure for measuring attachment by evoking infants' reactions to the stress of various adults' comings and goings in an unfamiliar playroom. Key observed behaviors -Exploration of the toys. A secure toddler plays happily. -Reaction to the caregiver's departure. A secure toddler misses the caregiver. -Reaction to the caregiver's return. A secure toddler welcomes the caregiver's reappearance. DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL BONDS: ATTACHMENT 4 TYPES Secure attachment: A relationship (type B) in which infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver. 3 Types of Insecure Attachment Insecure-avoidant attachment : A pattern of attachment (type A) in which infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver's presence, departure, or return. Insecure-resistant/ambivalent attachment: A pattern of attachment (type C) in which anxiety and uncertainty are evident, as when an infant becomes very upset at separation from the caregiver and both resists and seeks contact on reunion. Disorganized attachment: A type of attachment (type D) that is marked by an infant's inconsistent reactions to the caregiver's departure and return. DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL BONDS: ATTACHMENT – 4 TYPES DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL BONDS: PATTERNS OF ATTACHMENT Type Name of Pattern In Play Room Mother Leaves Mother Returns Toddlers in Category (%) A Insecure-avoidant Child plays happily. Child continues playing. Child ignores her. 10–20 B Secure Child plays happily. Child pauses, is not as happy. Child welcomes her, 50–70 returns to play. C Child clings, is Insecure-resistant/ Child is unhappy, preoccupied with ambivalent may stop playing. mother. D Disorganized Child is angry; may cry, hit mother, cling. Child acts Child may stare or oddly—may Child is cautious. yell; looks scared, scream, hit confused. self, throw things. 10–20 5–10 DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL BONDS: STAGES OF ATTACHMENT Birth to 6 weeks Preattachment. Newborns signal, via crying and body movements, that they need others. When people respond positively, the newborn is comforted and learns to seek more interaction. Newborns are also primed by brain patterns to recognize familiar voices and faces. 6 weeks to 8 months Attachment in the making. Infants respond preferentially to familiar people by smiling, laughing, babbling. Their caregivers’ voices, touch, expressions, and gestures are comforting, often overriding the infant’s impulse to cry. Trust (Erikson) develops. 8 months to 2 years Classic secure attachment. Infants greet the primary caregiver, play happily when he or she is present, show separation anxiety when the caregiver leaves. Both infant and caregiver seek to be close to each other (proximity) and frequently look at each other (contact). In many caregiver–infant pairs, physical touch (patting, holding, caressing) is frequent. 2 to 6 years Attachment as launching pad.Young children seek their caregiver’s praise and reassurance as their social world expands. Interactive conversations and games (hideand-seek, object play, reading, pretending) are common. Children expect caregivers to comfort and entertain. DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL BONDS: STAGES OF ATTACHMENT 6 to 12 years Cultural attachment. Children seek to make their caregivers proud by learning whatever adults want them to learn, and adults reciprocate. In concrete operational thought (Piaget), specific accomplishments are valued by adults and children. Children develop loyalty to family, community, nation. 12 to 18 years New attachment figures. Teenagers explore and make friendships independent from parents, using their working models of earlier attachments as a base. With formal operational thinking (Piaget), shared ideals and goals become influential. 18 years on Attachment reinvented. Adults develop relationships with others, especially relationships with romantic partners and their own children, influenced by earlier attachment patterns. Past insecure attachments from childhood can be repaired rather than repeated, although this does not always happen. DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL BONDS: INSECURE ATTACHMENT AND SOCIAL SETTING Findings • Harsh contexts, especially the stresses of poverty, reduce the incidence of secure attachment. • Insecure attachment correlates with many later problems. Cautions • Insecure attachment may be a sign but may not be the direct cause of those problems. • Attachment behaviors in the Strange Situation constitute only one indication of the quality of the parent–child relationship. • Correlation is not causation! WHEN ATTACHMENT ISN’T THERE • The DSM-5 includes a new diagnostic category for attachment. • Reactive attachment disorder recognizes that some children never form an attachment at all, even an insecure one. DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL BONDS: INSIGHTS FROM ROMANIA • In early 1990s, thousands of children were adopted from Romanian orphanages. Many of these children displayed adverse outcomes. • Adoption https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C-ZIUtJr8nE • Research on them confirms that early experience, not genetics, is their main problem. Agree or disagree? Why? DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL BONDS: SOCIAL REFERENCING • Social referencing • Seeking emotional responses or information from other people • Observing someone else's expressions and reactions and using the other person as a social reference • Utilizing referencing in constant and selective ways RESILIENCE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bAHQJSKZDB0 Video on Resilience and Happiness What is Resilience and how does it impact Happiness? Dr. Martin Seligman – Hope and Resilience Developing Hope and Learned Helplessness https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ptuvg8mnUic DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL BONDS: SOCIAL REFERENCING • Parental social referencing • Mothers use a variety of expressions, vocalizations, and gestures to convey social information to their infants. • Synchrony, attachment, and social referencing are all apparent with fathers, sometimes even more than with mothers. INFANT DAY CARE Proportion of infants in nonrelative care varies markedly from nation to nation. • Involvement of relatives other than mothers varies. • Worldwide, fathers are increasingly involved in infant care but this varies by culture. • Paid leave for mother and fathers (and grandmothers!) varies by nations. • In the U.S., paid leave varies by states and employers. THEORIES OF INFANT PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Psychoanalytic Theory Freud: Oral and anal stages • Oral stage (first year) • Anal stage (second year) Potential conflicts • Oral fixation • Anal personality (disputed by current developmentalists) THEORIES OF INFANT PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Psychosocial Theory Erikson:Trust and autonomy stages • Trust versus mistrust – Infants learn basic trust if the world is a secure place where their basic needs are met • Autonomy versus shame and doubt – Toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of self-rule over their actions and their bodies THEORIES OF INFANT PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Cognitive Theory Working model: Set of assumptions that the individual uses to organize perceptions and experiences • A person might assume that other people are trustworthy and be surprised by evidence that this working model of human behavior is erroneous. • The child's interpretation of early experiences is more important than the experiences themselves. • New working models can be developed based on new experiences or reinterpretation of previous experiences. THEORIES OF INFANT PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT BILL BACHMANN/DANITADELIMONT.COM Sociocultural theory Stranger Danger Some parents teach their children to be respectful of any adult; others teach them to fear any stranger. • Infant emotional development shaped by entire social and cultural context Ethnotheories • Theory underlying values and practices of a culture but is not usually apparent to the people within the culture Personal theories • Theories arising from family and personal history THEORIES OF INFANT PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Proximal parenting • Caregiving practices that involve being physically close to the baby, with frequent holding and touching Distal parenting • Caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from the baby, providing toys, food, and face-to-face communication with minimal holding and touching PROXIMAL AND DISTAL PARENTING • Research findings (Keller and colleagues) • Notable cultural difference exists with newborns and older children. Culture is especially pivotal for the proximal/distal response. • Distal parenting results • May produce children who were self-aware but less obedient • Proximal parenting results • May produce toddlers who were less self-aware but more compliant PROXIMAL AND DISTAL PARENTING Summary • Every aspect of early emotional development interacts with cultural beliefs, expressed in parental actions. • No culture anywhere encourages caregivers to be indifferent to infant emotions. • Cultural differences may become encoded in the infant brain, called “a cultural sponge” by one group of scientists. TYPES OF NONMATERNAL CARE Family day care • Child care that includes several children of various ages and usually occurs in the home of a woman who is paid to provide it. Center day care • Child care that occurs in a place especially designed for the purpose, where several paid adults care for many children. • Usually the children are grouped by age, the day-care center is licensed, and providers are trained and certified in child development. EFFECTS OF INFANT DAY CARE • Infants who were not exclusively in their mothers' care were less advanced emotionally at age 5 (Fergusson et al., 2008). • Center care is beneficial for low-SES families (Peng & Robins, 2010). • There are many cognitive benefits of early day care, especially in language development. EFFECTS OF INFANT DAY CARE • Infant day care is detrimental when the mother is insensitive and the infant spends more than 20 hours a week in a poorquality program. • Family income, culture, religion, and education affect choice of care and child development. • Some studies found boys are more affected than girls. THE SAME SITUATION, FAR APART: INSTEAD OF MOTHERS Casper, Wyoming (left), is on the opposite side of the earth from Dhaka, Bangladesh (right), but day care is needed in both places, as shown here. Reflective Learning Writing Assessment Rubric (for Discussions on Chapters) Points 36-40=A 32-35=B 28-31=C 24-27=D 0-23=F Quality Excellent 90% - 100% Good/Above Average 80% - 89% Average/Fair 70% - 79% Below Average 60% - 69% Poor 59 below% Structure & Writing Sentences are well-phrased and varied in length and type, flowing smoothly from on to another with no run-on sentences or comma splices. Uses more than required full sentences per paragraph with correct grammar and punctuation and quality. Essentially free of grammatical errors; The writing is free or almost free of errors. Sentences are correct with minor variety in length and structure. The flow from sentence to sentence is generally smooth although some run-on sentences are present. Uses more than required full sentences with 1-2 grammar & punctuation errors. A few grammatical errors; There are occasional errors, but they don't represent a major distraction or obscure meaning. Some sentences are awkwardly constructed with run-on sentences that are short, simple and compound sentences prevail. Errors in sentence structure are frequent enough to be a major distraction to the reader. Run-ons and fragments common. Uses the required of sentences and/or paragraphs with 3-4 errors. Several grammatical errors; The writing has many errors, and the reader is distracted by them. Writing is clear, and sentences have varied structure. There is consistent tone and word choice is appropriate with fairly good use of transitions. Writing is clear, but sentences may lack variety. While transitions are present, they do not add to the overall effectiveness of the essay. -Goes beyond the minimum required sentences, elaborating on concepts and provided meaningful connections or examples relevant to the leaner. -Identifies key terms, and links terms to relevancy. -Reflection demonstrates many connections to the theory concepts shows obvious personal depth of thought and reflection. Discusses key terms, concepts and elaborates on them with linkage to oneself or others demonstrating critical thought. Transitions are appropriate and add to the effectiveness of writing. Goes beyond the minimum required sentences, provided meaningful connections or examples relevant to the leaner. Follows directions by writing minimum required sentences, and mentions concepts briefly, yet the depth is lacking. Identifies key terms and links terms to relevancy. Uses less than the full sentences required per paragraph. -Pattern of ungrammatical writing; There are so many errors that meaning is obscured. The reader is confused and stops reading. -Writing is disjointed and poor elements of critical thinking, identifies some key terms. -Refers to key concepts with too much jargon (copying) from text or lecture. Concepts are confusing and hard to follow. Contains fragments and/or run-on sentences. Uses words, sentences from the lectures or book. Errors in sentence structure are frequent enough to be a major distraction to the reader. Run-ons and fragments common. Uses less than the required sentences and/or paragraphs identified on the discussion board or assignment. Pattern of ungrammatical writing; There are so many errors that meaning is obscured. The reader is confused and stops reading. Submits by timelines noted on assignment. Follows directions on assignment. Replies to more than required peers. Submits by timelines noted on assignment. Follows directions on assignment Grammar, Spelling, Writing Mechanics (punctuation, italics, capitalization, etc. Depth and Clarity of Reflection Timeliness & Follows direction Writing is smooth, skillful, and coherent. Sentences are strong and expressive with varied structure. Consistent and appropriate tone and word choice is used throughout the essay. Identifies key terms, and links terms to relevancy. Reflection shows many connections to the theory concepts and shows a personal depth of thought and reflection. Reflection reiterates what the concept is about. shows some connections to the theory concepts shows with some depth of thought and reflection. Submits by timelines noted on assignment. Follows directions on assignment. Plagiarizes/copies from other written work. Has significant writing errors Work is not acceptable due to poor quality. Has all writing into one paragraph – lack transitions . Not submitted on time. Directions not followed. No response to peer. Not submitted on time. Directions not followed. No response to peer. A Closer look at Attachment Theory Part 1 – Attachment Types BENAVIDES LEARNING OBJECTIVES ▪ D ef i n e atta c h m e nt ▪ E x p l a i n h ow atta c h m e nt a n d t r u st a re re l ate d ▪ D e s c r i b e h ow atta c h m e nt o c c u rs A N D va r i o u s t y p e s o f atta c h m e nt p atte r n s ▪ I d e nt i f y b e h av i o rs i n d i cat i n g t h at b a b i e s a re atta c h e d to t h e i r p a re nt s ▪ D e s c r i b e o b sta c l e s to atta c h m e nt ▪ E x p l a i n h ow b a b i e s l e a r n to co p e w i t h fe e l i n g s o f l o s s ▪ I d e nt i f y fa c to rs t h at re l ate to c h i l d ca re a n d atta c h m e nt ❑ H OW A N D W H Y D O ES AT TA C H M E N T A F F EC T R E L AT I O N S H I P S ? ❑ H OW D O ES AT TA C H M E N T T H EO RY H E L P U S U N D E RS TA N D O U R WO R K W I T H FA M I L I ES ? Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Erik Erikson (1963) is the person better Known for bringing attention to attachment. ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Psycho-social theory Eight Stages of man (1963) Mother-Infant attachment Babies emotional needs met satisfactorily in first year Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages BUILDING TRUST A sense of trust grows from fulfillment and satisfaction in the first year of life. ◦ Adult sensitive and responsive to babies signals ◦ Trust vs. Mistrust ◦ Trust is a lifelong issue ATTACHMENT •A lasting emotional relationship that begins in infancy •Optimally begins during gestation •A two-way process •Results in significant relationships •Defines some issues child will carry into adulthood WHAT IS ATTACHMENT? ▪A strong, close emotional bond that is “person-specific” and is enduring across time. ▪Amount and type of care, warmth, protection, and emotional connectivity provided from caregiver to the child determines the nature of the attachment relationship (Ainsworth, 1967) ▪ “A child’s biological tie or bond to her primary caregivers, usually to parents. It is a biological system developed through evolution to protect the child, thus ensuring the likelihood she will grow into an adult and reproduce, thereby guaranteeing gene survival.” (Newton, 2008, p. 9). ▪ Attachment works on the premise that we are ‘hard wired’ to seek out relationships with others that promote our physical and internal/psychological sense of security. •Attachment tells us about the child’s primary relationships and how it influences their development (e.g. social, emotional, cognitive). The first special relationship we experience develops between parent and child IT IS BELIEVED THAT THIS RELATIONSHIP WILL INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF OUR FUTURE RELATIONSHIPS Why is attachment our concern? •Foundation for learning – Healthy attachment provides foundation for later intellectual development •Research: Brain shaped by early experience •Optimal brain development occurs within secure attachments •Implications for infant’s sense of security, later sense of well being •Research: secure babies explore more Review - How Attachment Happens •With Caregivers - Parents, family members and educators who promote: •Synchrony (in sync) •Attuned, responsive, mutually satisfying interactions with caregivers •Trust, basic needs are taken care of and sense of security Do we all need attachment and physical contact? Yes, according the theories of John Bowlby (1969, 1991), that children who form an attachment to an adult are more likely to survive. Attachment not only deepens the parentchild relationship, but may have contributed to human survival. Why do infants form attachments? John Bowlby (1977) argued that the infant’s emotional tie with its mother (principal caregiver) evolved because it promotes survival. Children who form an attachment to an adult develop a deeper parent-child relationship and are more likely to survive. Bowlby also believed that an infant’s early interactions with a parent were crucial to “normal development” Research on Attachment Theory John Bowlby (1907-1990), The Secure Base o Attachment behaviors rooted in survival Mary Ainsworth (1913-1999) o Strange situation (research model) o Secure attachment o Insecure attachment styles Watch Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zcnIo0NZrcw How do you know an infant is attached to someone? How do you know an infant is attached to someone? ▪ Infants show their attachment through proximity-seeking behaviors – their secure base, meaning infants like to be near those we are attached. ▪ The parent or caregiver are connected and shown affection. Bowlby’s Four Stages of Attachment Preattachment phase - Birth - 6 weeks • At birth babies distinguish their mother’s smell and voice • Baby’s innate signals attract caregiver • Caregivers remain close by when the baby responds positively Attachment in the Making 6 wks. to 6-8 months •Develops a sense of trust that caregiver will respond when signaled •Infants respond more positively to familiar caregiver •Babies don't protest when separated from parent Clear-cut Attachment • 6-8 months to 18-24 months • Babies display separation anxiety • Babies protest when parent leaves Formation of Reciprocal Relationship • 18 mo. - 2yrs • Toddlers increase their understanding of symbols and language improves • Toddlers understand that parents will return Factors which Affect Attachment •Opportunity for attachment •Quality of caregiving • respond promptly and consistently • interactional synchrony – the sensitively tuned “emotional dance” •Infant characteristics • infant's temperament, special needs, prematurity, or illnesses More Factors which Affect Attachment • Family circumstances • Stress can undermine attachment • Parents’ internal working models • Parents’ own attachment experiences • Parents’ ability to accept their past The Quality of Attachment 4 types of Attachment 1. Secure Attachment 3 Types of Insecure Attachment 1. Insecure Avoidant 2. Insecure Resistant/Ambivalent 3. Insecure Disorganized Measuring the Quality of Attachment •Mary Ainsworth researched & designed the “Strange Situation” • A lab experiment with 8 different episodes of separation and reunion • Attached infant will: • Use mother as a secure base • Be soothed by the mother during the reunion • Strange Situation – Reaction of infant from separation View Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTsewNrHU HU&index=1&list=PLFAB9E3A8D0FFBA39 Quality of Attachment – Secure Attachment Secure attachment is a relationship of trust and confidence. During infancy this relationship provides a secure base for exploration of the environment. ◦ This group seems to say “I missed you terribly, but now that you’re back, I’m okay.” 60-65% of American children have secure attachment relationships (Kail, 2007). Quality of Attachment – Secure Attachment 3 Types of Insecure Attachment Insecure attachment is a result of mistrust, lack of synchrony 1. Insecure- Avoidant 2. Ambivalent 3. Disorganized Insecure-Avoidant attachment: Infants or young children seem somewhat indifferent toward their caregivers and may even avoid their caregivers Insecure Attachment continued. If they do get upset when left alone, they are as easily comforted by a stranger as . by a parent As if to say, “you left me again, I always have to take care of myself!” Resistant/ambivalent Attachment •Infants or young children are clingy and stay close to their caregivers rather than exploring their environment. •The baby is upset when the mother leaves and remains upset or even angry when she returns, and is difficult to console Disorganized attachment Infants or young children have no consistent way to coping with the stress of the “Strange Situation” ◦ The baby seems confused when the mother leaves and when she returns. This leads to problems with emotional regulation, social function and severe emotional problems. ◦ Less than 5% of middle-class Americans fall into this category. Name that Attachment Relationship! A baby in this group might say “I missed you terribly, but now that you’re back, I’m okay.” A baby in this group might say “You left me again. I always have to take care of myself.” Name that Attachment Relationship! Answers A baby in this group might say “I missed you terribly, but now that you’re back, I’m okay.” Secure A baby in this group might say “You left me again. I always have to take care of myself.” Insecure/Avoidant Name that Attachment Relationship! A baby in this group might say “Why do you do this? I get so angry when you’re like this.” A baby in this group might say “What’s going on here? I want you to be here, but you left and now you’re back. I don’t know whether to laugh or cry.” Name that Attachment Relationship! A baby in this group might say “Why do you do this? I get so angry when you’re like this.” Resistant A baby in this group might say “What’s going on here? I want you to be here, but you left and now you’re back. I don’t know whether to laugh or cry.” Disorganized Watch videos on: Harlow’s Monkeys http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hsA5Sec6dAI Spitz infants in orphanages http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VvdOe10vrs4 Harlow’s work suggested that the development of a child’s love for their caregiver was emotional rather than physiological Harry Harlow (1959) - “The Monkey Love Experiments” How does love develop between mother/caregiver and child? Harlow studied the impact of security and “contact comfort” on infant attachment. He also evaluated whether feeding or contact comfort was more important to infant attachment. http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/ps ycweb/history/harlow.htm • The young animals were “raised” by two kinds of surrogate monkey mother machines. • One mother was made of soft terry cloth, the other made of wire mesh. What does this mean for humans? Harlow showed that the development of attachment was closely associated with critical periods in early life. ◦It is difficult or impossible to compensate for the loss of initial emotional security Harlow “Monkey Love Experiments” continued Harlow's research showed that the need for affection created a stronger bond between mother and infant than did physical needs (food). What happened to these monkeys? Monkeys raised without their mothers or other monkeys were socially maladjusted the rest of their lives. ◦ When confronted with fear, they displayed autistic and institutionalized behaviors-throwing themselves on the floor, clutched themselves, rocked back and forth, and screamed in terror. They were incapable of having sexual relations and they were also unable to parent their offspring, either abusing or neglecting them. Further experiments on abusive conditions showed that no matter how abusive the “Iron Maidens” were, the baby monkeys always came back and displayed affection towards them. EVEN IN THE FACE OF ABUSE, THE NEED FOR LOVE WAS OVERWHELMING "Not even in our most devious dreams could we have designed a surrogate as evil as these real monkey mothers were." Did Harlow’s work influence our society? Less than 50 years ago parents were told by doctors that rocking or picking up a crying infant could “damage” them. True or False? Did Harlow’s work influence our society? Less than 50 years ago parents were told by doctors that rocking or picking up a crying infant could “damage” them. Answer: True True or False? Lack of attachment can be made up for later in life by a lot of contact with peers Answer: False Lack of attachment can be made up for later in life by a lot of contact with peers True or False “Do not overindulge them. Do not kiss them goodnight. Rather, give a brief bow and shake their hand before turning off the light.” Answer: False “Do not overindulge them. Do not kiss them goodnight. Rather, give a brief bow and shake their hand before turning off the light.” Another question It is beneficial to place a newborn directly on its mother's belly after birth True or False? Answer It is beneficial to place a newborn directly on its mother's belly after birth Answer: True 芒果TV电视剧 X 锦衣之下第11X V BXX535 X > (231) 202 X 05. First 2 Yrs. Х S Ask a new qu x 画 爱奇艺-在线视X G Google Trans X + - Х + → C ilearn.laccd.edu/courses/95492/pages/5-first-2-yrs-biosocial-development-powerpoint-lecture-chapter-five?module_item_id=3779484 SS 18 Apps M Gmail YouTube Translate ELAC - GPA Calcul... Maps GE News iFun - 分享欢乐 Announcements Syllabus elac 5. First 2 Yrs. Biosocial Development - Powerpoint Lecture: Chapter Five - Modules Assignments Account Discussions CD1 Ch5 1st 2 YRS-BIOSOCIAL.pptx Grades Dashboard We enter the amazing first two years of life and the next three chapters will cover the infant/toddler's 3 areas of development: biosocial development, cognitive development and psychosocial development: Quizzes Courses People 1. Biosocial - Body Changes and Brain Development, Perception and importance of Good Health 2. Cognitive-Sensorimotor Intelligence and Information Processing 3. Psychosocial- Emotions, and Development of Social Bonds COD DOD Pages Calendar Files E This period of human development undergoes the most tremendous change. Changes occur in so many ways as noted in the 3 areas above. Infants are so dependent on adults and environment and need frequent monitoring to ensure growth and development are optimal. The text discusses concepts of: Conferences Inbox Collaborations (? Help • Failure to thrive Link e Online Learning Book Store SUNMU Library RA1310 Portfolium ConferZoom Chat Office 365 • My husband was a Child Protective Children's Services Specialist a while back and had a case of a six-month infant who died due to failure to thrive. I remember this was one case deeply impacted him. This was a non-organic failure due to child abuse. The child was physically and sexually abused, was hospitalized, but just gave up and passed away. There is also organic reasons as the video will mention. • Importance of sleep and cultural approaches to sleep • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) - As Dr. Paul mentions SIDS is such a devastating experience. I used to direct an early childhood education program with infant, preschool center and we worked with various family child care providers who did their small business in their home. One day our agency was called that one of the providers was crying and screaming about a child not waking up. That day the family child care provider Coordinator was not in. I went to the home and walked into one of the most startling scenes with paramedics, police leaving and seeing the provider hysterically crying saying that the baby just didn't wake up. Then the parent arrives and runs to see e 6) 英拼 2020/3/9 Student Services I 21:13 O 在这里输入你要搜索的内容 jä
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Running head: CHILD DEVELOPMENT REFLECTION

Child Development Reflection
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CHILD DEVELOPMENT REFLECTION
Child Development Reflection
Chapter #5
Chapter five, like the others, already covered, have proved to be very informative about
child development. Failure to thrive in the chapter that I enjoyed the most. Previously, I thought
that failure to thrive was mainly because of poor feeding on the part of the child. However,
chapter five has allowed me to understand the factors that contribute to the development of such
a condition in babies. Major factors that cause the development of such a condition are
categorized into two; organic and non-organic factors (GABAY MEDICAL library, 2020).
Organic factors represent medical conditions such as cleft lip, palate, congenital heart failure and
AIDs, among others. Non-organic factors include babies born of a young mum, lack of social
support for the mother leading to stress and depression, alcohol, marital discord and poverty,
among ot...


Anonymous
Very useful material for studying!

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