Humanities
SNHU Infant Developmental Outcomes Family Systems Perspective Research Paper

PSYCH 211

Southern New Hampshire University

PSYCH

Question Description

I don’t know how to handle this Psychology question and need guidance.

Read the three articles and complete a literature review on all three using the Literature Worksheet that is attached.

NO OTHER OUTSIDE sources, only the articles are allowed to be referenced for these reviews.

Submit assignment as a Word document with double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, and one-inch margins.


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PSY 211 Literature Worksheet This worksheet will be completed using all three of the articles for your chosen track and will inform the literature review section of your final project submission. Each category requires 2 to 3 sentences, but you may include more if necessary. • In Module One, you will complete only the Article One section and submit it to your instructor for feedback. • In Module Three, you will have to complete all three sections (Article One, Article Two, and Article Three) of this worksheet and submit it. Make sure to incorporate your instructor’s feedback from Article One. Make sure to use the Example Literature Worksheet as a guide when working on your Module One and Module Three submissions. Article One Citation of Literature [Include the citation of the reviewed resource in APA format.] Authors’ Claims [What claims did the authors make in the study you reviewed?] Influence of Factors on Human Development [What factors (physical, social, environmental) influenced development in the study? Describe those factors and discuss which ones had positive influences and which ones had negative influences.] Historical Significance [Explain how the article’s findings affect the historical evolution of developmental psychology. What conclusions did you reach about developmental psychology from the article?] Research Methods and Design [What were the specific methods used to address the authors’ research question? What type of research design was used and how was it used to conduct the research?] Ethics [How were ethics addressed in the studies? Were the studies conducted ethically? Why or why not? How do they fit in with the view of ethics over the history of human development?] Article Two Citation of Literature [Include the citation of the reviewed resource in APA format.] Authors’ Claims [What claims did the authors make in the study you reviewed?] Influence of Factors on Human Development [What factors (physical, social, environmental) influenced development in the study? Describe those factors and discuss which ones had positive influences and which ones had negative influences.] Historical Significance [Explain how the article’s findings affect the historical evolution of developmental psychology. What conclusions did you reach about developmental psychology from the article?] Research Methods and Design [What were the specific methods used to address the authors’ research question? What type of research design was used and how was it used to conduct the research?] Ethics [How were ethics addressed in the studies? Were the studies conducted ethically? Why or why not? How do they fit in with the view of ethics over the history of human development?] Article Three Citation of Literature [Include the citation of the reviewed resource in APA format.] Authors’ Claims [What claims did the authors make in the study you reviewed?] Influence of Factors on Human Development [What factors (physical, social, environmental) influenced development in the study? Describe those factors and discuss which ones had positive influences and which ones had negative influences.] Historical Significance [Explain how the article’s findings affect the historical evolution of developmental psychology. What conclusions did you reach about developmental psychology from the article?] Research Methods and Design [What were the specific methods used to address the authors’ research question? What type of research design was used and how was it used to conduct the research?] Ethics [How were ethics addressed in the studies? Were the studies conducted ethically? Why or why not? How do they fit in with the view of ethics over the history of human development?] Infant and Child Development Inf. Child. Dev. 23: 353–373 (2014) Published online 21 November 2013 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/icd.1830 Infant Developmental Outcomes: A Family Systems Perspective Ylva Parfitta,*, Alison Pikea and Susan Ayersb a School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK School of Health Sciences, City University London, London, UK b The aim of the current study was to examine whether parental mental health, parent–infant relationship, infant characteristics and couple’s relationship factors were associated with the infant’s development. Forty-two families took part at three time points. The first, at 3 months postpartum, involved a video recorded observation (CARE-index) of parent–infant interactions. At 5 months postpartum, in-depth clinical interviews (the Birmingham Interview of Maternal Mental Health) assessed parental mental health and parental perceptions of their relationship with their infant, their partner and their infant’s characteristics. Finally, the Bayley Scales III was carried out 17 months postpartum to assess the infants’ cognitive, language and motor development. A higher mother–infant relationship quality was significantly associated with more optimal language development, whilst a higher father–infant relationship quality was associated with more advanced motor development. Additionally, maternal postnatal post-traumatic stress disorder had a negative impact on the infant’s cognitive development, whilst maternal prenatal depression was associated with a less optimal infant’s language development. The largest prediction was afforded by parental perceptions of their infant’s characteristics. The findings indicate that such perceptions may be crucial for the infant’s development and imply that negative internal parental perceptions should be considered when assessing risk factors or designing interventions to prevent negative child outcomes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key words: infant development; parental mental health; parent– infant relationship; couple’s relationship; infant characteristics *Correspondence to: Ylva Parfitt, School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH, UK. E-mail: ylva.parfitt@btopenworld.com Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 354 Y. Parfitt et al. INTRODUCTION Pregnancy and the first year of an infant’s life are critical times for laying the foundations for the child’s future development. Research suggests that prevalence rates of developmental problems in the under threes range between 11% and 13% (e.g. Skovgaard et al., 2007; Tough et al., 2008). The identification of children at risk for developmental problems is important, as untreated developmental problems may have significant negative impact on the individuals and have economic and social impacts on society as a whole (Tough et al., 2008). Research suggests a range of interrelated risk factors for negative child developmental outcomes, such as poor mental health of the mother (e.g. Brouwers, Van Baar, & Pop, 2001; Lung, Chiang, Lin, & Shu, 2009; Murray, 2009), low levels of maternal social support (Tough, Siever, Benzies, Leew, & Johnston, 2010) and poor quality of the couple’s relationship (Hanington, Heron, Stein, & Ramchandani, 2012). Other major risk factors include an impaired parent–infant relationship and attachment problems (Murray & Cooper, 1996; Tomlinson, Cooper, & Murray, 2005; Wan & Green, 2009), and also infant factors, such as prematurity (Forcada-Guex, Pierrehumbert, Borghini, Moessinger, & Muller-Nix, 2006), male gender (Hay et al., 2001; Tough et al., 2008) and difficult infant temperament (Black et al., 2007). The current study adds to this literature by including both mothers and fathers in the analysis of the associations between their mental health, relationships with infant and partner, infant characteristics, and their infant’s development, using Belsky’s model of determinants of parenting (1984) as a general framework. This model suggests that the parent–infant relationship (parenting) and the infant’s characteristics have a direct effect on the child’s development and that parental mental health and the couple’s relationship are related to infant outcomes by the effect they have on parenting. However, more recent evidence has also suggested direct links between parental mental health, the couple’s relationship and infant developmental outcomes. Parental Mental Health and Infant Development There is ample evidence of adverse effects of maternal postnatal depression on the infant’s cognitive, emotional and language development, behaviour, and mental health (Lung et al., 2009; Murray, 2009; Murray & Cooper, 1996; Quevedo et al., 2012). Links between paternal depression and less optimal language development (Paulson, Keefe, & Leiferman, 2009) and adverse emotional and behavioural outcomes in children have also been found (Ramchandani, Stein, Evans, O’Connor, & Team, 2005). Mental health in pregnancy may be especially important for later child outcomes. Accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to maternal prenatal anxiety and stress in the womb may have long-term negative developmental consequences for the baby (e.g. Glover, 2011; Punamaki et al., 2006; Van Batenburg-Eddes et al., 2009). For example, the results of a large longitudinal study (Evans et al., 2011) suggested that prenatal exposure to depression may be more predictive of less optimal child cognitive development than postnatal depression. It has been suggested that this can be explained by abnormal physiological pathways within biological systems (e.g. neuroendocrine, immune and cardiovascular systems) involved in pregnancy and stress physiology, through which maternal prenatal mental health exerts a risk on child development by affecting the fetal development (Federenko & Wadhwa, 2004; Field, Diego, & Hernandez-Reif, 2006). Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Inf. Child. Dev. 23: 353–373 (2014) DOI: 10.1002/icd Infant Development: A Family Systems Perspective 355 The majority of research regarding the association between postnatal parental mental health and the infant’s development has focused on depression. Less is known about the effect of other aspects of parental mental health, such as anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), on the infant’s subsequent development. A systematic review of the effects of postnatal maternal anxiety on children (Glasheen, Richardson, & Fabio, 2010) found that the strongest adverse effects were on somatic, behavioural and emotional problems in the child, but with inconclusive evidence regarding the effect on children’s cognitive and general development. Also, Bosquet Enlow et al. (2011) found that maternal PTSD symptoms 6 months postpartum were associated with measures of emotional regulation when the child was 13 months old. Similarly, Pierrehumbert, Nicole, Muller-Nix, Forcada-Guex, and Ansermet (2003) found that the severity of PTSD symptoms amongst parents of premature babies was a significant predictor of their children’s subsequent regulatory (e.g. sleeping and eating) problems. However, no known studies have assessed infant developmental outcomes in relation to postnatal PTSD. Infant Characteristics and Infant Development Early difficult infant temperament has been associated with elevated rates of parental mental health problems (e.g. Bang, 2011; Melchior et al., 2011), a less optimal parent– infant relationship (Hofacker & Papousek, 1998; Zhu et al., 2007) and child behavioural problems (Bosquet Enlow et al., 2011; Dale et al., 2011; Jessee, Mangelsdorf, Shigeto, & Wong, 2012), and also identified as a predictor of later difficult child temperament (Canals, Hernandez-Martinez, & Fernandez-Ballart, 2011). Parental perceptions of their infant’s characteristics have also been associated with the child’s development (Hernandez-Martinez, Canals Sans, & Fernandez-Ballart, 2011; Molfese et al., 2010). However, generally, it should be noted that the associations between different variables, such as parental mental health and the infant’s temperament, are reciprocal, not just one way. One aspect of infant characteristics is infant sleep disturbance, which has been associated with worse parental prenatal and postnatal mental health and child behavioural problems (Baird, Hill, Kendrick, & Inskip, 2009; Britton, 2011; Field et al., 2007; Lam, Hiscock, & Wake, 2003). The Parent–Infant Relationship and Infant Development Apart from the physiological pathways between women’s prenatal mental health and child outcomes as mentioned earlier, the parent–infant relationship itself may serve as an important behavioural pathway between parental mental health and child outcomes (e.g. Grace, Evindar, & Stewart, 2003; Westbrook & Harden, 2010). The parent–infant relationship has a central position in Belsky’s process model (1984), not only as having a direct effect on the child’s development but also as a mediator of other parental and child predictors. However, although several studies (e.g. Grace et al., 2003; Murray, FioriCowley, Hooper, & Cooper, 1996; Westbrook & Harden, 2010) have suggested the existence of mediation effects between parental mental health and child outcomes through the parent–infant relationship, these effects are not consistently found (e.g. McManus & Poehlmann, 2012). Research shows that the quality of the mother–infant interaction may be affected by maternal depression (for a review, see Field, 2010; Leinonen, Solantaus, & Punamaki, 2003; for a meta-analysis, see Lovejoy, Graczyk, O’Hare, & Neuman, 2000), with evidence of deficiencies in the mother’s responsiveness and emotional involvement (Black et al., 2007; Murray et al., 1996) or hostile and intrusive interactions Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Inf. Child. Dev. 23: 353–373 (2014) DOI: 10.1002/icd 356 Y. Parfitt et al. (Mantymaa, Puura, Luoma, Salmelin, & Tamminen, 2004). It has been suggested that deficient maternal interactions and caregiving consequently affect the infant’s responsivity (Field, 2010) and attention (Steadman et al., 2007), therein contributing to less optimal cognitive (Slater, 1995) and language (Stein et al., 2008) child developmental outcomes. Some studies have specifically linked negative parental perceptions and representations of their infant to a less optimal parent–infant relationship and subsequent child developmental or behavioural outcome (Dollberg, Feldman, & Keren, 2010; Hernandez-Martinez et al., 2011). Although most studies have focused on the mother–infant relationship, recent research on the influence of fathers’ parenting and child development is also emerging. For example, the extent of fathers’ positive involvement in parenting has been shown to reduce the likelihood of cognitive delays in their children, especially for boys (Bronte-Tinkew, Carrano, Horowitz, & Kinukawa, 2008). Conversely, Ramchandani et al. (2013) found that paternal disengagement and remote interaction with their babies at 3 months predicted child externalizing behavioural problems at 1 year of age. The Couple’s Relationship and Infant Development The aforementioned research shows that the family should be viewed as a system (e.g. Bell et al., 2007; Cowan & Cowan, 2002) with an awareness of both parents’ contribution to their child’s outcomes and also acknowledgement of possible spillover effects between the couple’s relationship and parent–infant relationship subsystems (Erel & Burman, 1995). For example, the couple’s relationship problems may negatively affect the parent–infant interactions (e.g. Mantymaa et al., 2006) and thereby indirectly contribute to the child’s outcomes (Carlson, Pilkauskas, McLanahan, & Brooks-Gunn, 2011; Leinonen et al., 2003; Westbrook & Harden, 2010) through parenting. Conflicts within the couple’s relationship may also negatively indirectly influence the child’s mental health, through having an effect on the child’s emotional security (e.g. Davies, Harold, Goeke-Morey, & Cummings, 2002; Koss et al., 2011; Kouros, Cummings, & Davies, 2010). Recently, the couple’s relationship has also been found to serve as a risk factor for adverse child outcomes (Hanington et al., 2012). The Present Study In summary, research suggests that poor parental mental health is a risk factor for negative infant developmental outcomes but has mainly focused on the effects of maternal postnatal depression on the infant’s development. Research also suggests that family relationship dynamics, primarily the parent–infant relationship itself, may be an important mechanism by which parental mental health, infant characteristics and the couple’s relationship affect the infant’s development. However, there is limited research including all of these factors and fathers. In addition, studies looking at risk factors for negative child developmental outcomes need to be extended to also include other mental health issues, such as PTSD and anxiety amongst both mothers and fathers. The main aim of this study was to examine whether parental mental health, parent–infant relationship, infant characteristics and couple’s relationship variables were directly or indirectly associated with the infant’s cognitive, language or motor development. On the basis of previous research findings and Belsky’s model, it was predicted that a less optimal perceived and observed parent–infant relationship, poor parental mental health, low quality of the couple’s relationship and difficult Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Inf. Child. Dev. 23: 353–373 (2014) DOI: 10.1002/icd Infant Development: A Family Systems Perspective 357 infant temperament would be associated with less optimal infant developmental scores. Whilst parental mental health, the parent–infant relationship and infant characteristics would be directly associated with the infant’s development, it was also predicted that the parent–infant relationship would act as a mediator between parental mental health, the couple’s relationship, the infant temperament and the infant’s development. METHOD Participants Participants were 42 families recruited from the Sussex Journey to Parenthood Study (UK), a longitudinal study of the transition to parenthood from pregnancy to the postpartum. Inclusion criteria for the Journey to Parenthood Study were that the women were nulliparous, cohabiting with their partner, fluent in English and over 18 years old. The majority of the participants of the present study were Caucasian (86%), and 85% had undergone higher education (diploma and beyond). The babies were born healthy and full term. At the time of the child development assessment, the infants (23 girls and 19 boys) were between 16 and 20 months old (M = 17.17 months, SD = 0.73). At the time of recruitment, the length of the couple’s relationship ranged from 1 to 25 years (M = 6.36 years, SD = 4.04) with the women aged between 26 and 46 years (M = 33.41 years, SD = 5.08) and the men aged between 26 and 44 years (M = 34.20, SD = 4.75). Procedure Ethical approval was obtained from the NHS Research Ethics Committee and the University Research Governance Committee. Participants of the Sussex Journey to Parenthood questionnaire study (N = 141, 75 women and 66 men) were invited to take part in an observational study of their interaction with their baby approximately 3 months after the birth of their baby. Forty-five families agreed to take part in a short parent–infant play interaction, conducted separately with the mother and father and their baby at home and videotaped for later coding. Next, the parents who took part in the observational study were also invited for a clinical interview (Birmingham Interview for Maternal Mental Health), which took place approximately 5 months after the birth of their first baby. There was no attrition between the observations of interactions and the interviews. The interviews were conducted separately with the mothers and fathers in their hom ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

LITERATURE WORKSHEET

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Literature Worksheet
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LITERATURE WORKSHEET

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Literature Worksheet
Article One
Literature Citation
Parfitt, Y., Pike, A., & Ayers, S. (2014). Infant Developmental Outcomes: A Family Systems
Perspective. Infant and Child Development, 23 (4), 353-373.
Authors’ Claims
This study was conducted to examine the extent to which infant development is affected
by parents’ mental health, the relationship between the parents and infant, characteristics of the
infant, and also the couple’s relationship. The authors conducted the study when the infant was 3
months old, 5 months old, and finally 17 months old. Parental perceptions of their infant’s
characteristics largely influence infant development. Negative perceptions of parents towards
their infants are a major risk in negative child outcomes.
Influence of Factors on Human Development
The authors focused on pregnancy and the first year of an infant’s life. They felt that the
two were the most critical times when parents could lay excellent foundations for the
development of their child. Identification of children at high risk of developmental issues in their
early ages was necessary for preventing an impact of negative nature on the child as well as the
society. According to Parfitt et al. (2014), lesser developmental scores are a result of poor couple
relations, problematic infant temperament, the poor mental health of the parents, and an
inconsistent relationship between parents and their infants. In addition, the study gave a
prediction that parents' mental health and the relationship between the couple would be mediated
by a consistent relationship between parents and their infants.
Historical Significance

LITERATURE WORKSHEET

3

Previous surveys have been conducted on the same topic. This study adds on to these
studies but incorporates into the analysis of both mothers and fathers. It sets up a new general
framework by associating the mental health of the parents, relationship with the infants, infants'
characteristics, and their development.
Research Methods and Design
The study recruited 42 families in the U.K. who w...

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