Humanities
PSY 545 SNHU Capital Punishment Sentencing Case Analysis

PSY 545

Southern New Hampshire University

PSY

Question Description

Need help with my Psychology question - I’m studying for my class.

Everything needed is attached, passed papers to put everything together as well as make necessary edits based on the comments left. Please put this paper all together and make the necessary changes according to the feedback for each milestone the milestones are attached in order. Also conclusion rubric is attached cunclusion will need to be added to the final paper.

Instructions

Submit the final case analysis. It should be a complete, polished artifact containing all of the critical elements of the final product. It should reflect the incorporation of feedback gained throughout the course. Be sure to organize your paper in the same order as the sections (I–VI) listed in the prompt.

Feedback for 2-2 Final Project Milestone One: Introduction to Case Analysis

PSY 545 Milestone One Feedback:

Introduction - Identifying a Scenario: You chose and identified the scenario that you have chosen to analyze for your Final Project.

Introduction - Key Facts: You provided a concise overview of the key facts in your chosen scenario that are relevant to the issues and needs in this case.

Introduction – Issues: You identified and articulated some of the key issues in this scenario which must be addressed by a forensic psychologist. A suggestion for improvement in your final submission would be to review the following list and describe the primary issue first, followed by the rest of the issues. The key issues can be found in your framing questions. Those issues are:

Capital Punishment Sentencing (Competency Evaluations):

  • The primary issue is competency for execution– not competency to stand trial. As part of that analysis you may address whether or not there is evidence to support a dispute of the findings of the previous competency examination.
  • Cultural competency in identification and handling of issues that may affect the assessment process and choice of instruments.
  • Aggravating circumstances.
  • Mitigating circumstances.

Introduction – Needs: You identified and articulated some of the needs of the client, their defense team, and the court in this scenario. A suggestion for improvement would be to relate needs to the specific issues in this case. Be sure to address the way you as a forensic psychologist will meet those needs in your future milestones.

Articulation of Response: You wrote in an organized and logical fashion with no grammar, spelling, syntax, or citation errors. A suggestion for improvement would be to remove the section titles following "Introduction", as those sections are part of future milestones. This milestone is just the Introduction so for your final submission, revise your text to include only the information required for this particular milestone as show in the Final Project Guidelines and Rubric found in Learning Module One. Please reach out with any questions.

Feedback for 4-2 Final Project Milestone Two: Methodology and Theory

Samantha-

Please review the feedback below and revise and resubmit your Milestone Two as soon as possible so I can regrade it for you. Read the rubric for this milestone and focus on the criteria specified in the rubric - the goal is to put together a psychological assessment process for this defendant regardless of your personal position on the death penalty. Our professional assessments should be apolitical and only focus on the empirical evidence for the process itself. Take a look at the rubric for this Milestone and that will provide you with guidance about what to include in this portion of the assignment.

Scientific Methodology – Specific to the Scenario:

A suggestion for improvement would be to choose an appropriate scientific methodology and use it to evaluate and analyze this scenario in detail.

Theoretical Framework - Evidence-Based Approaches:

A suggestion for improvement would be to apply your research to the development of an evidence-based approach to effective client services in this scenario.

Theoretical Framework - Psychological Theory:

A suggestion for improvement would be to select a psychological theory that relates to this scenario and describe the factors behind your choice as well as the rationale for your choice.

Here are some links to help guide you in the selection and description of your psychological theory and appropriate scientific methodology:

Capital Punishment Sentencing (Competency Evaluations):

This link will provide you with information on how the APA views the death penalty https://www.apa.org/about/policy/death-penalty

And this link will provide you with the text of Ford v. Wainwright, the seminal Supreme Court case on competency for execution, which is the central issue in this case https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/477/399

Theoretical Framework - Scenario:

A suggestion for improvement would be to outline the recommended best practices or approaches for your chose scientific methodology as it relates to this scenario.

Articulation of Response

A suggestion for improvement would be to review the rubric for this Milestone to ensure that you are satisfying the assignment criteria.

Please reach out with any questions.

Feedback for 6-2 Final Project Milestone Three: Ethics and Diversity





Role of Ethics: Ethical Implications or Ramifications – You correctly described some of the ethical implications in this case - a suggestion for improvement would be to support your assertions with references to the Ethical Principles for Psychologists and Code of Conduct https://www.apa.org/ethics/code/ and/or Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology https://www.apa.org/practice/guidelines/forensic-psychology.


Role of Ethics: Potential Risks – You identified and described some of the potential risks that are related to the specific practices in this scenario. A suggestion for improvement would be to support your assertions with reference to specific ethical code sections.

Role of Ethics: Recommended Course of Action – You recommended some particular tasks for the forensic psychologist in this scenario to complete that took into account our ethical obligations to all relevant parties in this fact pattern. A suggestion for improvement would be to support your assertions with reference to specific ethical code sections.

Implications of Diversity: Delivery of Forensic-Related Services - You correctly described the implications of diversity, race, and/or gender within the context of providing forensic services for this scenario. You also described the drawbacks of not being culturally aware of differences when working with clients.

Implications of Diversity: Scenario – You described how the forensic psychologist in this scenario should anticipate and address diversity issues in order to meet ethical and professional standards of our profession.

Implications of Diversity: Cultural Competency – You provided a description of how to generally ensure that best practices are followed in terms of cultural competency in the delivery of forensic services.

Articulation of Response - You wrote well and cited your sources appropriately.




Unformatted Attachment Preview

PSY 545: Final Project Guidelines and Rubric Overview The final project for this course is the creation of a case analysis. Forensic psychologists are often consulted regarding or assigned to difficult and complex cases that require careful and evidenced-based approaches to obtaining information for court proceedings. For example, forensic psychologists are frequently appointed by the court to assess a defendant's competence to stand trial, or they might be asked to make recommendations in a child custody case after conducting a forensic evaluation. Imagine that you are working with a forensic psychologist assigned to a legal case. In this assistant role, you are tasked with providing support and constructing suggestions on how to proceed with the evaluation and making recommendations to the court. Your recommendations will be based on theory and research, as well as on the current trends and changes within the discipline itself. You will choose one out of four scenarios listed in the Case Scenarios section in this document and evaluate your chosen case in an effort to help the assigned forensic psychologist implement effective, evidence-based approaches to deliver professionally sound recommendations to the court. Each case scenario concludes with a set of “Framing Questions” that will help guide you in identifying the implications and ramifications specific to your selected scenario. The project is divided into four milestones, which will be submitted at various points throughout the course to scaffold learning and ensure quality final submissions. These milestones will be submitted in Modules Two, Four, Six, and Eight. The final submission is in Module Nine. In this assignment, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following course outcomes:      Apply the scientific method to the practice of forensic psychology within the criminal justice system Evaluate dominant psychological explanations and theories of crime and delinquent behavior for informing the creation of appropriate and effective evidence-based approaches and strategies Develop evidence-based approaches and strategies for administering effective forensic evaluations to the criminally mentally ill and socially deviant individuals Assess the extent to which the role of ethics in various forensic scenarios influences decision-making processes consistent with the code of conduct in the field of psychology Assess the extent to which the role of diversity influences the effective delivery of forensic-related services, while maintaining the integrity of practice and high standard of professionalism Prompt Your case analysis should answer the following question: Based your evaluation of the case and utilizing the framing questions outlined at the conclusion of each scenario, what are your suggested approaches and strategies for administering an efficient forensic evaluation of the client(s)? The sections of your paper should be presented in the same order as the critical elements below. Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed: I. Introduction a) What case scenario will you be analyzing? b) Outline the key facts of the case. c) Overall, what are issues your assigned forensic psychologist would address in this scenario? Based on the scenario, what are the needs of the client? The defense team? The court? d) Include any other information that will establish a robust context for analyzing and evaluating the case. II. Scientific Methodology Evaluate the case scenario, applying the scientific methodology from the course. Remember, you are not stating opinions; you are breaking down this case through the lens of the scientific method. Walk through the scenario applying specific scientific methodology. In other words, determine which specific scientific methodology (e.g., forensic interviewing, psychological assessments, psycho-social assessments, the administering of psychological testing, court report writing) applies to the scenario. III. Theoretical Framework a) How can previous research help your assigned forensic psychologist with developing evidence-based approaches and providing effective services to clients within the scenario? b) Select a psychological theory that would help inform the forensic psychologist’s eventual decisions and recommendations in this case. In other words, provide a rationale that supports the approach as it relates to the specific scenario. c) Based on the scientific methodology(s) that you identified in Section II, what best practices or approaches would you recommend to ensure that they are effectively implemented in the particular scenario? i. For instance, what recommendations would you make to the assigned forensic psychologist to ensure that the client maintains the limit of confidentiality? How would you determine the client’s level of cognition with regard to the forensic psychologist’s involvement? Note: These are guiding questions. You should address other best practices as they relate to your scenario. IV. Role of Ethics a) Assess the forensic psychologist’s role relative to the potential ethical implications or ramifications in the scenario. For instance, what is the importance of maintaining objectivity or maintaining the role of professionalism? Substantiate your claims, referencing the Ethical Principles for Psychologists and Code of Conduct. b) Assess the potential risks associated with implementing forensic psychology practices specific to the scenario. For example, are there personal biases that would impact the forensic psychologist’s ability to be objective and fair in this scenario? c) What is your recommended course of action regarding the risks you identified, demonstrating your adherence to high ethical standards in working with all relevant parties in the scenario? i. For instance, how do forensic psychologists still work clinically with defendants when they would be required to release information obtained in an individual therapy session? Or what would be the ethical implications for forensic psychologists working on a case in which they are privy to unethical behavior being engaged in on the part of other court officials? V. Implications of Diversity a) What are the implications of diversity (e.g., race, gender) on the effective delivery of forensic-related services relative to the scenario? Overall, what are the drawbacks to being insensitive to and not culturally aware of differences when working with clients? b) How would you address issues of diversity in your selected scenario? In other words, what are your recommendations to the assigned forensic psychologist, ensuring that the psychologist will maintain the integrity of practice and high standard of professionalism? c) What steps are needed to ensure that best practices in addressing cultural competency are considered when providing services to clients of varying cultures and backgrounds? VI. Conclusion a) Working as an assistant to the forensic psychologist, what preparation is needed to effectively serve as an officer of the court, as it relates to the specific scenario? In other words, what practices would you employ to effectively prepare for giving official testimony before the court? b) Based on the facts of the case scenario and the framing questions outlined at the conclusion of the case, what approaches and strategies do you recommend for implementation? How do these strategies adhere to policies and procedures of practicing forensic psychologists? Substantiate your claims with scholarly research. Case Scenarios Capital Punishment Sentencing (Competency Evaluations) Mr. Davis, a Muslim who immigrated to this country five years ago, has a long history of psychiatric hospitalizations related to his diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. His delusions revolve around the belief that uniformed spies have been sent to execute him. He reports auditory and visual hallucinations when not on his medication. He was arrested for trespassing after he was found sleeping in the delivery shed of a warehouse. During his stay in jail, he was put on antipsychotic medications and was released for time served after spending 45 days in jail. Upon his release, he returned to living on the streets and stopped taking his medications. While sleeping on a park bench, he was assaulted by several youths who hit and kicked him, leaving him on the ground but with no serious injuries. Mr. Davis was convinced that the juveniles who assaulted him were spies who would later return to assassinate him. He found a 17-inch pipe and hid in the shadows the remainder of the evening, fearing for his life. In the early morning, he saw two uniformed youths approaching him, a 12-year-old boy and his 14-year-old brother, who were on their way to a Boy Scout meeting. Mr. Davis ran up behind the boys and started swinging the pipe wildly, screaming that they would never take him alive. He struck the 12-year-old in the head, causing severe brain trauma. The 14-year-old was able to flee, but only after receiving a blow in the face. Mr. Davis returned to the 12-year-old and bludgeoned him to death. He was still hitting the lifeless body when the police arrived. As soon as the police arrived, he dropped the pipe and sat in silence as he was subdued. He was found incompetent to stand trial and was committed to a state hospital. After eight months of pharmacological treatment, he was found competent, and tried and convicted of capital murder. In most jurisdictions, mitigating circumstances are that the offender was, at the time of the offense, (1) under extreme emotional or mental distress, and (2) substantially unable to appreciate the wrongfulness of his act or conform his behavior to the requirements of the law. Aggravating circumstances are that (1) the crime was committed in a wanton, atrocious, and cruel manner, and (2) the offender has the probability of committing criminal acts in the future. In this case, you are working as an assistant to a forensic psychologist hired by the defense to assist during the sentencing phase. In this role, you will have to help prepare testimony that would support the position of the defense attorney regarding the defendant’s competence, emotional stability at the time of the crime, and his ability to fully understand the consequences associated with his sentence. Framing Questions 1. What role do the mitigating and aggravating circumstances play in capital sentencing? 2. Competency evaluations: If you were asked to disagree with the findings in the competency evaluation previously administered, what evidence could you use to counter the recommendations included in the psychological evaluation? 3. What approach would you take in assessing and working with a Muslim who may have encountered racism in this country due to his religion and ethnicity? The Eggshell Defendant (Assessment of Psychological Injury) Kathy Hall has had several episodes of clinical depression, the first one when she was 14 years old and the most recent one a year ago. She is currently 34 years old and takes an antidepressant at a prophylactic dose to prevent a fourth clinical depression episode. She has a high school education and no additional formal training. During her last job, she earned minimum wage. Kathy spends one day a week volunteering at her community library. The library was renovating one of the reading rooms and asked volunteers to help out with minor construction, painting, and clean-up. One of the city employees had just finished using a glass pitcher to store a caustic cleanser used to remove glue and paint from wood surfaces. During the busy clean-up, a young child asked Kathy for a drink of water. Unknowingly, Kathy mistook the pitcher of cleanser for water and poured the child a glass. As a result, the child suffered serious burns throughout her mouth and down her throat. Kathy is not held liable for the mistake, but the city is sued since the cleanser was placed in the pitcher by a city employee. The family of the child wins a $4 million lawsuit against the city. After the incident, Kathy experienced an episode of clinical depression and blamed herself for the accident. City law allows the city to seek compensation from individuals whose actions result in significant financial loss to the city. Based on this law, the city initiates a lawsuit against Kathy. The defense against the lawsuit and reliving the experience causes further emotional harm to Kathy. The court appoints a forensic psychologist on this case to conduct a personal injury evaluation on Kathy, and you are hired by the forensic psychologist to assist him on this case. Framing Questions: 1. What are some of the issues you may face during this evaluation? 2. Identify what harm that Kathy suffered is compensable. What standard for compensable damages would be applicable to this case? 3. How should the evaluation be conducted? What instruments should be used and what collateral sources of information, if any, should be pursued? 4. How might the fact that this client does not have any formal education and is currently unemployed affect how others will perceive her? A King Solomon’s Solution? (Child Custody Evaluation) Kim and Halle met at a “Parents Without Partners” picnic. Halle, of Native American descent, was two years past a divorce and had her three children, all girls under seven years old, for the weekend. A friend suggested that she attend the picnic so that the children might have some friends to play with, while Halle interacted with other adults. Kim, who is African American, had a four-year-old son and was never married. She was dating a man and had an unplanned pregnancy. She did not want to marry the father and decided to raise the child on her own. The father of the boy has not been involved in his life. Halle and Kim hit it off at the picnic and had a commitment ceremony 18 months after meeting. Both Halle and Kim love children and decided to have more of their own through in vitro fertilization. Kim made the decision to raise the children and gave up her career as a pharmacist, while Halle, who owns a consulting business, could easily support the family. Halle and Kim have two additional children within the first five years of marriage. Halle continues to have weekend custody/visitation with her three children from her previous marriage, while they spend one month during the summer with the new family. However, after seven years of marriage, Halle decides she wants a divorce and wishes to remarry her first wife. Kim is taken totally by surprise and learns that Halle has been having an affair with her ex-partner throughout the past three years of their marriage. Halle wants to have full custody of the two children she had with Kim, along with Kim’s first son, who developed a strong attachment to Halle and thinks of Halle as his biological mother. Halle and her first partner file for full custody of all the children and threaten a long, drawn-out court battle. Kim countersues for shared custody of Halle’s three girls, since she and the girls have established a family bond. Note: The children involved in this case include Halle’s three girls from her previous marriage, Kim’s first son from her relationship, and Halle and Kim’s two children. The court appoints a forensic psychologist to conduct a child custody evaluation and make child custody recommendations to the court, and you are hired by the forensic psychologist to assist him on this case. Framing Questions 1. What type of custody arrangement should be made based upon the information above? 2. What other information would be important to gather? 3. How did you reach your decision? What standards did you consider in reaching your decisions? 4. Do you notice any personal biases swaying your decision? 5. What might be considered in this case when working with a gay or lesbian couple relative to custody, the courts and society, as a whole? 6. What might be considered in this case relative to working with clients of varying cultures and backgrounds? Can You Point Out the Person You Saw in the Park? (Eye Witness Memory and Recovered Memory) In September 2011, an 11-year-old girl vacationing with her family at a large amusement park is reported missing. Due to confusion between the parents, with each parent thinking that the other parent was with the girl, the child was missing for approximately 45 minutes before authorities were notified. Once notified, park officials placed security at all park exits. Security watched for the girl as well as questioned patrons leaving the park regarding any unusual behavior they may have witnessed. Nearly 20 patrons reported seeing a young girl who fit the child’s description with a man leaving the park. These individuals are asked for contact information. As the day ends and the park closes, the girl is still missing. Park officials conduct a thorough search of the park and find the girl’s body in a dumpster in a remote section of the park near a service entrance. It appears that the girl was sexually assaulted. Police contact patrons who offered earlier information in hopes of developing a composite sketch of the suspect. Of the 20 patrons who were contacted, only three were able to accurately identify the girl in a photo array with a photograph supplied by the parents. Eight of the patrons reported that the suspect appeared to be a Latino male, whereas four suggested the suspect was African American. The police artist, using computer software, generates a sketch. Fifteen of the patrons agree that the sketch resembles the man they saw. The police publicize the sketch on the evening news, asking for any information. Within the following three weeks, they receive approximately 200 leads. Only five of the leads result in individuals who were at the park on the day of the crime, based on surveillance videos from the entrance and exit of the park. The detective in charge of the case recognizes that the only evidence the police have is eyewitness evidence, because there were issues with DNA collection and other physical evidence being obtained. The detective also realizes that the eyewitnesses presented conflicting information. She decides that in order to obtain a conviction of the guilty individual, she will need to meticulously handle any eyewitness accounts placing any of the five subjects with the girl on the day of the disappearance. The detective contacts you and asks for your consultation on the case and for your suggestions as to how to obtain the most accurate and convincing eyewitness identification. Framing Questions 1. What procedures would you implement in this situation? 2. Discuss how the eyewitness identification should be conducted, including format, number and appearance of foils or opportunities for error, feedback, individuals present, and interaction among witnesses. 3. How would you prepare for testifying in court if you are called by the prosecution and/or the defense? 4. How does race come into play here? Is there something to be said about how some eyewitnesses immediately suggested that the suspect was Latino, while others believed he was African American? Milestones Milestone One: Introduction to Case Analysis (Draft of Section I) In Module Two, you will submit a two- to three-page paper. In the paper, discuss which case scenario you will be analyzing. Also include an outline of the key facts of the case, and discuss the issues that your assigned forensic psychologist should address in the chosen scenario. Discuss the needs of the client, the defense team, and the court. Finally, include any other information that will be used to establish context for analyzing and evaluating the case. This milestone is graded with the Milestone One Rubric. The feedback provided by the instructor should be applied to your final case analysis. Milestone Two: Methodology and Theory (Draft of Sections II ...
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Outline
Introduction
Body
Conclusion
References


Running head: CAPITAL PUNISHMENT CASE ANALYSIS

Capital Crime Case Analysis
Samantha Panizo
Southern New Hampshire
Date

2
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT CASE ANALYSIS
Capital Punishment Case Analysis
The case analysis is that of capital punishment sentencing or competency evaluations. In
the case, the defendant, Mr. Davis, is of Muslim origin. He has an extensive history of
hospitalizations related to psychiatric issues. According to the American Psychiatric Association
(2013), Mr. Davis suffers from what is known as Paranoid schizophrenia in the DSM-5. His
paranoid delusions center on the belief that uniformed spies have been sent to take his life. When
Davis was not on medication, he reported auditory and visual hallucinations. He was arrested for
trespassing, and while in jail, he was put on antipsychotic medications and released upon the
completion of 45 days. He was homeless, and upon release, he slept on the streets. A group of
rowdy youths assaulted Davis, and he was convinced that they were spies. Armed with a metal
pipe, he hid and in the morning when he spotted two males aged 12 and 14. Davis attacked them
the twelve-year-old boy was struck dead, but the 14-year old fled. When the police arrived, they
took him into custody. Later, Davis was found unfit to stand trial and was sent to a state hospital.
After eight months, he was stable and fit for trial. Davis was convicted of capital murder.
A forensic psychologist would address both mitigating and aggravating factors in the
case. The psychologist will weigh the factors and determine their effects on the defendant and
issue a testimony. The client's needs would probably be to avoid capital punishment, and the
defense team would want their client given a lenient sentence considering his state of mind at the
time the crime was committed. The needs of the court would be to be fair, seek justice for the
victim, and ensure the perpetrator receives the right sentencing. The court would follow legal
precedents and guidelines to ensure justice.

3
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT CASE ANALYSIS
The judiciary system is implemented to ensure fairness and accountability in matters
concerning law observance and conflict resolution. In this scenario, as a forensics analysis would
help to uncover all aggravating and mitigating factors of the case, (Passell, 2018). The forensics
psychologist's duty would be to analyze all contributors that lead to the murder to enable
testimony presentation. The defendant's quest would be to avoid capital punishment while the
defense team wishes to see their client get full compensation for their loss of life. The presence
of known evidence of Mr. David's mental illness needed to be considered to ensure the court
followed all guidelines in case convictions to rule his case.
Scientific Methodology
As one of the expert witnesses for the defense, the forensic psychologist will be
extremely focused on establishing moral liability as one of the mitigating factors during
sentencing. It would be prudent to use forensic interviewing and unstructured interviews to
gather and assess Mr. Davis's social history. As suggested by Ben-Porath and Tellegen (2011),
conducting a personality test like the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 restructured
form (MMPI–2- RF) would help ascertain the defendant's personality deficits and traits. Given
that Mr. Davis is facing capital punishment, it would be in his best interest to subject him to an
intellectual assessment to determine the defendant's level of intellectual functioning. Finally,
violence risk and adaptive behavior assessments, together with the Psychopathology ChecklistRevised (PCL-R), would be ideal in assessing and determining Mr. Davis's psychopathology.
Theoretical Framework
During the sentencing phase, the forensic psychologist's role must convince the jury that
mitigating circumstances contributed to the defendant's commission of a capital crime. In this

4
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT CASE ANALYSIS
case, the concept of mitigating factors is heavily reliant on the attribution theory. Attribution is a
theory of social behavior that relates to how individuals explain their behavior and that of other
people (McLeod, 2010). The theory explains that people explain or attribute external or
psychological causes as a determining factor in human behavior. In this case, the forensic
psychologist would use attribution theory to show the jury that the defendant at the time of the
offense was not acting on intent to harm the two boys. Instead, his mental illness accompanied
by a prior beating made him view the boys as enemies who were sent to kill him. Mental illness
can be a mitigating factor because the accused was incapacitated. The defense's objective is to
eliminate the moral culpability of the defendant. Even when a person with mental illness is
convicted of murder, their actions and crimes are inexcusable since their crimes have been
proven beyond a reasonable doubt.
Role of Ethics
In most capital punishment sentencing, the issues centering on evaluation competency
can be quite controversial (Huss, 2014). For instance, forensic psychologists are faced with
dilemmas on whether or not to participate in the evaluation process based on their moral and
ethical standards. The psychologist plays a forensic role, and this needs provision or unbiased
information to the courts. Psychologists need to be aware of personal biases when it comes to the
interpretation and assessment of evidence when they relate to the American Psychological
Association (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (EPPCC). A
potential risk in the case of Mr. Davis would be personal bias against people of the Muslim faith.
Beneficence needs to be provided to the client and the defense team to ensure due process of law
is followed.

5
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT CASE ANALYSIS
Implications of Diversity
Some clients lack the ability to express themselves either in written or oral literacy. Some
immigrants come from regions without equivalent legal or dialect terms, and as such, they lack
proper information and comprehension of legal proceedings (Ciftci, Jones, & Corrigan, 2013).
For Muslims like Davis, mental illness in his faith might be perceived as a curse or punishment
from Allah. While this might be considered fatal in some instances, it could present challenges to
appropriate forensic evaluation of the defendant.
Capital punishment
Capital punishment entails the legal killing of an individual as punishment for a crime
they did; in other words, the death penalty. When it comes to the death penalty, the majority of
the scientists agree that the death penalty has no deterrent effect. States without capital
punishment continue to have significantly lower murder rates than those exercising capital
punishment. According to the latest issue of the journal of criminal law and criminology with a
study by a professor and a student examining the opinions of leading criminology experts on the
dete...

Drmeehan (11243)
University of Virginia

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