Concept and Application Paper

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The aim of this exercise is for the student to take any sport concept as covered in our text (e.g goal setting, anxiety, anger etc) and apply that concept to a sport of their choice to assist an imaginary athlete improve their performance. The length of the paper should be between 4-6 pages double-spaced and reference at least 3 journal articles relevant to their sport. (You only need to cite the references and NOT submit them with the assignment-HOWEVER, you should have the references as I will be asking them from a random sample of students based on their paper). The paper should focus on the athlete's inability and how your application of a PTSP approach will addresses the problem and enhances the athlete's performance.

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Personality as a Core Characteristic of the Athlete Psychology of the Athlete Athlete Personality Psychology of the Athlete Personality and the Athlete Personality & The Athlete  Structure of Personality – Allport (1937) – Hollander (1976) – Kalat (1999) Personality and the Athlete Theories of Personality – Psychodynamic Theories (Freud) – Social Learning (Skinner, Bandura) – Humanistic (Rogers, Maslow) – Trait (Allport, Cattell) Theories of Personality Theories of Personality Social Learning (Skinner, Bandura) Theories of Personality Theories of Personality •Humanistic (Rogers, Maslow) •Trait (Allport, Cattell) Measurement of Personality The Measurement of Personality  Rating Scales – Interview – Observation of Performance Measurement of Personality The Measurement of Personality  Unstructured Projective Techniques – Rorschach Test – T.A.T. Measurement of Personality Structured Questionnaires – MMPI – Cattell 16 PF – NEO-PI – Athletic Motivation Inventory Personality & Sport Performance Personality & Sport Performance  AMI questions fall into three categories – Desire to be successful in athletics – Ability to withstand the emotional stress of competition – Dedication to the coach and sport  “When I was young, I thought about breaking a sports record  “I rarely think that training rules inhibit my personal freedom”  “I seldom stay after practice to work out” Personality & Sport Performance Personality & Sport Performance  AMI questions fall into three categories – Desire to be successful in athletics – Ability to withstand the emotional stress of “There competition is no scientific study to date that – Dedication to thestatistical coach and sport Has shown a strong relationship Between personality and athletic ability”    “When I was young, I thought about breaking a sports record “I rarely think that training rules inhibit my personal freedom” “I seldom stay after practice to work out” Psychology of the Athlete Personality and Sport Performance  Athletes Versus Nonathletes.  Developmental Effects.  Personality Sport Type.  Player Position and Personality Profile.  Personality Profiles of Athletes Differing in Skill Level (see athletic pyramid).  The Female Athlete. 2-13 Athletes vs. Non-Athletes  Athletes vs. Non-athletes – more objective, independent, achievement -oriented, conservative political views  Developmental Effects – Gravitational Hypothesis: Personality & Sport Performance  Gravitational Hypothesis - Do the people who play specific sports have similar indications of their personality …or does Sport participation affect personality? – Stereotypes??  Three hypotheses – Attrition Model: Children who do not have the “juice” drop out – Selection Model: Gravitational hypothesis restated where only certain children with certain personalities join – Change Model: sport changes personality Player Position & Personality Profile Personality Performance Pyramid ELITE OLYMPIC NATIONAL COLLEGIATE SCHOLASTIC ENTRANCE Psychology of the Athlete Interaction Model Accounts for 30-50% of variance Personality alone = weak Mood (situation) alone = weak What is the relationship between the environment & the sport personality? Behavior = f (Personality + Situation) +(P * S) + Error Interaction Model Behavioral factors such as physical and motor ability, not explained by the personality or the situation The Environmental Situation Personality Factors Interaction between person and situation Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS)  Personality Paradox and CAPS - CAPS is a model that helps to explain the paradox.  Cognitive-Affective Processing System - According to CAPS, an individuals’ personality interacts with the environment to determine the behavioral response (performance).  CAPS Filter - A five element filter system determines resultant behavior (figure 2.4). Sport Psychology Concept: In many cases, athletes Playing different positions on the same team can be differentiated as a function Of personality characteristics. This is especially true in sports which require athletes to do different kinds of things. Application : Personality characteristics Of athletes can and should be considered in the Selection of players for certain specialized Positions. Physical characteristics such as speed, power, and quickness still remain important however. Chapter 3 Self-Confidence and Intrinsic Motivation Self Confidence I never had as much will to win a game as I did on that day. I was in trouble many times during the game but didn’t realize it because I never had one negative thought”…..(Jack Morris, Minnesota Twins Pitcher) – Global Self-confidence – Situation-specific Self-confidence Models of Self Confidence  Bandura (Self-efficacy)  Harter (Competence Motivation)  Vealy (Sport Confidence) Bandura’s Theory of Self-Efficacy Successful Performance  Vicarious Experience  Verbal Persuasion  Emotional Arousal  Sport Psychology Successful Performance Vicarious Experience Verbal Persuasion Emotional Arousal Self-Efficacy Beliefs Athletic Performance Harter’s Competence Motivation Theory To Satisfy the Urge to be Competent, the Person Attempts Mastery.  Successful Attempts at Mastery Promote Self-efficacy and Feelings of Personal Competence.  Feelings of Personal Competence Fosters High Competence Motivation.  Harter’s Competence Motivation Theory (Continued)  The Process by which an individual comes to see himself as competent is referred to as the Reflective appraisal process: – Appraisal of others. – One’s own appraisal of self. – One’s appraisal of how others appraise you. Sport Psychology Competence Motivation is influenced…. – By emphasizing the development of Intrinsic Motivation – The amount of time spent in the sport – The level of perceived control by the athlete Vealey’s Multidimensional Model of Sport-Confidence Sport-confidence conceptualized as being more dispositional or state-like across a continuum of time.  The three types of sport-confidence are: - Cognitive efficiency - Physical skills training - Resilience  Sport Confidence Demographics and Personality Characteristics Organizational Culture Sources of Sport-Confidence Achievement Self-Regulation Social Climate Types of Sport-Confidence Physical Skills Training Cognitive Efficiency Affect Resilience Behavior Cognition Uncontrollable External Effects Performance Physical Skills and Characteristics Sport Psychology Objective Sport Situation Trait Sport Confidence (SC-Trait) Competence Orientation State Sport Confidence (SC-State) Behavioral Responses (Performance) Subjective Outcomes Sport Psychology Objective Sport Situation Trait Sport Confidence (SC-Trait) Competence Orientation State Sport Confidence (SC-State) Behavioral Responses (Performance) •Subjective Satisfaction • Success Outcomes •Perceived Causes Measuring Sport-Confidence in Vealey’s Model  The Sport Confidence Inventory (SCI) is composed of 14 items that measure the three aspects of sport-confidence. Competence Motivation Concept: Competence motivation may be enhanced in children through repeated Successful mastery attempts. Application: Redefining success to include positive outcomes other than winning will allow more children to succeed. Success may come in the form of skill improvement, trying, or having fun. Sport Psychology Topics Related to Self-Confidence Psychological Momentum in Sport  Hot Hand Phenomenon  Gender and Self Confidence  Situational Variables that Influence SelfConfidence  Psychological Momentum in Sport     A positive or negative change in cognition, affect, physiology, and behavior caused by an event or series of events that will result in a commensurate shift in performance and competitive outcome. Antecedents-Consequences Model. Multidimensional Model. - Precipitating event. - Momentum chain. Projected Performance Model (Performance fluctuates naturally throughout a contest). Psychological Momentum in Sport  Momentum chain – Momentum starter – Cognition change – Experience – Opponent factors Psychological Momentum in Sport Hot Hand Phenomenon in Basketball    Belief that performance temporarily improves following string of successes. Initial research identified the phenomenon as a myth. Subsequent computer simulation research concluded that “streaks are valid allocation cues for deciding who to give shots to.” Gender and Self-Confidence  Situational Variables. – Strategies to Increase Self- Confidence in Women.  Nature of the Task and Stereotype Threat Theory.  Ambiguity of Available Information.  Social Comparison Cues. Gender and Self-Confidence  Situational Variables. – Strategies to Increase Self- Confidence in Women.  Nature of the Task and Stereotype Threat Theory.  Ambiguity of Available Information.  Social Comparison Cues. Gender and Self-Confidence  Gender Considerations in Self – Confidence – Ensure success through participatory modeling – Avoid gender inappropriate activities – Avoid ambiguity through effective communication – Use effective modeling of correct performance – Decrease competitive situations during learning Concept & Application Concept: Girls and women in sport may not always show the same level of self-confidence as boys or men in the same situation. Factors that tend to lower self confidence in girls and women include nature of the task, feedback, ambiguity and social comparison cues. Application : Coaches need to be aware of the factors that can inhibit selfconfidence in girls and women so as to be able to implement strategies to control these factors. Reducing The amount of competition and emphasizing cooperation should be built into the Learning phases. Integrated Theory of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Sport Social Factors •Success/Failure •Competition/Cooperation •Coaches Behavior Psychological Mediators Perceptions of: Competence Autonomy Relatedness Motivation Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation -Integrated Regulation -Identified Regulation -Introjected Regulation -External Regulation Amotivation Consequences Affect Sportpersonship Persistence Sport Psychology Competition/ Cooperation Success And Failure SOCIAL FACTORS Coaches’ Behavior Sport Psychology C o m p e t e n c e Autonomy Psychological Mediators R e l a t e d n e s Self-Determined Motivation Continuum Self-Determined Motivation Continuum Consequences of Autonomous Motivation  Positive Affect.  Positive Behavior Outcomes (sportspersonship, persistence, etc.).  Improved Cognition. Measuring Self-Determined Motivation  Sport Motivation Scale (SMS)  Sport Motivation Scale – 6 (SMS-6)  Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ) Cognitive Evaluation Theory Sub-theory to the integrated theory of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.  External rewards can affect intrinsic motivation (IM) in one of two ways: - Controlling Aspect (undermine IM). - Informational Aspect (enhance IM).  Controlling Aspect of Cognitive Evaluation Theory  Athlete perceives that reason for participation is to earn reward.  Participation no longer due to love of the activity, but to promise of external reward.  Self-determination or autonomy is lost because athlete feels like a “pawn” who is acted upon. Informational Aspect of Cognitive Evaluation Theory  External rewards do not always result in loss of intrinsic motivation.  If external rewards provide information to the athlete that is taken as evidence of their personal competence, then both feelings of competence and selfdetermination are enhanced. Sport Psychology Concept: External rewards that athletes view as rewards for competent Performance and encouragement for further participation will enhance intrinsic motivation Application: Coaches should carefully consider the perceptions of young athletes have about external rewards. If the rewards are Perceived to represent excellence, they can be valuable. However, if they become more important than the sport itself, they can be damaging. GOAL SETTING GOAL PERSPECTIVE THEORY IN SPORT Achievement Motivation Nicholls’ 1984, 1989 ƒ ( perceived ability) ƒ ( changes in developmental level) ƒ ( learning and cognitive re-structuring) Achievement Goal Orientation  Achievement Goal Orientation – Task Orientation – emphasis is on mastering a skill  Improvement is measured from one point in time to the next – Ego Orientation – emphasis is how athlete compares to other athletes as opposed to self improvement Goal Orientation  Goal Orientation – Children begin as Task Oriented individuals and shift to Ego Orientation once they become aware of others performance (i.e., 6-7yrs) – Perceived ability becomes a function of individual skills relative to other athletes. – Perceived ability at age 11-12yrs is influenced by environmental factors that may direct the athletes attention inward (Task Orientation) or outward (Ego Orientation) Developmental Nature of Goal Orientation LEVEL 4 Clearly knows difference between ability, luck, effort and outcome. Knows that some tasks are harder than others and that degree of effort can enhance outcome requiring high ability Differentiated Goal Perspective LEVEL 3 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 1 Beginning to tell Difference between ability ability & effort. Understands effort does not = ability but can revert into not being able to tell the difference Initial recognition of difference between ability & effort No recognition of difference between ability & effort or luck Undifferentiated Goal Perspective Developmental Nature of Goal Orientation LEVEL 4 Clearly knows difference between ability, luck, effort and outcome. Knows that some tasks are harder than others and that degree of effort can enhance outcome requiring high ability LEVEL 3 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 1 Beginning to tell Difference between ability ability & effort. Understands effort does not = ability but can revert into not being able to tell the difference Initial recognition of difference between ability & effort No recognition of difference between ability & effort or luck SO WHAT ??? Undifferentiated Goal Perspective Differentiated Goal Perspective Goal Perspective Theory Measuring Goal OrientationInvolvement  Goal Orientation (Cont’d) – Can be measured (TEOSQ, POSQ) – Measures athlete’s level of task orientation  Goal Involvement – Situation-specific measure of achievement at certain point in time – Situations that cause awareness of others can cause Ego Involvement, as opposed to those that don’t which is task Involvement Measuring Goal OrientationInvolvement High High task/ Low ego Task & Goal orientation Are independent to each other High task/ High ego Ego goal orientation High Low Low task/ High ego Low task/ Low ego Low Task goal Goal Perspective Theory orientation Measuring Goal OrientationInvolvement Motivational Climate Refers to a learning environment that is either task or ego oriented. Ego oriented environments are stressful to low-ability youths while high- ability youths exceed in either environment. Can be measured by the Perceived Motivational Climate on Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ) Mastery Climate – athletes receive positive reinforcement when there is evidence of:     Hard Work Demonstrable improvement Helping other learn through cooperation Believe that each players’ contribution is important Using “TARGET” Structure Strategy TASK: What athletes are asked to learn, or carry out; e.g. training drills, tests etc. • • • Provide opportunities for personal challenge. Encourage and assist in goal setting (esp. process goals) Individualise training according to developmental needs of the athlete AUTHORITY: The nature and frequency of the decision makingprocess/leadership style; e.g. athlete involvement, setting and enforcement of rules • • • Encourage athletes to be involved in decision-making Create opportunities for athletes to experience leadership Encourage athletes to take responsibility for their won development and self-management. RECOGNITION: Procedures and practices used to recognise progress & achievement; e.g. (reasons for recognition, use of rewards) • • • Use private meetings to provide feedback on athlete’s progress Recognise individual progress, effort and improvement Ensure that all athletes have opportunity to earn rewards GROUPING: How athletes are grouped together in training and competition • • • Provide opportunities to work in groups of mixed ability Vary the size of groups Create opportunities for groups to cooperate to solve training problems etc. EVALUATION: Performance measures and procedures used to monitor progress • Develop performance measures based on effort, improvement, persistence and progress towards individual (process) goals. Involve athletes in self-evaluation and review Make evaluation meaningful and consistent • • TIMING: Appropriateness of the pace of learning and time given to learning and development of performance • • • • Build training programmes that recognise athletes’ different development rate Provide sufficient time before moving on to next stage in skill development Spend equal time with all athletes Assist athletes in establishing training and competition schedules, Sport Psychology Perceived High-ability High Perceived low-ability Low Low High Ego-involved competitive climate Goal Perspective Theory Sport Psychology Table 4.1 Goal Orientation (Personality Trait) 1. Task Mastery Orientation a. Effort important b. Mastery important 2. Ego or Competitive Orientation a. Social comparisons important b. Winning important Characteristics of Different Types of Goal Orientation, Goal Involvement and Motivational Climate Goal Involvement (Psychological State) Motivational Climate (Environment) 1. Task or Mastery Involvement a. Athlete works hard b. Athlete strives for mastery 2. Ego or Competitive Involvement a. Athlete defines ability as winning b. Athlete strives to win Goal Perspective Theory 1. Mastery Climate a. Effort rewarded b. Cooperation emphasized 2. Competitive Climate a. Mistakes punished b. Competition encouraged Goal Orientation and Moral Functioning  Moral Functioning –  Low moral functioning linked to ego goal orientation Moral Functioning – Pro-social Behavior  Mastery-Goal Orientation – Anti-social Behavior  Competitive Goal Orientation Characteristics of Task & Ego Goal Orientations Mastery-oriented athletes feel better when they can attribute their success to hard work. Task-oriented athletes tend to possess “adaptive motivational patterns” When Ego-oriented & the athlete has a low perception of ability they will exhibit a maladaptive motivational pattern There are many combinations between high or low task and ego orientation. The best combination is to be high in both Measuring Motivational Climate  Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire – 2 (PMCSQ-2; Newton et al., 2000).  Perception of Motivational Climate Scale (PMCS; Papaioannou, 2007).  Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports (MCSYS; Smith et al., 2008). Importance of Motivational Climate and Mastery Goal Orientation  Motivational climate influences both goal orientation as well as goal involvement.  Overtime, a mastery climate can cause an athlete to become more mastery (task) goal oriented. 4-17 Goal Orientation and Moral Functioning  Moral functioning is linked with good or bad sportspersonship.  Research links high levels of moral functioning with a task goal orientation.  Research links low levels of moral functioning with an ego goal orientation. 4-18 Core Aspects of Good and Bad Sportspersonship  Prosocial Behavior - Voluntary behavior designed to benefit another person and linked to a mastery goal orientation.  Antisocial Behavior - Voluntary behavior designed to disadvantage, perhaps harm another person, and linked to a performance goal orientation. 4-19 Adaptive Motivational Patterns  Generally exhibited by task goal oriented athletes.  Can be exhibited by an ego goal oriented athlete as long as they have a high perception of personal ability. 4-20 Maladaptive Motivational Pattern  Primarily exhibited by an ego goal oriented individual who has a low perception of their own ability. 4-21 The Matching Hypothesis  The notion that best outcomes in terms of intrinsic motivation, satisfaction, and performance should be associated with a match between goal orientation and motivational climate. Mastery Climate Match  The matching hypothesis suggests that a high mastery (task) goal orientation in combination with a high mastery (task) motivational climate should yield better outcomes than a mismatch between the two. Competitive Climate Match  The matching hypothesis suggests that a high competitive (ego) goal orientation in combination with a high competitive (ego) motivational climate should yield better outcomes than a mismatch between the two. Goal Orientation Antecedents and Outcomes  Research shows that goal orientation mediates the relationship between antecedents of goal orientation (e.g., gender, perceived competence, motivational climate) and goal orientation outcomes. Goal Orientation Antecedents Goal Orientation Goal Orientation Outcomes GOAL SETTING Goal Setting In Sport Concept & Application Concept: Goal Setting improves Performance by directing attention, increasing effort and persistence, and motivating the athlete to learn new learning strategies Application: Goat setting is one of the best Motivational strategies available to the athlete. Coaches and athletes must learn effective goal setting techniques as ineffective goal setting can do more harm than good. Sport Psychology  Goal Type and Effectiveness (3 types) – Outcome Goals – focus is on the outcome (result) of the sporting event with a degree of interpersonal comparison. – Performance Goals – specify an end product of performance to be achieved by the athlete independently of the other players/team. ( It can be a personal best). Preferred because:   If performance goals are accomplished then there is a high likelihood the outcome goals will Personal satisfaction can result even in the face of a loss (outcome goals not fulfilled) – Process Goals –emphasis is on the specific behaviors throughout a sporting performance (e.g., proper batting stance) Sport Psychology: Concepts & Applications Cox Chap 6 Sport Psychology  The Best Goal? – Multiple goal strategy (using process, performance and outcome) is superior to any individual strategy. Sport Psychology: Concepts & Applications Cox Chap 6 Coach Sport Psychology  Why Goal Setting is Effective – Goals direct athlete attention to task at hand Athlete – Goals have a tendency to mobilize effort – Goals lead to persistence as one’s goal will continue until it is attained – Goals lead to the development of new strategies Sport Psychology: Concepts & Applications Cox Chap 6 Sport Psychology Goal-Setting in Sport  Goal Specificity – Throw 10 perfect fastballs is better than throw as many as you can. – Practice goal conditions must be linked with game conditions  Goal Difficulty – Goals must be difficult but attainable so that athlete must have to exert effort  Goal Agreement – Athlete and coach must agree  Goal feedback – – Must be realistic Provide corrective information Sport Psychology Table 10.1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Principles of Effective Goal Setting Make goals specific, measurable, and observable. Clearly identify time constraints. Use moderately difficult goals; they are superior to either easy or very difficult goals. Write goals down and regularly monitor progress. Use a mix of process, performance and outcome goals. Use short range goals to achieve long range goals. Set team as well as individual performance goals. Set practice as well as competition goals. Make sure goals are internalized by the athlete. Consider personality and individual differences in goal setting. Sport Psychology Some people like to use the SMART system for goals:      Simple Measurable Achievable Risk-taking - (tough) Timed - (there's a limit to how long it should take to achieve the goal) Sport Psychology Table 10.2 Examples of Improperly and Properly Written Goal Statements for Tennis Goal Type Poorly Written Goals Rewritten and Improved Goals Process 1. Improve tennis backstroke technique 1. Execute backstroke with firm wrist and with elbow pointed down. Performance 2. Improve first-serve effectiveness 2. During competition, serve no less and no more than 60 percent of first serves into court by end of third tournament. Outcome 3. Improve win/loss percentage over previous year. 3. Maintain number two ranking on team and win five of seven dual-meet matches prior to play-offs. Sport Psychology   Achievement Goals Task Goal States – main purpose is to gain skill/knowledge, exhibit effort, perform to one’s best, and experience personal improvement  Ego Goal States – Athlete is concerned with adequacy of performance in comparison to others    perceptions of competence subjective level of achievement Both goal states are a result of individual differences and situational criteria Sport Psychology: Concepts & Applications Cox Chap 6 Basic Types of Goals  Outcome Goals  Performance Goals  Process Goals Outcome Goals Outcome goals focus on the outcomes of sporting events and usually involve some sort of interpersonal comparison (e.g. win the conference championship). Performance Goals Performance goals specify an end product of performance that will be achieved by the athlete relatively independent of other performers and the team (e.g., 12 rebounds in a basketball game). Process Goals Process goals focus on specific behaviors exhibited throughout a performance. A typical process goal for an athlete might be to keep the left elbow straight while executing a golf drive. Process Goal Paradox  A process goal such as keeping the elbow straight in a golf swing might actually interfere with the smooth execution of a well learned motor skill such as the golf swing. While executing the golf swing, attention should be upon a holistic process goal as opposed to focusing on a body part (e.g., smooth effortless swing). Effectiveness of Goal Types  Used in isolation, outcome goals are the least effective, but when used in conjunction with performance and process goals, they are helpful.  Research supports a multiple goal setting strategy.  Athlete must understand differences and use all three effectively. The Best Goal ? Outcome Goals Focus on Winning Multiple Goal Strategy Most Effective Process Goals Focus on Skill Technique Performance Goals Focus on a skill achievement Why Goal Setting is Effective  Directed attention  Effort Mobilization  Persistence  New Strategies  Positive Affect Sport Psychology Table 10.1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Principles of Effective Goal Setting Make goals specific, measurable, and observable. Clearly identify time constraints. Use moderately difficult goals; they are superior to either easy or very difficult goals. Write goals down and regularly monitor progress. Use a mix of process, performance and outcome goals. Use short range goals to achieve long range goals. Set team as well as individual performance goals. Set practice as well as competition goals. Make sure goals are internalized by the athlete. Consider personality and individual differences in goal setting. The SMART Principle for Effective Goal Setting Goals should be: Specific Measurable Action-oriented Realistic Timely 10-21 A Team Approach to Goal Setting  The Planning Phase.  The Meeting Phase.  The Evaluation Phase. The Planning Phase of Goal Setting 1. 2. 3. Conduct a needs assessment to determine areas of team and individual improvement. Consider how to best approach the team and each athlete relative to proposed team and individual goals. Develop a plan to (a) include athletes in goal setting, and (b) how to implement the plan. The Meeting Phase of Goal Setting 1. 2. 3. 4. Present goal setting plan to athletes. Discuss previous year’s goals and how they impact current season’s goals. Help individual athletes understand the difference between outcome, performance, and process goals. Discuss strategies to help athletes internalize team and individual goals. 10-24 The Evaluation Phase of Goal Setting 1. Conduct goal achievement evaluation sessions following each competition and practice throughout the season. a. Coach summaries to team. b. Individual meetings with athletes. 2. End of season evaluation of goal setting effectiveness and accomplishments. 10-25 Common Goal Setting Pitfalls Poorly written goal statements. Failure to devise a goal-attainment strategy. Failure to follow goal-attainment strategy. Failure to monitor performance progress. Discouragement (goals too difficulty, use of outcome goals, too many goals). 10-26 Common Goal Setting Pitfalls Where Goals can go wrong Coach – Outcome goals can be set instead – – Athlete – – – – – of performance goals Goals can be set unrealistically high Goals can be so vague that they are useless Goal setting can be unsystematic, sporadic and disorganized Too many goals may be set Individual Differences Unrealistic time to goal estimation Only technique related goals Self-Determination Theory and Goal Setting Theory  The Self-Concordance Model.  Two Kinds of Goal Striving.  Research and the Mediation Model.  Research and the Moderator Model. 10-28 The Self-Concordance Model  Addresses the process of goal striving and its effect on well-being within the selfdetermination framework.  Goal Striving is of Two Types: 1. Striving for personal goals that are based upon autonomous motivational regulation. 2. Striving for personal goals that are based upon externally controlled motivational regulation. 10-29 Research and the Mediation Model  Autonomous Goal Striving Leads to Well-being, but not Externally Controlled Goal Striving. Autonomous Goal Striving Effort Goal Attainment Psychological Need Satisfaction WellBeing Research and the Moderator Model  The highest level of need satisfaction occurs when coaches’ autonomy support is high and athletes’ autonomy goal striving is also high. Psychological Need Satisfaction Coach Autonomous Support Autonomous Goal Striving Goal Perspective Theory and Goal Setting  Goal orientation moderates the relationship between goal setting and goal attainment, such that performance goal orientation hampers goal attainment while learning (mastery) goal orientation facilitates goal attainment. Goal Setting Goal Attainment Goal Orientation What the Elite Athlete can Teach us about Goal Setting The Goal Setting Paradox - Most people are only moderately effective in achieving their goals. Research Results with Elite Athletes: Athletes can be grouped as a function of short term goal effectiveness, competitive goal effectiveness, and psychological goal effectiveness. 2. Athletes high in all three functions of goal effectiveness score highest in goal setting frequency, goal commitment, goal barriers, and sport confidence. 1. Concept & Application Concept: Goal setting is an effective motivator of behavior that leads to improved performance, but there are common pitfalls that can interfere with the effectiveness of goal setting program. Application: Two of the most critical Pitfalls to effective goal setting relate to the goal setting plan or strategy designed to achieve a goal, measuring it and then following it. Psychological Skills Training Psychological Skill Characteristics of the Elite Athlete        Personality characteristics are sport specific Strong internal locus of control Intrinsically motivated Mastery & goal oriented Strong coping skills Ability to self talk, use imagery and other psychological methods to increase motivation Mentally tough Characteristics of the Elite Youth Athlete  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Thirteen Psychological Characteristics of Developing Excellence (PCDEs): Motivation Commitment to sport Goal setting ability Quality practice athlete Effective use of imagery Realistic performance evaluation Cope under pressure 8. Possess social skills 9. Competitive 10. Vision of success 11. Ability to work on weaknesses 12. Game awareness 13. Self-belief (confident) 12-3 Elite Young Athletes  Mental Qualities – Enjoyment – Self aware – Confidence  Mental Techniques – Performance strategies – Reflection on action  PCDE’s Motivation, commitment, goal setting, coping under pressure, social skills, vision of success, game awareness Mental Toughness in Sport Psychology of the Athlete Mental Toughness in Sport Mental Toughness in Sport   A multifaceted construct that allows the athlete to thrive in both positive and negative challenges, pressures and adversities AfMTI – Ability to thrive through challenge – Sport Awareness – Tough attitude – Desire for success –  Figure 12.1 Mental Toughness in Sport  Fundamental areas of mental toughness are: – Self-Confidence – Self-Motivation – Negative Energy Control – Positive Energy Control – Attention Control – Visual/Imagery Control – Attitude Control Attributes or characteristics of the mentally tough athlete.  While primarily composed of values, attitudes, cognitions, emotions, and behaviors, mentally toughness also includes some personality traits (e.g., resilience, emotional intelligence).        Self-confident and self-assured Ability to focus and concentrate Intrinsically motivated Strong work ethic Committed to excellence Persistent and determined Positive attitude, no negativism       Resilient in face of failure Thrive on pressure and challenge Consistent personal values Emotional intelligence Physically tough Gracious in face of success 12-9 Models of Psychological Skill Development Models    Self Regulation – Forethought – Performance – Self-reflective Resonance Performance – Flow, intrinsic motivation…’revisit the dream’ Athlete Centered – Athlete must develop physically, psychologically and socially (spirituality). The athlete must not evolve as an athlete but as a person as well  Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC Approach) – Opposes the notion of control of internal stress state and use of PST approach in favor of an overall acceptance of the ‘here-an-now’ in a non-judgmental manner Mindfulness-AcceptanceCommitment (MAC) Model  The MAC model incorporates concepts previously introduced in discussions of positive psychology, Flow, and integrative mind body training.  In the MAC approach to developing peak performance, the athlete does not become alarmed with feelings of high emotion, and try to reduce it, but rather accepts it as being what it is (neither good or bad). 12-11 Sport Psychology Effectiveness of Psychological Intervention Programs  Psychological interventions and programs are effective in enhancing sport performance (Greenspan & Feltz, 1989; Vealy, 1994) 38/45 studies  Psychological Method – practice that leads to improvement in a skill (e.g., goal-setting, imagery, PMR, etc)  Psychological Skill – characteristics (learned or innate) that make it possible/likely to succeed in sport. Psychological Skills & Methods Psychological Method Psychological Skill •Goal Setting •Imagery •Relaxation •Meditation •Self-Talk •Hypnosis •Anxiety Control •Self-Confidence •Mental Toughness •Sport Intelligence •Competitiveness •Worth Ethic •Goal Setting Ability •Hope •Optimism •Adoptive Perfectionism Performance • Objective • Strategic Sport Psychology Measurement of Psychological Skills  Psychological Skills Inventory for Sports  Anxiety control, concentration, confidence, mental preparation, motivation and team performance.  Athletic Coping Skills Inventory  Coping with adversity, peaking under pressure, goal setting/mental preparation, concentration, freedom of worry, confidence and achievement  Test of Performance Strategies  Measures factors in both a practice and competitive situation (self-talk, emotional control, goal-setting, imagery, automaticity, activation and attentional control. Sport Psychology Ethics in Sport Psychology  Competence  Integrity  Professional and Scientific Responsibility  Respect for People’s Rights and Dignity  Concern for Other’s Welfare  Social Responsibility Delivering Psychological Skills Training  Models of Practice and Consideration – Psychological skills training model. – Counseling model – Medical model. – Interdisciplinary sport science model. – Supervisory consulting model. Delivering Sport Psychology Services  Three Types of Sport Psychologist. a. Research b. Educational c. Clinical/Counseling  Philosophical Foundations(Figure 12.3) a.   The model begins with the foundation of personal core beliefs and values. Receptivity of Athletes and Athletic Departments. Building a Private Practice. 12-17 Receptivity of Athletes and Athletic Departments    Research shows that athletes respond positively to a well planned and scientifically constructed psychological skills training program. Uniformed college Division I athletes, however, may be skeptical about working with a psychologist of any kind because of the stigma attached to the title. University athletic directors express appreciation for what a sport psychologist can contribute, but many are not willing to dedicate scarce financial resources to hire a full time sport psychologist, believing that needs are addressed by coaches, counselors, and faculty. 12-18 Building a Successful Psychological Skills Training Practice  Success based upon more that delivering psychological skill training (PST) to the athlete.  Four personal qualities necessary for success.  Five-stage model of professional development. 12-19 Success Depends upon more than Delivery of PST to Athlete  Personal Consulting – Addressing athlete’s personal issues that affect performance.  Parental Consulting – Including the involved parent in the total program.  Coach Consulting – Keeping the coach involved where appropriate. 12-20 Personal Qualities of Consultant Necessary for Success Consultant must be intrinsically motivated for success and not visions of fame and fortune. 2. Consultant must be very patient in building practice. 3. Development of multiple skills that go beyond mental skills training (e.g., counseling skills, public speaking, writing skills, business skills). 4. Consultant must be creative and be able to think “outside the box.” 1. 12-21 Five-stage model of professional development. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Development of necessary knowledge and competencies (e.g., graduate school). Develop unique identity different from other consultants. Develop credibility and trust. Find niche and specialty within sport psychology. Continue to find ways to grow business and clientele. 12-22 Table 12.1 Sample Psychological Skills Training Program (PTSP) Phase 1: Who is the Client? Determine who the client is and develop a working model as to how the PSTP will be delivered. Phase 2: Initial Meeting With Athletes The initial meeting is critical in terms of placing an emphasis upon psychological skills training, and Getting athletes’ and coaches’ commitment to the training program Phase 3: Education of the Sport Psychologist Relative to Activity Ideally, the sport psychologist will be an expert on the client’s sport from a psychological, biomechanical, physiological, and pedagogical perspective. If not, a period of self-education will be required to help the sport psychologist bridge the gap from being a novice to being fully knowledgeable and conversant about the sport. Phase 4: Development of a Needs Assessment Plan In order to develop a needs assessment plan, the sport psychologist must have a working knowledge of athletes’ current psychological skills. This can be accomplished only through formal and informal assessment. 1. 2. 3. 4. Interview Performance Profiling Observation of athlete during practice and competition Skills Training: Use of objective pencil andPsychological paper inventories (CSAI-2,Chap SCAT, POMS, TOPS, ACSI-28, 16-PF) 19 Table 12.1 Sample Psychological Skills Training Program (PTSP) Phase 5: Psychological Methods and Strategies to be Taught Based on the needs assessment it will become apparent where the athletes are lacking relative to psychological Skills. In this phase, a master plan is developed in terms of what, when, and in what sequence psychological Methods are to be taught to address psychological skill weakness. Phase 6: Actual Teaching and learning of Selected Psychological Methods 1. Psychological Methods to be taught, practiced, and applied in competition to enhance psychological skills. a. Goal Setting d. Imagery b. Relaxation e. Attention Skills c. Self-Talk f. Self-Hypnosis 2. Performance Routines to be taught, practiced, and applied in competition to enhance psychological skills. a. Pre-shot b. During Play c. Post-shot Phase 7: Ongoing and End of Season Evaluation of PSTP Psychological Skills Training: Chap 19 Table 12.2 Examples of Performance Routines Used in Sport Routine Sport Situation Steps Pre-Shot Golf Putting 1. Stand behind the ball and “read” the line of the putt. 2. Approach the ball and take two practice s wings. 3. Align the putter to the target, set the feet, and take two glances at the holes. Between-Play Tennis Post-Shot Volleyball Changing Courts Passing 1. Take care of your body and your equipment (water and towel off) 2. Give your mind some relief (focus on positive thoughts). 3. Focus on strategy for next game. 1. Clear mind of results of previous pass by yourself or teammate. 2. Focus on making a perfect pass to the setter. 3. Use self-talk to remind yourself that you are an excellent passer. Psychological Skills Training: Chap 19 Sport and Business Similarities  Organizational issues and similarities.  Sources of stress and stress management.  Development of leadership skills.  Working with high performance teams.  The need for one-on-one coaching/consultation. 12-26 Psychological Skills Training Concept: Psychological skills Training programs have proved effective for athletes in and outside of sports. Application : Athletes and coaches should adopt PTSP programs to help find success on the field and life after sport.
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Explanation & Answer



Concept and Application Paper
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Concept and Application Paper
It is common to see that even the most seasoned athletes underperform and learning the
underlying reasons that contribute to their lagging may be meaningful to explore for solutions to
the problem. Fans are always compelled to see their favorite athletes perform exceptionally as
they outshine their competitors, yet some factors may still restrict them from performing
necessarily. Generally, athletes always along with the coaches who are always sensitive to issues
affecting them and work out to liberate the athletes from these issues, thus boosting their
performance. Various approaches have been engaged for coaches to apply them on their
respective athletes and engaging the right approach depending on the issue the approach seeks to
address will be meaningful in advancing the performance of the athlete (Nicholls et al., 2016).
Some of the approaches that may be engaged to boost the performance of the athlete are goal
setting along with building the personality of the athlete. Being an athletic fan has made me learn
about the capabilities of various athletes, yet some of them still underperform but engaging the
knowledge drawn from the course materials. That said, this paper deliberates about one of the
athletes, the factors that contribute to his inability to perform and later engage a PTSP approach
that will boost his performance.
Athlete Description and Problem Background
A Hispanic American anonymous athlete aged 29 years has always been passionate about
his engagement on athlete sports, specifically the 400 m race. In an interview done by the New
York Times, the athlete reported that his former Physical Education (PE) teacher discovered his
talent while he was still a preschooler. Thereafter, the teacher has been working along with him
to ensure that his talents do not fade away...

Very useful material for studying!


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