NRS 451 GCU Wk 4 Organizational Culture and Value PowerPoint Presentation

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Business Finance

NRS 451

Grand Canyon University



Organizational Culture and Values

Prepare a 10-15 slide PowerPoint presentation, with speaker notes, that examines the significance of an organization's culture and values. For the presentation of your PowerPoint, use Loom to create a voice-over or a video. Refer to the Topic Materials for additional guidance on recording your presentation with Loom. Include an additional slide for the Loom link at the beginning, and an additional slide for References at the end.

  1. Outline the purpose of an organization's mission, vision, and values.
  2. Explain why an organization's mission, vision, and values are significant to nurse engagement and patient outcomes.
  3. Explain what factors lead to conflict in a professional practice. Describe how organizational values and culture can influence the way conflict is addressed.
  4. Discuss effective strategies for resolving workplace conflict and encouraging interprofessional collaboration.
  5. Discuss how organizational needs and the culture of health care influence organizational outcomes. Describe how these relate to health promotion and disease prevention from a community health perspective.

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evidence & practice / CPD / professional issues LEADERSHIP Developing the organisational culture in a healthcare setting NS926 Nightingale A (2018) Developing the organisational culture in a healthcare setting. Nursing Standard. 32, 21, 53-62. Date of submission: 21 September 2017; date of acceptance: 17 November 2017. doi: 10.7748/ns.2018.e11021 Adele Nightingale Senior lecturer in healthcare leadership practice, School of Health Science, University of Central Lancashire, Lancashire, England Correspondence Conflict of interest None declared Peer review This article has been subject to external double-blind review and has been checked for plagiarism using automated software Revalidation Prepare for revalidation: read this CPD article, answer the questionnaire and write a reflective account: revalidation Online For related articles visit the archive and search using the keywords To write a CPD article Please email tanya. Guidelines on writing for publication are available at: Abstract This article aims to define organisational culture and explain why it is important to patients, carers and those working in healthcare environments. Organisational culture is not a new concept and the literature on the subject is well-established. However, because of the changing dynamics of the NHS, there has been a shift away from ‘what’ the NHS stands for, often relating to its history and rituals, to ‘who’ it functions for, including how healthcare professionals such as nurses can develop and drive the organisational culture. The article seeks to assist nurses in understanding the role of organisational culture, as well as implementing its main principles in the workplace. Keywords effective healthcare delivery, leadership, management, organisational culture, professional issues, values Aims and intended learning outcomes The aim of this article is to assist nurses in understanding the role of organisational culture in effective healthcare delivery, primarily within the NHS. After reading this article and completing the time out activities you should be able to: »» Describe what constitutes organisational culture within a healthcare setting. »» Outline some of the theoretical frameworks of organisational culture. »» Understand the role of organisational culture and its importance in effective healthcare delivery. »» Reflect on the steps that can be undertaken to improve organisational culture in the healthcare setting. Relevance to The Code Nurses are encouraged to apply the four themes of The Code: Professional Standards of Practice and Behaviour for Nurses and Midwives to their professional practice (Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) 2015). The themes are: Prioritise people, Practise effectively, Preserve safety and Promote professionalism and trust. This article relates to The Code in the following ways: »» The Code states that nurses should practise effectively by working cooperatively with their colleagues. Being aware of the role of organisational culture in influencing healthcare delivery supports nurses to provide effective patient care. »» It emphasises that examining organisational culture enables nurses to understand an organisation’s underpinning values, which should encompass person-centred care and working in partnership with patients. The Code states that nurses should act in partnership with those receiving care, assisting them to access relevant information and support when they require it. »» The Code states that nurses should act as a model of integrity and leadership for others to aspire to. Leadership and role-modelling are an integral part of an effective organisational culture, encouraging staff to reflect the volume 32 number 21 / 17 January 2018 / 53 evidence & practice / CPD / professional issues KEY POINT Organisational culture is a complex concept that reflects the values and beliefs that underpin a workplace’s performance. It is often referred to colloquially as ‘the way things are done around here’ (Watkins 2013, West 2016) values that underpin an organisation’s philosophy. »» It states that the qualities of an effective leader include communication skills, teamwork, honesty, integrity and compassion. The Code states that nurses should act with honesty at all times, treating people fairly and without discrimination, bullying or harassment. Introduction Organisational culture is a complex concept that reflects the values and beliefs that underpin a workplace’s performance. It is often referred to colloquially as ‘the way things are done around here’ (Watkins 2013, West 2016). Several high-profile healthcare scandals in the UK, such as the suboptimal care provided at Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust (Francis 2013), and the Bristol Royal Infirmary inquiry into the treatment of infants with congenital heart disease (Kennedy 2001), have emphasised the role of organisational culture in influencing the quality of healthcare provision. This article explores the concept of organisational culture, its effect on healthcare delivery and some of the factors that can be used to improve its influence in an organisation. The article will draw on theoretical frameworks to outline the link between theories of organisational culture and clinical practice. The development of subcultures within an organisation, such as individual wards or healthcare departments, will be addressed, encouraging nurses to explore the positive and negative effects that these can have on the wider culture of healthcare organisations and, consequently, on patient care and outcomes. Defining organisational culture Culture is described as ‘the ideas, customs and social behaviour of particular people in society’ (Oxford Dictionaries 2017), while West (2016) stated that organisations should develop an environment in which staff can flourish. Organisations should also seek to implement a culture where conditions are suitable for growth, which, in healthcare terms, would 54 / 17 January 2018 / volume 32 number 21 include promoting clinical excellence, staff engagement and morale, and protecting the culture while it is developing. Organisational culture is defined in a variety of ways. Early literature on the subject included descriptive terms to define organisational culture such as the ‘attitudes’, ‘beliefs’ and ‘behaviours’ of people within an organisation (Schein 1985, Handy 1993). Mullins (2005) outlined traditions and values as being important facets of organisational culture. However, these descriptions provide a retrospective view of organisations as opposed to a prospective vision, where the culture is constantly evolving and is focused on the future and overcoming any challenges (Anderson 2017). Organisational culture can also refer to the prevailing routines within an organisation, which can include ritualistic practice (Watkins 2013). Ritualistic practice demonstrates that an organisational culture does not encourage change and is static rather than evolving. In this sense, people entering an organisation may accept existing routines, rather than bringing new ideas and methods of working to the organisation. For the purposes of this article, a positive organisational culture is defined as the vision, values and behaviours of an organisation and the people within it, where staff are provided with the direction and resources that enable them to thrive (Anderson 2017). TIME OUT 1 Consider a specific task regularly undertaken in your organisation, such as a ward round or clinical procedure. Which factors, for example role boundaries, responsibilities, policies and rules, influence how this task is undertaken? Also, consider which healthcare staff members exercise the most influence on how tasks are traditionally undertaken. If you wanted to change the way this task was undertaken, how easy would it be to do this? Theories of organisational culture There are several theories of organisational culture, which make the concept a complex one to explore. For example, Handy (1996) described four types of culture: »» Power culture – where decision-making power is attributed to certain people. For related CPD articles visit This does not reflect the current NHS leadership model, where there is a drive towards team decision-making (University Hospitals of Morecambe Bay NHS Foundation Trust 2016). »» Role culture – involves roles and responsibilities being delegated to staff who have the appropriate education, qualifications and areas of interest. While role culture is aligned to the principles of the modern NHS, it could be suggested that it lacks an aspirational element that could unlock the potential of healthcare staff. »» Task culture – concerned with developing teams in which individual members have a common interest in overcoming challenges and achieving targets. However, consideration should be given to the human element of effective teamwork, for example active listening skills, empathy and compassion. Various teams within an organisation such as the NHS may have common interests, but they are still required to interact, communicate and collaborate effectively. »» Person culture – describes a culture where staff consider themselves first before taking responsibility for the organisation as a whole. Again, this is at odds with the modern NHS interpretation of organisational culture. These culture types do not exist in isolation in any single organisation, and no one theoretical type of organisational culture is superior to another. An organisation can fluctuate in and out of each of the culture types described by Handy (1996); similarly, all four types can coexist. The drivers of these types of culture may involve a response to a situation, a change in circumstances or individual personality types. Classifying an organisational culture enables healthcare services to identify potentially challenging factors, such as leadership style, organisational structure and performance. However, the limitation of attempting to classify an organisational culture is that the organisation itself can become categorised. This can result in individuals entering the organisation with preconceived ideas, which has the potential to exacerbate a negative culture. Referring to corporate culture in particular, Deal and Kennedy (1982) developed a framework of six cultural elements that formed the foundation of an organisation, described in Box 1. This framework was later revised by Johnson et al (2008) to reflect the concept of the ‘cultural web’ and includes: »» Stories – a cultural element, which comprises events from the past that demonstrate what the organisation perceives as exceptional behaviour. This exceptional behaviour can be used as part of an appreciative inquiry model, whereby individuals reflect upon a task they have undertaken well, before considering how their performance could be improved (Cooperrider and Srivastva 1987). »» Rituals and routines – while these can be positive, for example employee of the month awards, they can also foster a negative culture since they rely on people’s perceptions of acceptable behaviour. »» Symbols – visual representations of the organisation, which might include corporate branding, uniforms and logos. KEY POINT Classifying an organisational culture enables healthcare services to identify potentially challenging factors, such as leadership style, organisational structure and performance. However, the limitation of attempting to classify an organisational culture is that the organisation itself can become categorised BOX 1. Framework of six cultural elements that form the foundation of an organisation »» History – a shared narrative that acts as the foundation for an organisation’s culture, where traditions provide core values »» Values and beliefs – the organisation’s cultural identity is developed through shared beliefs of what is important. These values determine what the organisation stands for »» Rituals and ceremonies – comprise the regular activities that employees use to bond, such as tea rounds or birthday celebrations »» Stories – examples of employees’ actions that reflect the organisation’s values and function as exemplars to guide others on what is expected of them »» Heroic figures – employees whose status in the organisation increases because their behaviour and performance reflects the organisation’s values. These heroes act as role models for employees »» Cultural network – represents an organisation’s informal network where the most important information is often learned (Adapted from Deal and Kennedy 1982) volume 32 number 21 / 17 January 2018 / 55 evidence & practice / CPD / professional issues KEY POINT The cultural web provides a framework for considering the factors that influence an organisation’s culture and identifying areas of strength and weakness »» Organisational structures – these generate the lines of power and influence in an organisation. They can refer to formal structures that dictate which staff possess decisionmaking powers, or informal structures where decision-makers without formal responsibility can influence other staff members. »» Control systems – systems and processes that have influence over elements such as finances, quality and rewards. »» Power structures – relates to the people in an organisation that have strategic vision and influence and are responsible for decision-making. TIME OUT 2 Reflect on Johnson et al’s (2008) six elements of organisational culture (the cultural web). Can you provide examples of each element from your workplace? What does this tell you about your workplace’s organisational culture? The cultural web provides a framework for considering the factors that influence an organisation’s culture and identifying areas of strength and weakness. Leaders and managers can use the six elements of the cultural web to analyse the state of an organisation and identify areas of optimal practice. The cultural web can also be used to identify an action plan for further development, which incorporates measurable outcomes. Schein (1985) devised a model of organisational culture that considers visible and invisible elements. This model operates on three tiers: »» Artefacts – the structure and the process of an organisation. These are visible, but often not understood. »» Espoused values – the publicly expressed strategies, goals and philosophies of an organisation. Challenges may arise if an organisation’s espoused values do not match the perceptions of the organisation’s members. »» Underlying assumptions – the shared values within an organisation, which are often unconscious. These values are often ill-defined, and can be invisible to the members of the organisation. 56 / 17 January 2018 / volume 32 number 21 The models of Schein (1985), Handy (1993) and Johnson et al (2008) provide an indicative, rather than exhaustive, introduction to organisational culture. Theoretical concepts of organisational culture also fail to explain how the human element can be integrated, which is important in delivering healthcare. Schein (1985), Handy (1993) and Johnson et al (2008) presented a strategic view of organisations, which have a perceived hierarchy and established characteristics, and while Schein (1985) alluded to the human element, it was not described. This theoretical approach does not reflect the perception of organisational culture within the NHS, where patient safety and the principle of ‘putting the patient first’ are paramount (Francis 2013). Reports into the efficacy of NHS trusts have demonstrated a desire to learn lessons from the past and develop an organisational culture that focuses on improving patient care (Kennedy 2001, Francis 2013, Kirkup 2015). Organisational culture in the NHS High-profile cases of suboptimal care have contributed to a perception that the NHS’s organisational culture required change. For example, Kennedy (2001) cited the Bristol Royal Infirmary inquiry into the treatment of infants with congenital heart disease, which detailed how the organisational culture contributed to inadequate care. Kennedy (2001) described a ‘club culture’ to which some senior managers belonged while others were excluded; where the challenging of policies was seen as disloyal; and where healthcare staff’s career progression depended on whether they were part of a clique rather than their performance. Organisational culture was also a common theme to emerge from the Report of the Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust Public Inquiry (Francis 2013), which detailed the ‘appalling suffering’ of many patients. The report stated that organisational culture was an important determinant in developing a safe healthcare system, and requires a culture of openness and learning, where healthcare For related CPD articles visit staff are able to voice concerns. One of the recommendations of the report was to ‘foster a common culture shared by all in the service of putting the patient first’ (Francis 2013). The report concluded that a shared organisational culture provides healthcare staff with a sense of unity and fosters understanding between them, which in turn provides a framework for the implementation of optimal patient care. Another document that detailed the importance of organisational culture was The Report of the Morecambe Bay Investigation (Kirkup 2015), which detailed serious incidents in maternity services that were provided by what became the University Hospitals of Morecambe Bay NHS Foundation Trust. The report described a culture of ‘them and us’, where suboptimal relationships had developed between groups of healthcare staff, and detailed how ineffective communication impeded the delivery of care. However, in response to these failings, a follow-up report described how the trust recognised that improving organisational culture was an ongoing process, and that enhancing the quality and safety of care required team-based decision-making and an improved awareness of the way in which individuals communicate compared with that which existed in the past (University Hospitals of Morecambe Bay NHS Foundation Trust 2016). These high-profile cases have demonstrated the effect of suboptimal organisational culture on patients and healthcare staff. A situation where healthcare staff work in isolation, are fearful of challenging colleagues and know that ‘not fitting in’ can affect their career progression, is not conducive to a healthy working environment (Kennedy 2001, Francis 2013, Kirkup 2015). Dawson (2014) examined the way in which healthcare staff’s experiences of the workplace are associated with the quality of care delivered, and explained that there is a direct link between healthcare staff’s motivation, involvement and advocacy, and patient mortality. Dawson (2014) stated that low levels of healthcare staff engagement can have an adverse effect on patient outcomes, whereas organisations that fostered a sense of positivity, caring and compassion were associated with optimal outcomes. Organisational culture in practice In the Report of the Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust Public Inquiry, Francis (2013) detailed how healthcare staff accepted suboptimal standards of care, and exposed a toxic culture that focused on financial and clinical targets to the detriment of safe practice. This was compounded by confusion regarding roles and responsibilities, as well as a lack of accountability. The healthcare staff working at the trust also feared adverse repercussions if they reported suboptimal practice, which led to low morale and a lack of open and transparent communication. The Mid Staffordshire example demonstrates that organisational culture has an overarching influence on the development of a service, which, if not driven by people with the appropriate values and skills, can have a negative effect on patient outcomes. Organisational culture is a commonly used term, but for it to have meaning and relevance, it is important that healthcare staff and patients understand its significance, and how it can affect them. NHS service providers generally have a mission statement, which indicates the aims of the organisation (Anderson 2017). This is further enhanced by the development of a vision, which is described by Anderson (2017) as ‘where the organisation would like to be’. The vision is further supported by a set of values that members of the organisation collectively aspire to. The NHS is a multifaceted organisation where decisions made in one unit or department can affect other departments. It also has seven overarching core principles, to which the whole system subscribes (Box 2) (NHS England 2015). However, within such a complex organisation as the NHS, core principles must be devolved to smaller services within the organisation, including private and voluntary providers, GP surgeries, foundation trusts and NHS trusts. The individual service providers will KEY POINT Organisational culture has an overarching influence on the development of a service, which, if not driven by people with the appropriate values and skills, can have a negative effect on patient outcomes volume 32 number 21 / 17 January 2018 / 57 evidence & practice / CPD / professional issues KEY POINT Within individual NHS organisations, the overall NHS vision should be achieved by demonstrating values such as teamwork, compassion, respect and integrity, as well as healthcare staff being accountable and responsible for their actions (NHS England 2014) further delegate these principles from board level to front-line healthcare staff. Where an individual, unit or department sits within a larger organisation will often determine how they engage with the organisational culture; for example, an individual who considers themselves to have no strategic input into the organisation may find it challenging to translate the organisation’s principles into meaningful action. In the NHS, any service’s mission statement should be strategically aligned to the NHS’s core values detailed in the strategic vision set out in the Five Year Forward View (NHS England 2014). This vision is designed to ensure that healthcare service providers deliver high-quality, compassionate care that is built on the principles of the NHS. Similarly, the NHS strives to develop a culture that provides healthcare staff with the freedom and confidence to act in the best interests of patients (NHS England 2014). Within individual NHS organisations, the overall NHS vision should be achieved by demonstrating values such as teamwork, compassion, respect and integrity, as well as healthcare staff being accountable and responsible for their actions (NHS England 2014). The values of individual trusts will have similarities and differences, but they should all be recognisable as an interpretation of the NHS’s core principles (Box 2). This will demonstrate that the NHS has a clear and definitive plan that has been recognised and implemented strategically. BOX 2. Seven principles that guide the NHS »» The NHS provides a comprehensive service, available to all »» Access to NHS services is based on clinical requirements, not an individual’s ability to pay »» The NHS aspires to the highest standards of excellence and professionalism »» The patient will be at the heart of everything the NHS does »» The NHS works across organisational boundaries »» The NHS is committed to providing optimal value for taxpayers’ money »» The NHS is accountable to the public, communities and patients that it serves (Adapted from NHS England 2015) 58 / 17 January 2018 / volume 32 number 21 The way in which the NHS’s core principles and values translate to clinical practice should be considered. The values of the NHS reflect the expectations of the professional bodies represented with the organisation (NMC 2015, Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) 2016, General Medical Council 2017). The culture within the NHS should reinforce healthcare staff’s professional values, which in turn should be accessible by the general public. Any registered healthcare professional within the NHS should aim to lead by example and demonstrate their professional, and the NHS’s, values in their everyday practice. The culture of a workplace influences the way in which employees behave, both within and outside of the organisation (Kennedy 2001). The culture of the NHS fundamentally affects the way in which healthcare professionals treat each other and their patients; for example its commitment to patient safety contributes to the way in which staff care for patients, respond to incidents and develop a safe environment (Dawson 2014). Shared values establish the type of behaviours that healthcare staff expect of each other and represent the cultural values learned by those new to the team or organisation. This can have both positive and negative connotations. For example, a positive culture is one where healthcare professionals feel that they can raise concerns, which will have a positive effect on both healthcare professionals and patients (Dawson 2014). Wards or departments that seek to acknowledge and learn from mistakes, and which foster a culture of learning, will assist healthcare staff to deliver safe and effective care in a supportive environment (Francis 2013). Conversely, a ward or unit where the healthcare staff feel powerless or frightened to speak out can lead to them abandoning their professional values and conforming to the negative culture, taking sick leave or ultimately leaving the profession (Kennedy 2001). Organisational subcultures An organisational subculture is essentially a microculture that exists within a larger For related CPD articles visit organisational macroculture (Bacon 2014). Examples in healthcare include wards, departments or practices within a trust, which in turn form part of the wider NHS. A subculture may coexist interdependently with others or cause conflict. Organisational culture is important since it influences the process of socialisation for team members and shapes organisational behaviours through social interaction. In this way, employees gradually learn what behaviours are acceptable (Kennedy 2001, Barr and Dowding 2012). On a micro level, when starting on a ward or placement, a new member of healthcare staff will learn the ward’s rituals and ‘how things are done’. It is easy to be influenced by others, and Schein and Schein (2017) suggested that new healthcare staff should manage their feelings of wanting to be included, which involve personal identity and being accepted. New recruits to a workplace will look for confirmation that they ‘fit in’ and are demonstrating behaviours that are deemed correct and acceptable to others (Parkin 2010). Individuals within the workplace, usually the leader, will have an input into developing the culture, which again can be positive or negative and has a direct effect on the experiences of patients, carers and healthcare staff (Dawson 2014). (2017) suggesting that leadership is the primary factor in developing a positive organisational culture. An effective organisational culture should be sustainable and have a clear sense of direction, and leaders can have an important part in establishing the organisation’s values (Robinson and Tyndale-Biscoe 2012). The title of leader should not be automatically bestowed on those in the higher levels of an organisation and is not a job role in itself. Leadership incorporates the actions of individuals, which reflects the concept that each interaction at every level shapes the organisational culture (West et al 2014). The concept of collective leadership involves all members of an organisation taking responsibility for their actions, dependent on their expertise, capability and motivation. Collective leadership is described by West et al (2014) as ‘the distribution and allocation of leadership power to wherever expertise, capability and motivation sit within organisations’. This would involve ensuring that any healthcare staff recruited to the organisation embody the appropriate values and skills and that they are supported throughout their careers to maintain these. Strong collective leadership can influence organisational culture at departmental level to achieve the overarching strategic vision of an organisation. TIME OUT 3 TIME OUT 4 A subculture can include a ward, community practice or unit within a larger trust. What do you think are the factors that may cause cultural differences between smaller units? Consider factors such as leadership and the values and beliefs of the healthcare staff within the subculture. An effective leader can: transmit a clear vision and direction; motivate and energise a team; and facilitate change within a team, particularly during challenging times. Consider a colleague whose leadership you have respected. Remember that leadership is not always the same as management. How do you think this colleague transmitted the values that resulted in effective healthcare delivery? Reflect on whether they welcomed discussion and new ideas, and whether they respected other healthcare staff. Organisational culture and leadership The qualities of an effective leader include communication skills, teamwork, honesty, integrity and compassion (NHS Leadership Academy 2015). However, these qualities are not exclusive to leaders; they also describe the basic attributes expected of healthcare staff working in the NHS. Leadership and organisational culture are inextricably linked, with The King’s Fund KEY POINT Leadership and organisational culture are inextricably linked, with The King’s Fund (2017) suggesting that leadership is the primary factor in developing a positive organisational culture Meaningful organisational culture The strategic vision and values that drive an organisation such as the NHS should be meaningful and clearly visible to patients and healthcare staff. This means that the values have to represent more than ‘just words’. Organisations, and healthcare staff within the organisation, should be volume 32 number 21 / 17 January 2018 / 59 evidence & practice / CPD / professional issues held to account for these values and have a responsibility to patients and colleagues to reflect them in their day-to-day work. To be meaningful, these values should represent the lived experience of patients and staff, rather than simply reflecting a corporate slogan. To some extent, organisational culture reflects the ‘corporate brand’ of the individual trust as demonstrated, for example, by the trust’s identifying logos and mission statement. Johnson et al (2008) listed symbols as an element of the cultural web, and these are designed to assist healthcare staff to ‘buy in’ to the trust’s common values. However, developing a dynamic vision is resourceintensive, both in terms of labour and financial resources. For example, there will be costs associated with purchasing logo-branded items such as stationery, and meetings that will be required to develop and agree on the mission statement can be labour-intensive. Any vision must be accepted by all of the healthcare staff in the trust and any positive slogans should be acted upon. This action, rather than any ‘buzzwords’, will contribute to a positive organisational culture. However, the desired corporate values are often misaligned with the actual values held by healthcare staff in the organisation, which are represented by the healthcare staff’s practice. The mission statement and core values of an NHS service provider should be modelled from the boardroom to the front line; for example, if front-line healthcare staff are expected to be open to constructive criticism, the same must apply to members TABLE 1. Value of openness and honesty Value What to do How to do it Openness and honesty Communicate in a timely and open manner, sharing relevant information with patients, carers and staff »» Take the time to invite patients, carers and staff to individual or multidisciplinary meetings »» Inform patients and carers if there have been any challenges associated with the delivery of care »» Complete documentation in a timely, accurate and succinct manner »» Be truthful »» Listen to patients, carers and healthcare staff’s concerns and act accordingly (Adapted from Robinson and Tyndale-Biscoe 2012) 60 / 17 January 2018 / volume 32 number 21 of the board. It is important to healthcare staff that they can witness the core values of the organisation being implemented. Although an organisation’s mission statement and associated core values may be directed from board level, it is imperative to their success that healthcare staff are involved in their development from the outset (Robinson and TyndaleBiscoe 2012). The development of an organisation’s core values should involve collaboration between healthcare staff and management, rather than being imposed from above. Imposing values on healthcare staff when they have not been involved in their development can lead to resistance. Consequently, the organisation’s core values should comprise beliefs, attitudes and behaviours shared by the whole workforce. Robinson and Tyndale-Biscoe (2012) detailed a case study where an NHS trust demonstrated its values, how these were realised and what this meant for patients and carers. Table 1 outlines an example of this for the value of openness and honesty. TIME OUT 5 Reflect on the overarching organisation you work in. Do you know how to access its strategic vision and values? If not, take some time to locate the appropriate document, such as the mission statement. Can you list the values contained in this document and whether they match your values and beliefs about how healthcare should be delivered? The purpose of developing a mission statement and core values is to ensure a secure foundation on which an organisational culture can be built and sustained. Following this, the subsequent cultural behaviours of staff at every level, such as their ability to demonstrate openness and honesty, as detailed in Table 1, require measurement and evaluation to ensure that the vision is being realised. Prosen (2006) suggested that lack of accountability contributes to suboptimal organisational culture, an observation supported by high-profile media cases (Kennedy 2001, Francis 2013, Kirkup 2015). Maybin et al (2011) examined accountability in the NHS, For related CPD articles visit describing it as the reporting and explaining of behaviour. This reflects the stance of the HCPC (2016) and NMC (2015), which, as regulatory bodies, have standards to which registered healthcare professionals are held to account. Being accountable for one’s actions implies that there will be consequences if these actions are not upheld. Similarly, tangible values encourage evaluation, since there is a clear standard to which healthcare staff can be measured against. Evaluation is a process whereby meaningful data can be collected and cultural issues identified, strategies can be strengthened, and a cohesive individual and team approach to achieving the strategic organisational values of a trust can be developed (Robinson and Tyndale-Biscoe 2012). Conclusion Organisational culture describes the vision, values and beliefs of an organisation and the people within it. However, reports of suboptimal care in the NHS have shown how an ineffective organisational culture can have a negative effect on patient care. For an organisational culture to be effective, a whole-system approach is required where individuals are encouraged to work collectively and collaboratively to develop, implement and fulfil the aspirations of the organisation. This, in turn, develops the foundations for a positive organisational culture that transcends all levels of the organisation, from chief executive to front-line healthcare staff. TIME OUT 6 Nurses are encouraged to apply the four themes of The Code (NMC 2015) to their professional practice. Consider the role and influence of organisational culture in healthcare and how this relates to The Code. TIME OUT 7 Now that you have completed the article, you might like to write a reflective account as part of your revalidation. References Anderson S (2017) Leading organisations. 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This service makes your article more discoverable and can increase its overall impact on nursing practice and patient care. 62 / 17 January 2018 / volume 32 number 21 evidence & practice / self-assessment questionnaire Organisational culture TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE BY COMPLETING THIS SELF-ASSESSMENT QUESTIONNAIRE 926 1. What is the definition of culture? a) The ideas, customs and social behaviour of c particular people in society b) The courses of action adopted by an organisation c only c) The moral principles that govern the behaviour c of an individual d) The responsibility for, and control of, an c organisation 2. Which of the following is not one of the types of culture described by Handy (1996)? a) Power culture b) Team culture c) Task culture d) Role culture c c c c 3. Ritualistic practice indicates that: a) An organisation’s culture is static and resistant c to change b) All healthcare staff in an organisation understand c their roles and responsibilities c) It is unnecessary for healthcare professionals to c question or challenge the interventions used d) Care that is holistic, individualised and personcentred is being prioritised in an organisation c 4. Which of the following cultural elements form the foundation of an organisation? c a) History c b) Values and beliefs c c) Rituals and ceremonies c d) All of the above 5. One of the main functions of the ‘cultural web’ is to: c a) Identify underperforming staff c b) Establish fair disciplinary procedures c) Identify areas of strength and weakness in an organisation and develop an action plan for c further development d) Ensure the organisation reflects the cultural c diversity of its staff 6. How might suboptimal organisational culture contribute to inadequate care? c a) By allowing staff cliques to develop c b) By following national policies c c) By involving too many staff in decision-making d) By encouraging staff to challenge clinical pathways c 7. Which of the following is not a core principle that guides the NHS? a) The NHS provides a comprehensive service, c available to all b) The NHS aspires to the highest standards of c excellence and professionalism c) The NHS is committed to providing optimal value c for taxpayers’ money d) The NHS is committed to researching innovative c treatment techniques 8. To achieve the overall NHS vision, healthcare professionals should: a) Establish a culture of ‘them and us’ to exclude underperforming staff b) Set aside their own professional development to focus on the needs of the organisation c) Treat patients and colleagues with respect and compassion d) Pursue individual clinical research projects c c c c 9. In healthcare terms, what is an organisational subculture? a) A microculture such as a ward or unit that exists c within the larger NHS b) The prevailing clinical procedures in any NHS c ward or department c) Ancillary healthcare services such as food, laundry c and transport d) A committee or team focusing on internal trust c policy 10. Which of the following is one of the qualities of an effective leader? c a) Ambition c b) Compassion c c) Unilateral decision-making c d) Micromanagement How to complete this assessment This self-assessment questionnaire will help you to test your knowledge. It comprises ten multiple choice questions that are broadly linked to the article starting on page 53. There is one correct answer to each question. »» You can test your subject knowledge by attempting the questions before reading the article, and then go back over them to see if you would answer any differently. »» You might like to read the article before trying the questions. The correct answers will be published in Nursing Standard on 31 January. Subscribers making use of their RCNi Portfolio can complete this and other questionnaires online and save the result automatically. Alternatively, you can cut out this page and add it to your professional portfolio. Don't forget to record the amount of time taken to complete it. You may want to write a reflective account based on what you have learned. Visit This self-assessment questionnaire was compiled by Jason Beckford-Ball The answers to this questionnaire will be published on 31 January Answers to SAQ 924 on Leadership and compassionate care, which appeared in the 13 December issue, are: 1. c 2. c 3. d 4. b 5. a 6. b 7. a 8. d 9. b 10. c volume 32 number 21 / 17 January 2018 / 63 Reproduced with permission of copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 29th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development – Rabat, 10-11 May 2018 STRATEGIC ASPECTS OF THE HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE Polona Sprajc University of Maribor, Faculty of Organizational sciences, Slovenia Iztok Podbregar University of Maribor, Faculty of Organizational sciences, Slovenia Nena Hribar Iskra Emeco, d.d., Slovenia ABSTRACT Organizational culture is a set of values, beliefs and all the visible elements of the organization that separate one organization from one another. The way of organizing the organizational culture begins before the "birth" of organization, because people who conceive a particular organization are those who represent the most important elements of the emergence of organizational culture according to the activities, the choice of people, product or service and other tangible and intangible elements of the organization. Organizational culture is often perceived as an examination of the organization's awareness that values, norms, behavioural characteristics, customs and products are those that represent the organization in an essential way. Looking at the set of elements, they are largely made up by employees. Employee with his values, his valour orientation, behavioural characteristics and habits is the key core of each organization. On the one hand, we want to highlight the role of human capital management, particularly human resource management as a strategic body of the organization, on the other hand, to define the importance of human capital management for the development of a "true" organizational culture. Keywords: human capital management, human resource management, organizational culture, awareness 1. INTRODUCTION People enter the organization in order to satisfy their own interests and needs, and those that define the first level of elements of organizational culture - values, cultural patterns, behavioural attitudes, etc. The strategic aspect of human resource management is essentially a departure from the traditional administrative function, when human resource management at the strategic level successfully "competes" with other business functions in organizations. The problem occurs when the organization or individual business functions still do not recognize human resource management as a direct factor in the organization's strategy and ultimately does not enter as part of a competitive strategy. The fact is that the creation of the environment of the organization presupposes, among other things, a well-developed human resources management field that can develop the strategic directions of the field of human capital management in a way of a mutual relationship with other strategic functions of the organization and thus potentially contributes to the organization's sustainable orientation. The demarcation of concepts of strategy, human capital management and organizational culture implies indications of a sustainable competitive advantage of organizations that will coordinate human resource management with the strategy and efficiency of human capital management for the purposes of the organization's strategy. 106 29th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development – Rabat, 10-11 May 2018 The strategic resources and other resources of the organization shape the history of the organization and, ultimately, the history of mankind. In the event that we are witnessing the utilization of resources for achieving the goals, it is necessary to coordinate human resource management activities to support the resources and human capital indeed that will represent a permanent strategic position and the potential of a competitive advantage. The majority of human capital bases on the connection with the organization's strategy and through human resources management, a symbiosis between strategy, strategic resources and human resource management is established. The idea of the paper is to capture all the perspectives on the field of human resource management of today. To this end, the structure of the contribution will be directed to an organizational culture, on which we will justify one of the positions of human resource management, which directly places it among the strategically important functions of the organization. The organizational culture, based on its definition, has a visible impact on the various aspects of the organization's activities, including its strategic orientation. Organizational culture links the elements of organization definition and identifies with the development of an organization's strategy. Culture plays a special role in shaping the organization. It is also one of the strongest forces of the organization and consequently also influences the behaviour and performance of its employees, as it forms the level of values and other elements of the organizational culture. Thus, it can be understood as a strategic source for each organization and also placed in a correlation with human resources management. The relationship between human resource management and organizational culture is not unambiguous, nor one-way. The purpose of human capital and human resource management is to influence the organizational culture, and also the influence of the organizational culture on the development of human resources management is a characteristic consequence of the functioning of culture. With the help of human resource management further, the organizational culture manifests itself through a pattern of values and other elements, and as such is increasingly integrated aspect. The fact is that linking the culture with human resource management is coordinated at the level of symbiosis, while at the same time it places human resource management on a plateau of strategically important functions in the organization. This role is considered as a coordination of the relationships between employees and the importance of the organization's overall performance in samples that usually contribute to achieving or exceeding the objectives. Through culture, the competitive strategy of the organization is also transmitted. Before continuing with the presentation of both components - organizational culture and strategic human resources management, we point out the importance of linking three pillars - human resources management, strategy and organizational culture that lead to the realization of the strategy. The consistency of all three pillars means that they are in the same timeframe and that the goal is to achieve a common goal. The importance of cohesion is in stability, well-defined competitive strategy and focus on all the important components of human resource management of today's time. Researching the relationship between human resource management and organizational culture and the premise on the functioning of the strategy is one of the starting points that will be opened by this contribution. Assistance and the role of human resource management in achieving the organization's results points to an extremely important role of strategic importance. This only presupposes one of the basic boards for the operation of the human resources management field in the future. 2. STRATEGIC ROLE OF HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT The emphasis on the interests of the organization's life is in the true way of organizing organizations, the development of digitalization and robotization, good interactions, improvements at all possible levels of organization and, of course, the care for healthy development and the progress of employees, through social, human and intellectual processes and, last but not least, focuses on the field of human resources management. 107 29th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development – Rabat, 10-11 May 2018 As has been said, human resource management from the times when it operated in organizations merely as a bureaucratic extension of strategically important business functions, has become an important field of activity for the purpose of a constructive and development-oriented field. However, if we want to put the development of such a concept of human resources management at the appropriate point of the placement, the importance of successful and efficient functioning of organizations in today's digital age should also be emphasized. Human resource management must represent the organization a support point to the strategy and together with other important functions to create a positive outcome of the organization. The first starting point for human resource management to integrate into the business strategy of the organization is the management's awareness that personnel processes are not a starting point but an added value for all, the internal and external environment of organizations. Namely, in strategic management and setting strategic direction of employees, employees represent the most important component. The key role of strategic human resources management is to direct managers to better manage their employees. By doing so, managers are provided with appropriate tools to set up processes that will be geared towards achieving business results. Therefore, the human resources system is not an objective, but a means to better manage people. Moreover, the strategic role of human resource function is of vital importance, since the personnel needs to act proactively, primarily to be the bearers of the change, and not only the operators of operational administrative personnel processes. A long-term successful company is one that builds its success on the interweaving of the business and human factor and integrates good and integrated human resource practices into all vital parts of the company (Fesel Kamenik & Petrič, 2011). To define the strategic function of human resources management, we provide a four-sided demarcation of the field, which includes all the more important strands of understanding the field. The strategic function of human resource management addresses the field in which people's management is key and strives for the success of the organization. It represents the level of thinking and activities that link the field of human resources management with the strategic mission of the organization. If we relativize the concept of human management, the main distinction between human resource management and the strategic function of human resource management is linked, on the one hand, to the understanding of the treatment of human resources management at a horizontal level, whereas the strategic function connects human resource activities to the vertical level, thus ensuring that it is included in the strategic orientation of organizations (Banfield and Kay, 2008). We continue with the employees in the organization. The organization is primarily composed of tangible and intangible resources and capabilities that allow it a competitive advantage and successful business. In organizational resources, we find resources, processes, competences, information. In the field of strategic understanding of human resources management, this means that they are a key source of the successful organization of employees' competences, which are the main generator and bearer of changes in the organization (Banfield and Kay, 2008). Strategic decisions are the third item. We want to expose them to critical decision-making in important areas of employee management, such as rewarding, development, recruitment, selection and other management elements. It is also understood as a decision and process function that defines the mission and vision of the organization and management of employees in all strategically important pillars of the organization (Banfield and Kay, 2008). The fourth element is related to the development and the entire range of activities of employees, mediation, policies and practices, and the integration of activities with the effect of added value of employees. The added value of employees needs to be measured and can be used (Banfield and Kay, 2008). From linking to understanding knowledge as a vehicle for the development of all organizations and, last but not least, society, we are all subject to the challenging conditions of the business world. The model of human resources management, which has grown beyond normal operating frameworks at horizontal levels of organizations, to understanding its role in vertical 108 29th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development – Rabat, 10-11 May 2018 connectivity, is becoming an inevitable part of the management of organizations. In development tendencies, management deals with organizational culture, communication, employee career, development and, above all, knowledge. The power of human resource management is in the knowledge of the entire competence framework of the employees, and it has to be focused on mediation and integration with all other strategic functions. 3. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE Organizational culture is defined as a "common values system (which defines what is important) and norms that define an appropriate attitude and behaviour for employees in the organization (how to feel and behave)" (O'Reilly and Chatman, 1996). Organizations of values and norms regulate the dual processes of external adaptation and internal integration and indicate the functioning of the organization (Schein, 1985). The complexity and dynamism of the global environment fosters external adaptation and internal negotiation of goals that are less manageable for human resource management. Organizational culture encompasses a comprehensive system of norms, values, performances, beliefs and relationships of employees in the organization, which determine the way of behaviour and responses to the problems of all employees, and thus shapes the appearance of the company. Values are those that show what is important to the organization, what is worth the effort, and the norms determine the expected behaviour or the organization's behaviour in a given situation. The organization chooses symbols, slogans and rituals expressed in their values, and culture is the one that dictates to the individual what is important in the organization, how to behave, and how to perceive things (Harris and Hartman 2002 in Vindiš, 2011). Treven and Srića (2001, 168) consider that organizational culture is mainly characterized by the following characteristics: • individual's independence, level of responsibility, independence and exploitation of the opportunities offered to the individual in the organization, • organization, level of direct control and control of behaviour in accordance with rules and regulations, - support, level of assistance of managers to their subordinates, • identity, the degree to which members of the organization identify with the organization as a whole, and not only with their group or with the area on which they operate, • rewarding performance is the degree to which rewards are based on the work performance of employees, • tolerance of conflicts is the degree to which employees are encouraged to openly express their own opinions and the opportunity for employees to enter into conflicts without fear, tolerance of risk, is the degree to which employees are encouraged to be aggressive, innovative and accept the risk, • attitude to change, response to new methods, ways and values; - guidance; is the degree of definition of clear, transparent goals and expectations for successful achievement of goals; - standards and values, behaviour levels that are reasonably acceptable for formal and informal criteria, • rituals customs, stories and events that strengthen the standards and values of the organization, - care for people (employees), the degree that is reflected in the organization's concern for its employees, • the openness of communication and the view, are the levels to which the organizational communications are limited and linked to the formal hierarchical line of authority. The stream of messages in the organization can take place down and up, depending on the culture, • market orientation and customer orientation, the degree to which an organization responds to its markets and customers, • enthusiasm and pride, a good sense of organization and its activities, - commitment, willingness of individuals to pursue goals, 109 29th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development – Rabat, 10-11 May 2018 • teamwork, the work of people in the group for the benefit of the organization. Therefore, if we connect the organizational culture with the basic building blocks, the basic fact is the connection with the employees, which presuppose the implementation of all the mentioned components. On the basis of the functioning and development of the organizational culture of tore, we are building on an organizational culture only on the basis of the acquisition of personnel management on a strategically important function. Better to say, if we want to analyse organizational culture from its initial life cycle, we need to ask ourselves how the organization will set up human resources management in the direction of handling employees. The development of employees and the development of values and other components of the organizational culture is meaningful when it is sensible to place the functioning of human resources management in the adoption of strategic goals, and if we go back to determining the organization of culture. The positive correlation between organizational culture and its impact on the organization's strategy, and on the other hand, the correlation between organizational culture and human resources management implies a clear relationship between strategy and human resources management. Better to say, the feedback loop during the operation of the strategy and employees through the human resources management body makes sense as a meaningful relationship between organizational culture and the strategic orientation of the organization. In this way, we can study the organization as an inevitable transition of the human resources management system to a more demanding level, as demonstrated by today's time. A study that would link all three components - strategic level, human resource management and organizational culture - would also form a model of operation and a clear link between the three pillars. 4. SYMBIOSIS OF HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE The strategic operation of human resources management arises from the importance of the role that the organization attaches to the functioning of the said function. The fact is that through the integration of activities, which includes the basic predispositions of the overall management of employees with organization and organization with employees, the important role and direction of management of the organization is also determined through the prism of human resources management. Organizational culture is part of the management, because to a large extent the value system connects the whole organization with each other. Likewise, a large part of the strategy can be related to the behaviour of culture as a means of achieving strategic goals and setting up the operation of the management, which, through the leverage of organizational culture and with the help of the personnel management mechanism, affects employees in the direction of achieving the goals. Due to the different patterns of organizational culture, which ultimately delineate organizations among themselves, questions of delimitation of management are respected, which respects the function of human resources management, respecting the employees, their knowledge and abilities, and creating a healthy environment of the organization also in the way that leaves the management personnel through the culture strategic leverage operation. Similarly, the way to achieving goals is often easier when culture connects and does not delineate employees with each other. If we therefore understand culture as a contribution to a larger and more rich organization of the organization, the function of human resource management, correlating with direct linking to employees, can be understood as an important strategic orientation and justification for the symbiosis of the situation. The purpose of studying organizational culture is to adapt employees to the organization's strategy. Furthermore, we conclude that the employees through the most powerful tool, which is organized, supervised, evaluated ... the work of employees - human resources management is classified as important elements that coincide with the strategic tool of the organization. 110 29th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development – Rabat, 10-11 May 2018 The purpose of the stimulus is to focus on the technical side of culture and the culture of employee relations. Cultural factors are mission and philosophy (articulation of the mission and evaluation of the focus on customers, stakeholders, structure (influence, empowerment and integration), systems (selection and selection of personnel, training and development, respect for the individual, performance evaluation and rewarding and setting goals) and skills and competences and quality (communication, management, source and distribution of power) (Dialogos, 2018). The results of the organizational culture are measured at three levels; at the level of the individual (clarity of the role, motivation, satisfaction, the intention to stay in the organization, the role of conflict, job insecurity, workplace stress), team level (team work within the department, coordination between different organizational units and quality of work at department level; units) and at the level of the entire organization (the quality of work at the level of the organization and the ability to adapt to the demands of the market (Dialogos, 2018). Such a systemic approach is interesting for our contribution, especially due to the importance of human resources management through the prism of organizational culture into the strategic level of the organization. Typical elements that point to the vision of the strategy in conjunction with the organizational culture are in: Literature represents the relationship between human resource management and organizational culture as a two-way. The mission of human resource management is to influence the organizational culture (McAfee, Glassman and Honeycutt, 2002; Ferris et al., 1998). This perspective is strengthened by confirming that Human resource management communicates through organizational values and is, as such, the most widespread manifestation of organizational culture (Ferris et al., 1998). McAfee, Glassman and Honeycutt (2002) specifically refer to the relationship between culture and staff management as a symbiosis. Interestingly, the need for cultural coherence in strategic human resource management is only implicit and usually limited to the concept of settlement or consistency (Delery, 1998; Lundy, 1994). To describe strategic human resource management through organizational culture, we will use a framework of competitive values within the four quadrants. These quadrants are determined by individual organizational types and are useful in classifying the organizational culture. The quadrants consist of: human relations, open systems, a rational goal, and internal process models (Brown and Dodd, 1998). Using this framework, it is possible to explain the potential impact of strategic human resource management along with organizational culture. The culture of the organization can lead to the internal development of competences and in some way take over as a competitive strategy of the organization. The orientation of human resources management in such an organization can be used as a strategic value by integrating it into an organizational strategy (Dutch, 2013). 5. IMPLICATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND CONCLUSION The paper presents typical indicators of the development of personnel discipline in organizations in the future. It is not so far to look back on the building of personnel services in basic and administrative tasks that do not go far to manage and organize work through the prism of bureaucratic institutes. If we want to have a healthy organization and a healthy organizational culture with the right values, norms and other elements, we will be able to hope to integrate human resources management into the level of strategic decision making for the organization. At the time when it becomes clear to us that this activity goes beyond mere bureaucratic tasks but very clearly implies on the behaviour and achievements and development of employees, and through this to the development of the true values and orientations of the functioning of the organizational culture, we will move into the domain of managing the organization as a fundamental long-term partner in the environment of its operation. The attachment of past relationships, when it comes to the strategic level, merely financial and material factors of business, passes to the level of importance of the development of culture in the same sequence as the development of the discipline of human resources management. 111 29th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development – Rabat, 10-11 May 2018 The employees were, are and will be one of the most important competitive advantages of the organizations of today's and future times. As such, key factors can be only if, through values and other mechanisms of organizational culture, they can become involved in "their own discipline" as the discipline of organizational development. Therefore, the rule of future development is in the interweaving of the strategic orientation of HR management, which, together with other business functions of the organization, will co-create and not only administratively support the achievement and exceeding of the goals of the organization. LITERATURE: 1. Banfield, P., & Kay, R. (2008). Introduction to Human Resource Management. Oxford: Oxford University press 2. Brown, F. W., & Dodd, N. G. 1998. Utilizing organizational culture gap analysis to determine human resource development needs. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 17: 374-385. 3. Delery, J. E. 1998. Issues of fit in strategic human resource management: Implications for research. Human Resource Management Review, 8: 289-309. 4. Dutch, M. (2013). A Symbiotic Framework of Human Resources, Organizational Strategy and Culture. Amity Global Business Review, Vol. 8, pp. 9-14. 5. Ferris, G. R., Authur, M. M., Berkson, H. M., Kaplan, D. M., Harrell-Cook, G., & Frink, D. D. 1998. Toward a social context theory of the human resource managementorganization effectiveness relationship. Human Resource Management Review, 8: 235-264. 6. Lundy, O. 1994. From personnel. Management to strategic human resource management. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 5: 687-720. 7. Fesel Kamenik, M. & Petrič, U. (2011). Kadrovski sistem ni cilj, ampak sredstvo za boljše vodenje. Dostopno 2. april 2017na 8. Harris, J., & Hartman, S.J. (2002). Organizational behaviour. Jaico Publishing House: New Delhi. 9. Dialogos (2018). Upravljanje organizacijske kulture: (nova) prioriteta managementa. Available at:, 2018). 10. McAfee, R B., Glassman, M., & Honeycutt, E. D. Jr. 2002. The effects of culture and human resource management policies on supply chain management strategy. Journal of Business Logistics, 23: 1-18. 11. O'Reilly, C.A., & Chatman, J.A. (1996). Culture as social control: corporations, cults and commitment. Research in organizational behaviour, Vol. 18, pp. 157-200. 12. Schein, E.H. (1985). Organizational culture and leadership. Jossey-Bass Pub: California. 13. Treven, S., & Srića, V. (2001). Mednarodno organizacijsko vedenje. Ljubljana: GV Založba. 14. Vindiš, M. (2011). Vpliv organizacijske kulture na uspešnost podjetja. Zbornik 8. festivala raziskovanja ekonomije in managementa, Zbornik 8. festivala raziskovanja ekonomije in managementa 24.–26. marec 2011 · Koper – Celje – Škofja Loka. 112 Reproduced with permission of copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. CBU INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INNOVATIONS IN SCIENCE AND EDUCATION MARCH 21-23, 2018, PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC WWW.CBUNI.CZ, WWW.JOURNALS.CZ THE ORGANIZATION'S SAFETY CULTURE, ITS INDICATORS AND ITS MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES Martin Halaj1, Milan Kutaj2, Martin Boroš3 Abstract: Safety is a fundamental condition for the existence of an organization creating conditions for the fulfilment of its basic functions. It is important to identify the safety factors that affect an organization’s level. In this article, we identify and describe one of these factors, which is a safety culture. In order to assess a safety culture, its indicators have to be identified. Safety culture indicators reflect its level in various areas. Some of the indicators of safety culture are universal and usable in a large number of organizations, while some of them are more specific and usable only for certain organizations. After identifying the critical thresholds of all safety culture indicators identified, they can be used to assess the final level of safety culture. It is crucial to propose the right combination of methods and practices, while also using safety culture indicators to determine this final level of safety culture. In this article we present a combination of two data obtaining tools: a questionnaire survey conducted among the employees of the organization and managed interviews with the management of the organization. In order to properly evaluate the safety culture, it is necessary to compare the obtained data. The main contribution of the article is the proposal of a possible scheme for assessing the safety culture of organizations using the safety culture indicators. UDC Classification: 304; DOI: Keywords: safety, safety culture, safety culture indicators Introduction The goal of each organization is to ensure its existence and constant progress and development. Security has a major impact on this goal. Security itself is a complex, internally structured, multifactor and hierarchical phenomenon. Its content, structure and functions go beyond the boundaries of leading departments and fields of science (Hofreiter, 2006). The security of an organization is characterized as a constant efficient use of an organization’s available resources, which ensure its stable functioning at the present and its continuous development into the future. An organization can be considered safe if it is not a source of threat, and it does not endanger itself or its surroundings. Its steady state allows its constant development and the active fulfilment of its set goals. It is able to eliminate and minimize internal and external threats of different nature while being able to respond to them by changing their state or environment. The security of the organization affects internal and external factors such as: the security environment, threat, vulnerability, resilience, or safety culture. Safety culture has, besides the level of organization security, an impact on the development of other factors. These factors need to be explored and expanded. Safety culture The term safety culture combines the notions of safety and culture. This term was first used in 1986 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) after the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. The IAEA found that the main reason for the reactor overheating was the lack of the organization's safety culture (Slováčková, 2015). In addition to nuclear facilities, safety culture has also, over time, been integrated into other industries. Safety culture has begun to be used as a tool to reduce or eliminate the impact of undesirable events and factors relating to individuals, social groups or the state (Hofreiter, 2015). Cieślarczyk (2011) sees safety culture as a way of thinking about security, perceiving security and detecting security values. Lee defines an organization's safety culture as the result of individual and group values, attitudes and behaviors that reflect the organization's commitment to health and safety at work (Guldenmund, 2010). Berends (1993) says that security culture is influenced by the subconscious behavior of security staff in organizations. Faculty of Security Engineering, University of Žilina, Slovakia, Faculty of Security Engineering, University of Žilina, Slovakia, 3 Faculty of Security Engineering, University of Žilina, Slovakia, 1 2 595 CBU INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INNOVATIONS IN SCIENCE AND EDUCATION MARCH 21-23, 2018, PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC WWW.CBUNI.CZ, WWW.JOURNALS.CZ Ostorm understands safety culture as a set of opinions and attitudes of the organization that manifest themselves in its activities, practices, policies and have a major impact on the organization’s overall security (Guldenmund, 2010). We can define a culture of security as a set of values, traditions, characteristics and attitudes of the organization and its individuals. A safety culture attaches the highest priority to safety, and therefore, it must be given adequate attention. The level of a security culture is also directly conditioned by the correct response to emerging dangerous (crisis) situations. A safety culture can be expressed as a synergy of human factor with its security capabilities and skills (mental, spiritual pillar), technical and technological means (material pillar) and organizational measures to ensure security (organizational pillar). Where: SC – Safety culture SP – Spiritual pillar MP – Material pillar OP – Organizational pillar The organization's safety culture Safety culture affects an organization’s security management through the existence of rules, laws, regulations and standards. It is important for every organization to adopt a safety culture. A safety culture must be supported by the following factors (Halaj & Hofreiter, 2017):  the commitment of senior management to security management,  successful treatment of risks and their impacts,  established of valid standards and rules on risks,  constantly progressing and learning from mistakes. An organization's safety culture means accepting safety by an organization in order to achieve protection and security of its activities, and the health and safety of its employees. The first step in identifying a safety culture in an organization is the existence of a security policy. A security policy is an important and basic set of rules, confirming the effort to address security issues in all its sectors. A security policy can be compiled for the whole organization or individually for each sector separately. In addition to the managers, the staff's professional competence, which is needed to solve the unwanted events, has an important role to play in the organization's security policy. The organization's safety culture is based on the reception and identification of employees with the organization's security policy and their safe conduct within the organization (Halaj & Hofreiter, 2017). An organization's safety culture is affected by the adoption of security measures by senior management, allocating sufficient resources to safety, quality of safety documentation and safety procedures, strict observance of safety in all sectors of the organization, safety training and educations, the readiness of the organization to deal with adverse crisis events and obstructions by assigning permanently accessible forces and means and by regular checks, and to continuously improve an organization's safety (Hofreiter, 2015). Based on research and the experience of misconduct of organizations in the security management process, contradictions are increasingly emerging in recent years as to what are the basic characteristics of a safety culture. It is necessary to state the characteristics of a safety culture based on its structure, artefacts, values and assumptions. The assumption that the organization's top management actively proclaims security is considered the artefact of the organization's safety culture. The findings and the corrective actions taken to remove the shortcomings identified should be supported by quality documentation. Organizations are required to comply with their obligations under laws and standards and to ensure the professional competence of all their employees for whom the nature of their work requires them to. It is important to allocate sufficient resources to this process as well as to a regular security assessment. The most important value of an organization's safety culture is to emphasize the importance of security in the organization. This is what the leadership, as well as the employees themselves, must acquire and 596 CBU INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INNOVATIONS IN SCIENCE AND EDUCATION MARCH 21-23, 2018, PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC WWW.CBUNI.CZ, WWW.JOURNALS.CZ identify with. Security needs to be constantly increasing, it is necessary to constantly communicate about it and to broaden the knowledge about the possibilities of its achievement. Safety culture indicators For the need of assessing the level of safety culture, it is important to identify areas that reflect security in each sector and which can be actively monitored. Indicator in this regard is a synonym for the term “pointer”. The pointer is a value whose character may vary from one pointer to another. The pointer expresses status or its changes (Hanušin, et al., 2000). The occurrence of the indicator indicate with different degrees of probability the occurrence of another phenomenon or parameters (Szarfenberg, 2018). The indicator is a visible phenomenon or a thing that indicates changes and makes it possible to predict other phenomena. It is difficult to find a uniform definition for indicators because each area of research has adopted and used its own definitions. The goal of indicators is to describe the system, its properties and various parameters as simply and accurately as possible. The main functions of indicators are (Hofreiter & Byrtusová, 2016):  descriptive function  interconnective function  analytical function  predictive function Organizational safety culture indicators indicate or reflect a level of safety, serve to measure its level effectively, and determine the success of the objectives. It is necessary for safety indicators to be reasonably visible, identifiable and measurable (Belan, 2015). Based on the character of their indicators and their ability to express them (qualitatively, quantitatively), they can be used to measure and assess the level of a safety culture. We can classify two groups of organizational safety culture indicators:  reactive indicators - indicating the number of specific safety events for a precisely time-bound period (Belan, 2015) and can be defined ex post using the deductive method (Hofreiter & Byrtusová, 2016),  predictive indicators - are focused on monitoring critical location processes and assessing potential accidents (Belan, 2015) and are built ex ante and enable effective security systems and security measures to be developed (Hofreiter & Byrtusová, 2016). Safety culture indicators may be:  objective - statistical values of the indicators,  subjective - individual perceptions of safety. Thanks to safety culture indicators, it is possible to identify safety culture’s status in the organization and its sectors. Organizational safety culture indicators may be generally valid for most organizations, but each organization may have specific indicators that reflect its character, size or type. For the purposes of this paper, we identify the indicators that are part of each organization and can be supplemented as necessary. These indicators are:  the importance of security for an organization’s management,  the importance of security for the staff of an organization,  creating and implementing security policy,  the amount of money spent on security,  implementation of policy and continuous training in the field of safety,  required professional competence of employees,  compliance with laws and safety standards,  the organization's preparedness to deal with crisis situations,  the frequency of attempted disruption on the organization's premises,  the number of accidents and occupational diseases,  safety awareness of the organization's employees and their safety behaviour,  identification of established procedures and tasks in the security sector,  cleanliness and order at the workplace. 597 CBU INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INNOVATIONS IN SCIENCE AND EDUCATION MARCH 21-23, 2018, PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC WWW.CBUNI.CZ, WWW.JOURNALS.CZ In order to explore safety culture indicators, it is necessary to set their thresholds, which represent a limit value overtaken by a safety breach or an insufficient level of safety culture in each security sectors of the organization. If indicator values approach their thresholds, this may mean degradation of the system or its transition to a new state. Such approximation or achievement of the threshold may pose a threat to the security of the organization and its surroundings (Hofreiter & Byrtusová, 2016). The thresholds for safety culture indicators vary from one organization to another. Significant factors are, in particular, the focus and size of organizations in which indicators are identified. Figure 1: Safety culture indicators and their thresholds Source: Author Methods of measuring a safety culture using safety culture indicators The first step in measuring the level of safety culture is to identify its indicators. After successfully identifying the indicators, we are able to identify the areas that need to be addressed in recognizing the level of safety culture. So far, there are no accurately described and established possible methods or tools for measuring a safety culture in organizations. Based on our active dedication to this issue, we propose a way of measuring this level, which consists of the following parts:  conducting a questionnaire survey among the employees of the organization,  conducting structured interviews with organization management. Questionnaire survey among employees of the organization The questionnaire is an economic research, developmental and evaluation tool for mass and relatively quick detection of information (Gavora, 2001), (Švec, 1998). Through the questionnaire we can get information about what people do, what they own, what they think, know, feel, live or want, what values they prefer, what their opinion is and how they can uncover their life experiences (TaylorPowell, 2018). We can examine:  knowledge,  beliefs, opinions, attitudes,  behaviour,  features, characters, features. The questionnaire method is based on the subjective testimony of the investigated person about its properties, emotions, attitudes, opinions, and interests. The task of the investigated person is to mark out a statement that, in their opinion, describes the character examined the best. It is a method of indirect assessment because the investigated person does not look directly at the personality trait, but rather describes his behaviour in certain situations that the observed property can be manifest (Svoboda, 2005). Getting data from questionnaires from a relatively large number of respondents is not costly and allows for more detailed statistical analysis of the results. However, preparation of questionnaire survey may be difficult in time. The confidentiality of information is important in order to be able to expect honest answers even for unpleasant questions. A well-structured questionnaire will provide answers to more general questions as well as more specific questions. Such questionnaire survey should involve as many staff as possible in order to ensure that its results reflect a fair presentation of the real situation. Questionnaire questions must be linked to selected 598 CBU INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INNOVATIONS IN SCIENCE AND EDUCATION MARCH 21-23, 2018, PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC WWW.CBUNI.CZ, WWW.JOURNALS.CZ indicators of the safety culture and the area surveyed. From the results of the questionnaire, we need to get information that we can work with. Structured interviews with organization management The method of managed interviews is a useful method of collecting data especially in social research. It is a system of placing pre-prepared questions and recording the subsequent answers of the selected respondents. The obtained data must be statistically processed and evaluated. The advantage of this method is that the performance of the survey is higher compared to the questionnaire method, but this method is costlier and time consuming. The person who conducts the interview needs to be duly oriented in the matter, which may affect some of the respondents. A partial disadvantage of this method is the lack of anonymity for the respondents. Because of its time consuming nature and the inability to maintain anonymity, this method should be used to explore the safety culture in the management of the organization. Pre-prepared questions should include and expand the selected safety culture indicators and the selected security areas. Respondents' answers should be comprehensive. Answers should reflect the organization's security and its implementation. The goal of structured interviews with the organization’s management is to gain data about security and the application of a safety culture. Figure 2: Assessment of safety culture using safety culture indicators Source: Author Comparison of collected data The results of the implemented methods and the answers of each respondents should be properly compared. This comparison will serve to determine the match and possible differences in responses. Disagreements between the result of the questionnaire and the structured interviews should be analysed using expert estimates and drawn conclusions. 599 CBU INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INNOVATIONS IN SCIENCE AND EDUCATION MARCH 21-23, 2018, PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC WWW.CBUNI.CZ, WWW.JOURNALS.CZ The results from the comparison of the performed methods´ will be the assignment of an evaluation to the selected safety culture indicators. During the assessment of the assigned values of safety culture indicators, it is necessary to address their (predetermined) thresholds. The safety culture indicators´ threshold values are one of the tools to analyse security system and are part of the quantification and assessment of the organization's safety culture resulting state. Based on the above, we can determine the resulting level of the organization safety culture by assigning values to the selected safety culture indicators. However, we must take their critical thresholds and mutual relations into account as well. The process of evaluating a safety culture using its identified safety culture indicators is shown in Figure 2. Conclusion Security assures organizations their existence, persistence and constant development. Organizational security needs to be constantly observed, evaluated and enhanced. For these reasons, we need to know the factors that affect security. Safety culture reflects the standards, values and attitudes of the organization and its staff to security and safety. We need to know safety culture indicators to assess it. Safety culture indicators should be used as a basis for assessing the level of the safety culture. We propose to use two methods of data collection. A questionnaire survey among employees of the organization and structured interviews with the organization’s management. The questions of these surveys must be linked to safety culture indicators. In a further examination of this problem, the proposed methods need to be applied to a suitable number of selected organizations. Only an empirical approach to addressing these issues can identify any possible shortcomings. Removing these shortcomings will make the assessment of the safety culture simpler and more efficient. Acknowledgment This article was supported by the Internal Grant Scheme of Faculty of Security Engineering, University of Zilina from the grant No. 201702. References Belan, L. (2015). Security management. Security and risk management. Žilina: EDIS. Berends, J. (1996). On the measurement of safety culture. Eidhoven: University of technology, Eidhoven. Cieślarczyk, M. (2011). Culture of security and defense. Siedlce: Publisher of the University of Natural Sciences and Humanities. Gavora, P. (2001). Introduction to pedagogical research. Bratislava: Comenius University. Guldenmund, F. W. (2010). Understanding and exploring safety culture. Oisterwijk: Halaj, M., & Hofreiter, L. (7 2017). Engineering of organization´s security. International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 622-666. Hanušin, J., Huba, M., Ira, V., Klinec, I., Podoba, J., & Szollos, J. (2000). Interpretative dictionary of sustainability terms. Bratislava: STUŽ/SR. Hofreiter, L. (2006). Securitology. Liptovský Mikuláš: AOS. Hofreiter, L. (2015). Security culture and security management. Crisis Management(2), 63-68. Hofreiter, L., & Byrtusová, A. (2016). Security indicators. Zlín: VeRBum. Slováčková, I. (April 2015). Why and how to measure the safety culture of organization. Safety of work in practice, 2-4. Svoboda, M. (2005). Psychological diagnostics of adults. Prague: Portál. Szarfenberg, R. (2018, 3 14). Marginalization and social exclusion. Retrieved from Indicators, criteria and meters: Švec, Š. (1998). Methodology of the science of education. Bratislava: IRIS. Taylor-Powell, E. (2018, 3 14). Questionnaire Design: Asking questions with a purpose. Retrieved from Better Evaliuation: 600 © 2018. This work is published under (the “License”). Notwithstanding the ProQuest Terms and Conditions, you may use this content in accordance with the terms of the License.
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Organizational Culture and

 Culture entails mutual values and beliefs

 It details the methods and behaviors that are desirable to the
progress of the entity
 As such employees are able to:
 denote what is expected of them
 Denote the anticipated impression of their activities in the workplace
 Know the effects of adhering to the entity’s values

Organization’s vision purpose
 Bridges the organization’s future and present
 It provides a description detailing the future of the entity in the
event the mission becomes a success
 Serves as a blueprint of the organizations' aspirations.

 It calls for individuals to commit and contribute to the
development of the entity by being part of it.

Objective of the organization’s mission
 It details and defines the entity as well as its services, products, and target consumers.
 It serves ...

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