utilitarianism, deontology, virtue etchics, 2 discussions sociology homework help

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The purpose of this discussion is to give you the opportunity to apply ethical theories ( utilitarianism, deontology, virtue etchics)  to the complex issue of ageism in the workplace, particularly in the area of employment. In the modern workplace, there appear to be the following three key issues that exhibit ageism in employment, some of which have been exacerbated by recent economic issues and an aging population:

  • Older job seekers fight ageism as a barrier to re-employment
  • Younger job seekers have trouble obtaining career entry
  • Evidence in many countries highlights that older worker employment and youth employment are not connected in any way( lump of labor fallacy).
  • Using at least one ethical perspective or theory from the text and one item of scholarly evidence, present an argument to a group of younger workers (regarding older worker and youth employment) in which you refute the notion that older workers take employment from the young.

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Support your claims with examples from the required resources and/or other scholarly sources, and properly cite any references in APA style 

Regulating Off-Duty Conduct

The purpose of this discussion is to give you the opportunity to apply ethical theories and perspectives ( etchical egoism,emotivism, relativism) to modern issues of the workplace. Off-duty conduct away from the workplace can be monitored and reported in many ways. These ways have only grown due to the increase in social media use, which provides employers far greater opportunities to become aware of what employees do outside of the workplace. Some types of behaviors are especially concerning, as they may have on-duty consequences. Other types of off-duty behavior, however, are more difficult to clearly define as grossly inappropriate and warranting employer intervention. But who draws this line, and what are the ethical implications of where the line is drawn? Prepare and post a response to the following prompt:

Using the resources provided, your own research, and your knowledge of the ethical concepts from the text, consider the issue of off-site monitoring of conduct:

  • Considering your own work experience, imagine a circumstance in which your supervisor monitored your behavior off the job. Describe the circumstances, including how and why your conduct was monitored.
  • Would you consider your example to involve a minor, moderate, or severe invasion of an individual’s privacy? Explain your reasoning. Share your unemotional, well-defined, evidence-based response to your boss to support your viewpoint.
  • What issues do you believe led to your employer monitoring you? Use one ethical theory or perspective to help support your employer’s viewpoint, and use a scholarly source as your evidence.
  • What about your viewpoint as the employee? Use one ethical theory or perspective to support an employee’s right to privacy outside of work, and use a scholarly source as your evidence.

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Support your claims with examples from the required resources and/or other scholarly sources, and properly cite any references in APA style

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10 Anthony Behar/SIPPL Sipa USA/Associated Press The United States in the Global Society Learning Objectives After reading this chapter, you will be able to: • Describe how differences in customs create dilemmas within a society. • Explain some of the ethical issues related to labor and immigrant workers. • Identify issues of justice and fairness related to terrorism and national security. • Discuss ethical difficulties related to the delicate balance between national security and the liberty of citizens. • Apply ethical theory to global issues including cultural differences, immigration, and national security. mos85880_10_c10.indd 275 10/28/13 1:41 PM Section 10.1  The Issue: Culture Clashes CHAPTER 10 Introduction T he world has grown smaller—in the sense that global trade and technology have brought different parts of the world closer together than ever. However, this does not mean that the global economy treats all persons fairly. In fact, some trade agreements might benefit some nations while hurting others. Research has shown, for example, that the North American Free Trade Agreement has harmed agriculture in Mexico through a practice known as dumping, where American agricultural products are exported to Mexico at prices below that at which Mexican farmers can produce the same products. One of the results of economic imbalance is that workers will often travel between countries, migrating to new places in order to find work. But in the United States, as elsewhere, immigration does not happen without difficulty. Some complain that immigrants are taking jobs away from American citizens, many of whom find themselves unemployed. Other concerns are related to terrorism, much of which has been perpetrated by foreigners; allowing immigrants easy entry across borders might open the door to those who would ultimately cause harm to U.S. residents. And, even when it does not affect national security, the mingling of persons from different cultures, religious persuasions, and backgrounds can create societal difficulties. Many of these issues are debated on legal grounds. This chapter focuses on the ethical ramifications of a society in which persons of different nationalities, cultures, and beliefs must coexist, even as government seeks to uphold the rights of all. What moral issues arise within these topics? Are there human rights issues we should keep in mind when thinking about relationships between citizens and noncitizens? Ultimately, if ethics influences public policy—if we are to have policies and regulations that are founded upon moral standards—what should those policies look like? 10.1  The Issue: Culture Clashes I n the spring of 1997, police in New York arrested a woman for child endangerment. The woman, Anette Sorensen, had left her 14-month-old daughter in a stroller on the sidewalk while she dined in a restaurant. In her defense, the mother, a citizen of Denmark, argued that such a practice was common in her native country, where parents prefer to allow their children to stay outside in the fresh air. Additionally, Sorensen insisted that she had been watching her child through the window. Though the charges were ultimately dropped, the child spent several days in foster care while the case was being handled (“Top 10 Innocents Abroad,” n.d.). Situations like this one demonstrate how cultural differences can create problems, resulting from various—sometimes conflicting—expectations about standards of behavior. This is perhaps more commonly encountered when people are traveling in foreign countries, unaware of how their normal practices will be perceived. Such cultural conflicts can also arise within a country; the American Civil War may be arguably understood as representing a clash of cultures over the practice of slavery. How should we deal with cultural conflicts when they arise? What ethical considerations must we weigh? mos85880_10_c10.indd 276 10/28/13 1:41 PM Section 10.1  The Issue: Culture Clashes CHAPTER 10 Differences of Custom An ancient and well-known saying goes, “When in Rome, do as the Romans do.” The origins of this phrase can be traced back to a letter from St. Augustine of Hippo, dating to around 390 (Martin, n.d.). The idea is that people should adopt the customs and habits of the environment in which they find themselves. At the very least, this attitude represents a form of politeness, showing respect for the culture and its traditions and practices. Such cultural adaptability also serves to prevent unnecessary conflicts, because sometimes strong feelings may exist regarding something that is not considered important in another locale. For example, the foot— particularly the sole—is not merely the lowest physical part of the body in the Middle East or in Thailand; to Laurent Rebours/Associated Press display the bottom of the foot toward a person is an insult (Aquino, n.d.). Iraqi citizens showed their contempt for Saddam Hussein Thus, when Iraqis swarmed the topby touching his image with their shoes—a sign of a great disrespect in their culture. pled statue of Saddam Hussein in Baghdad, hitting it with their shoes, the action had symbolic meaning (Gammell, 2008). Iraqis were showing their disdain by using their shoes—insulting Hussein by striking his image with an item that is considered among the dirtiest and lowest in that culture. Why would this matter? It matters because Westerners—men, in particular—have a habit of crossing their legs in a way that exposes the bottom of the foot, facing it toward another person. While Americans think nothing of this posture, some foreigners may view it as an extreme insult. The simple fact is that cultural disagreements are not always about the big issues like slavery; everyday habits, meaningless in one society, may have strong connotations in another. These cultural disagreements present ethical considerations. Ethics focuses upon our interactions with other people, and the ways in which we think about others. To do something knowingly that causes offense means that the person committing the act does not care that the other person is offended. Even when the offense is caused unintentionally, the message conveyed is that the individual did not take the time to understand the possible offense such actions may incur, and this lack of understanding represents a lack of respect for the other. Consider the ethics of Immanuel Kant, for example. The guiding principle behind his ethical framework can be stated in various ways, but one of those, as we have seen, is to say that a person should never act in a way that fails to respect the human dignity of others (Johnson, 2008). When people choose to act in a way that causes offense—or fails to prevent offense from occurring—they are failing to respect the humanity of others. mos85880_10_c10.indd 277 10/28/13 1:41 PM Section 10.1  The Issue: Culture Clashes CHAPTER 10 Even this idea has limits. We are certainly right to question whether something should reasonably be expected to cause offense. In the case of pointing the bottom of your shoe at someone, a respect for humanity would require us to recognize the insult that this conveys in some cultures, and to refrain from causing offense once we recognize this fact. After all, refraining from crossing my legs in that fashion does not fail to respect my own humanity in any way. I may think of leg crossing as amoral, but the meaning implied by crossing my legs certainly has moral implications in particular settings that the ethical person will bear in mind. We must be careful, however, because there are situations in which the “When in Rome” approach is not the ideal. In the pre-Civil War American South, slavery was accepted and common—a culturally established practice. Furthermore, slavery was a part of what enabled the Southern economy to function. While industrialization drove the economy in the northern United States, the agrarian-based economy of the South required the availability of manual labor. In this way, slavery was not a mere cultural tradition for Southerners; it was an economic necessity to ensure delivery of products to market at a reasonable cost. Does the acceptance of slavery in the South—and the economic need for such labor— mean that those visiting the South from other parts of the country or other nations needed to own slaves in a show of respect for Southern cultural tradition? In order to respect the humanity of those Southerners, would visitors need to purchase a slave or two before traveling in the South? Should a Black Northerner have presented himself as a slave when traveling in the southern states, or avoid acting in ways that would offend Southerners? The answer is “no” in all of these cases. The reason is twofold. First, the failure to own a slave would not be disrespectful of the choice of others to do so. That is, displaying the sole of my foot in Thailand is an insult, but failing to own a slave in the pre-Civil War American South is not. Second, and more importantly, even if owning a slave were required to fully respect the humanity of the Southern plantation owner, it would come at the cost of failing to respect the human dignity of the slave. Because of this inconsistency—one person’s dignity must be sacrificed to honor another’s—a deontologist must conclude that the refusal to own a slave (or act like one) should not be viewed as offensive. Being ethical means that we do not have carte blanche to do whatever we choose. It requires us to think about how our actions will affect others around us because ethics is about those relationships. Being ethical means that we are doing what we ought to do— including treating others appropriately. While cultural practices often create conflicts, the ethical response is to avoid creating further conflicts without disrespecting others in the process. Now, let’s consider the implications of this idea within a particular ethical framework that holds acceptance of cultural differences as its core premise: relativism. Cultural Relativism Since cultures contain different practices and traditions, some have suggested that ethics is nothing more than a social construct, dependent upon the culture. As Chapter 1 discussed, cultural relativism suggests that the practices of a society cannot be evaluated outside of the context of that culture; there is no objective standard against which cultural mos85880_10_c10.indd 278 10/28/13 1:41 PM Section 10.1  The Issue: Culture Clashes CHAPTER 10 practices can be measured. In short, right and wrong are not universal but are defined by each culture. This view, originating in anthropology, does seem to reflect the truth that different cultures appear to have different moral codes. What is acceptable in one place is very different from what is considered ethical elsewhere. One example might be different forms of criminal and capital punishment practiced in different societies. In the United States, criminal punishment is for the most part limited to fines and imprisonment; executions are now carried out primarily by lethal injection, although the electric chair, hanging, and firing squads have been utilized in the past. In other parts of the world, penal practices are very different. Execution by means of beheading, stoning, being burned alive, and public hanging is conducted in some places. Criminal punishments in these societies often follow retributive notions of justice: Someone guilty of harming another individual might have the same harm done to them (i.e., “an eye for an eye”). In one instance, a person who stabbed another individual, causing paralysis, was sentenced to surgical paralysis. In another case, a man who disfigured and blinded a woman with sulfuric acid was sentenced to have five drops of hydrochloric acid dripped into each of his eyes (the criminal was pardoned before the sentence was carried out). Thieves are often punished with amputation, as in the case of four teenagers caught stealing in Somalia; each of them was punished by having an arm and a leg amputated (“Punishments Around the World,” n.d.). These practices might seem barbaric to Americans unaccustomed to such punitive measures. While some would claim that the purpose of punishment is to deter others from committing crimes, others (like philosopher Jeffrey Reiman) argue that a refusal to inflict barbaric punishments sends a strong message about our lack of tolerance for such actions (Scully. n.d.). In other words, if taking a life is wrong, then refusing to take the lives of even those who deserve such punishment more strongly emphasizes the wrongness of the act, according to Reiman’s argument. Cultural relativists have a different take. In their view, the treatment of convicted criminals is relative to the culture in which the punishment is performed. Any condemnation that one society might offer another is based upon the ethical standards of their own culture, standards that may not transfer to other social contexts. In the relativist view, if no objective moral truths apply to all cultures, then on what grounds is it possible to judge any culture’s punishments as excessive? Cultural relativism argues that societies must respect differences among cultures, refraining from assuming that their own traditions are better than others’. Many philosophers, however, consider relativism a flawed ethical perspective. Among other problems, notice that the inability to criticize other cultures must apply to one’s own culture as well; if right and wrong are always defined by culture, then no society can ever criticize itself or suggest that moral progress could be brought about through change. In theory, cultural relativists cannot accept such thinking because whatever a culture happens to adopt for itself must be right for that culture. Philosophy professor James Rachels of the University of Alabama observes that cultural relativism is founded upon empirical evidence, which suggests that different practices mos85880_10_c10.indd 279 10/28/13 1:41 PM Section 10.2  The Issue: Immigration and the Labor Force CHAPTER 10 must imply varying moral codes. Rachels suggests that a better way to understand these differences is to recognize the common values underlying different cultural practices (which are distinct due to different living conditions, dominant religions, and so forth). Thus, all societies prohibit murder, for example, because such a prohibition is necessary for society to exist (Rachels, 1986). Because these underlying values are shared, there exists less moral difference than the practices through which those values are expressed would seem to suggest. Other philosophers, however, insist that cultural relativism is a valid ethical perspective. Richard Rorty of Stanford University is such philosopher. Rorty points out that all ideas are dependent upon a rational context—meaning that some reasons will appeal to some people (based on their experiences and understanding) but will have little value for others. It is impossible, Rorty argues, to find reasons that are able to transcend a cultural context and find universal validity (Grippe, 2006). Because of this, morality—and the reasons that support moral claims—are inextricably connected to cultural contexts. Undeniably, culture provides us with a lens through which we view the world, including that which we find acceptable or unacceptable. Ethics also influences these considerations, though, by helping identify those things that we should find acceptable. Perhaps we should be careful not to judge other practices too quickly because it may be that a certain way of acting—while foreign to the observer—is neither better nor worse than other actions that could be chosen. But even if ethical truth is restricted to a particular cultural context, as argued by Rorty, cultural practices can still be evaluated on ethical grounds; such evaluations are even more important when ethical truth is believed to transcend cultural boundaries. The goal of ethics is to help us understand what sorts of practices should be adopted or avoided. Because of this, it would be wrong to simply adopt a “When in Rome” approach under the assumption that whatever a culture happens to choose for itself must be right. Now that we’ve considered the question of distinct global cultures through an ethical lens, we turn our attention to a pressing social issue in which cultural differences play a central role: immigration. We’ll look at the driving factors surrounding immigration in the United States and abroad, and then consider some of those factors within an ethical framework. 10.2  The Issue: Immigration and the Labor Force W hen the carnival pulls into town, many of the workers who assemble and operate the equipment are foreigners who are legally working in the United States. In fact, fairs and carnivals often employ up to 5,000 foreign workers each year. These individuals are documented migrants under the H-2B program of the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service. The holder of an H-2B visa is allowed to work a job that is considered temporary, and for which the employer is unable to find willing and qualified American workers. Foreign nationals who come to the United States on a work permit are treated as any other worker. Employers must withhold taxes from their paychecks, and just like citizens, these individuals must file an income tax return each year. The foreign worker on a visa is distinct from someone not authorized to work or reside in the United States—who has mos85880_10_c10.indd 280 10/28/13 1:41 PM Section 10.2  The Issue: Immigration and the Labor Force CHAPTER 10 come into the country illegally—and who is not subject to taxation. Laws prohibit the employment of these undocumented residents (sometimes referred to as “illegal aliens” or just “illegals”), but it occurs nonetheless. In an effort to conceal the employment of undocumented workers, they are usually paid in cash. Different Classifications of Foreign Nationals in the United States U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services issues different types of work permits to foreigners based on the type of work they are allowed to perform while they are in the country. These work permits are issued for different periods of time, which are appropriate for the type of work involved. Some classifications include: • H-1B—for specialty occupations, including fashion models, or research purposes (generally allowing the person to stay for up to 3 years); • H-1C—for registered nurses, when the Department of Labor identifies a shortage (generally offered for up to 3 years); • H-2A—for temporary agricultural workers (limited to the time period on the application provided by the employer, but not to exceed 3 years); and • H-2B—for temporary nonagricultural workers (limited to the time period on the application provided by the employer, which can be extended in 1-year increments, but not to exceed 3 years), In many of these classifications, those who stay within the United States for the maximum allowable time must return to their native country for a period of time (usually 3 months) before they can apply to be readmitted to the United States for another period of employment. The working conditions encountered by migrant workers are frequently harsh. Nicolas Perez came from Mexico in 2008 under the H-2B program. His job was to assemble, operate, and disassemble a roller coaster ride. Throughout the fair season, which lasts 9–10 months, Perez repeatedly had to climb the 130-foot-tall ride structure for assembly or disassembly with no safety equipment. He typically worked 12- to 13-hour days, staying in cramped, overcrowded, and unclean trailers provided by the employer. For his labor, Perez received a set weekly pay ...
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Running head: ETHICS



Part one: Ageism

Ageism can be described as the discrimination and stereotyping of groups or individuals
based on their age. The phenomenon has been blamed for many shortfalls in the workplaces,
especially when it comes to employment. Many people have the belief that ageism has cost both
the young and old. It has been said that because of ageism, the older job seekers are finding it
difficult to be re-employed. At the same time, the younger ones are finding it hard to get into
jobs. The big question is how true are the above claims?
Today, the job market has become very competitive than ever before....

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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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