Bethel College Consumption of Marijuana Discussion

Bethel College

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Help me study for my Law class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

Directions: Answers must rely on the uploaded textbook as a source and at least 3 other outside scholarly/academic sources to support ideas and a minimum of 350 words. Must use proper grammar, mechanics and spelling in your response, you have to make use of proper in-text citations and an end-reference “ NO Plagiarism” . All Sources besides the textbook provided, must have a direct link to it and APA format and must use in work citations.

Question: Many of our most dangerous drugs today are regulated (Controlled Substances) and even many illicit drugs were used as medicines in the 1800's and early 1900's. Use your text and research online to determine why the marijuana of today is/or is not different from the marijuana of the early 1900's and even the 1960's. Be specific and support your opinions with references. Use caution in your sources, as many blogs and lobbying groups publish articles based mostly on their viewpoint and not so much on actual fact. I am looking for facts and how you defend your responses.

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M03_LEVI0484_03_SE_C03.qxd 11/24/10 5:50 PM Page 50 3 chapter S A U N D E R S The History of Drug Use and Drug-Control Policy S R . , After you have completed this chapter, you should have an understanding of ● The origins and history of drugs and drug-taking behavior ● Drug regulation legislation, 1914–1980. ● Drug regulation legislation, 1980–2000 ● The globalization of drug regulation, 2001-Present ● Domestic drug regulation and international terrorism, 2001-Present If the Chinaman cannot get along without his “dope,” G we A —American Pharmaceutical Association, R 1902 Most of the attacks upon white women of the South R are the direct result of the cocaine-crazed Negro brain. Y ... can get along without him. Negro cocaine fiends are now a new Southern menace. —New York Times, February 2 8, 1914 Liquor traffic is un-American, pro-German, crime-produc0 9 and ing, food-wasting, youth-corrupting, home-wrecking, treasonable. Under marijuana, 0 T 1918 —The Anti-Saloon League, S espeMexicans become very violent, cially when they become angry, and will attack an officer Drugs, Society and Criminal Justice, 3E by Ken Charles F. Levinthal. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education. M03_LEVI0484_03_SE_C03.qxd 11/24/10 5:50 PM Page 51 even if a gun is drawn on him. They seem to have no fear; I have also noted that under the influence of this weed they have enormous strength and that it will take several men to handle one man, while under ordinary circumstances one man could handle him with ease. —A Texas police officer, 1927 Today… little has changed in the method of S A criminals. Cyber crime, hackers, dial a dope, U online pharmaceuticals, drug pushers are all N doing one thing: creating chaos in society. The D more stress and tension that hidden chaos merE chants inflict in society, the more dope that is R pushed in on the populace, the greater the S operations for drug dealers and anonymous distractions from the truly important purposes of life. S R . The use of consciousness-altering drugs has , been a part of human life in almost every culture and in —A drug and alcohol rehabilitation advisor, 2008 every age of recorded history. Psychoactive drugs have been used in the context of religious rituals, health care, G celebration, and recreation. In most societies, the use of some drugs has been permitted, whereas the use of othA er drugs has been prohibited, often depending on the R type of drug that is being used, the drug’s effects, and R who is using the drug. An understanding of the history of drug use and our efforts to control drug use forms the Y basis for an understanding of present-day drug abuse and the problems associated with it. Over the course of our nation’s history, attitudes 2 toward certain drugs and certain forms of drug-taking 0 behavior have fluctuated between enthusiastic acceptance and passionate rejection. Heroin, marijuana, 9 cocaine, and numerous other drugs all have had peri0 ods of popularity and periods of disapproval. In the late 1800s, for example, America experienced an epiT demic of cocaine use. This was followed by a rejection S in the early 1900s and a reemergence in the second half of the 1970s, followed by another period of rejection beginning in the 1980s and extending to the present day. Chapter 3 American drug control policy also has had its own historical swings, with policies themselves not always being founded on rational decision-making and empirical data. Decisions to outlaw some drugs while legalizing others have sometimes been based on fear, hysteria, politics, ethnic prejudice, and racism. As we will see, legal prohibition of a particular drug has too often been associated with fear of a given drug’s effect on a threatening minority group. It is important to examine the history of drugs and drug-taking behavior and the history of drug-control policy in the United States in order to arrive at the best strategies for dealing with present-day drug use and abuse. Drugs in Early Times Try to imagine the accidental circumstances under which a psychoactive drug might have been discovered. Thousands of years ago, perhaps hundreds of thousands of years ago, the process of discovery would have been as natural as eating, and the motivation as basic as simple curiosity. In cool climates, next to a cave dwelling may have grown a profusion of blue morning glories or brightly colored mushrooms, plants that produce hallucinations similar to LSD. In desert regions, yellow-orange fruits grew on certain cacti, the source of the hallucinogenic drug peyote. Elsewhere, poppy plants, the source of opium, covered acres of open fields. Coca leaves, from which cocaine is made, grew on shrubs along the mountain valleys throughout Central and South America. The hardy cannabis plant, the source of marijuana, grew practically everywhere.1 It is entirely possible that some of the curiosity of humans was inspired by observing the unusual behavior of animals as they fed on these plants. Within their own experience, somewhere along the line people made the connection between the chewing of willow bark (the source of modern-day aspirin) and the relief of a headache or the eating of the senna plant (a natural laxative) and the relief of constipation. Of course, some of these plants made people sick, and many were sufficiently poisonous to cause death. The plants that had the strangest impact, however, were the ones that produced hallucinations. Having a sudden vision of something totally foreign to everyday experiences must have been overwhelming, like a visit to another world. Individuals with prior knowledge about such plants, as well as about plants with therapeutic powers, would eventually acquire great power over The History of Drug Use and Drug-Control Policy Drugs, Society and Criminal Justice, 3E by Ken Charles F. Levinthal. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education. ■ 51 M03_LEVI0484_03_SE_C03.qxd 11/24/10 5:50 PM Page 52 In a wide range of world cultures throughout history, hallucinogens have been regarded as having deeply spiritual powers. Under the influence of drugs, this modern-day shaman communicates with the spirit world. others in the community. This knowledge was the beginning of shamanism, a practice among primitive societies dating back, by some estimates, more than 40,000 years, in which an individual called a shaman acts as a healer through a combination of trances and plant-based medicines, usually in the context of a local religious rite. Shamans still function today in remote areas of the world, often alongside practitioners of modern medicine, and hallucination-producing plants still play a major role in present-day shamanic healing.2 shamanism: The philosophy and practice of healing in which the diagnosis or treatment is based on trancelike states, either on the part of the healer (shaman) or the patient. shaman (SHAH-men): A healer whose diagnosis or treatment of patients is based at least in part on trances. These trances are frequently induced by hallucinogenic drugs. Ebers Papyrus: An Egyptian document, dated approximately 1500 B.C., containing more than 800 prescriptions for common ailments and diseases. placebo (pla-CEE-bo) effect: Any change in a person’s condition after taking a drug, based solely on that person’s beliefs about the drug rather than on any physical effects of the drug (see Chapter 1). 52 ■ Part One With the development of centralized religions in Egyptian and Babylonian societies, the influence of shamanism would gradually decline. The power to heal through one’s knowledge of drugs passed into the hands of the priesthood, which placed a greater emphasis on formal rituals and rules than on hallucinations and trances. The most extensive testament to the development of priestly healing during this period is a 65-foot-long Egyptian scroll known as the Ebers Papyrus, named after the British Egyptologist who acquired it in 1872. This mammoth document, dating from 1500 B.C., contains S more than eight hundred prescriptions for practically every ailment imaginable, including simple wasp A and crocodile bites, baldness, constipation, stings headaches, enlarged prostate glands, sweaty feet, arthriU tis, inflammations of all types, heart disease, and cancer. N than a hundred of the preparations contained casMore torDoil as a natural laxative. Some contained the “berry of the poppy,” which is now recognized as referring to E opium. Other ingredients were quite bizarre: lizard’s R the teeth of swine, the oil of worms, the hoof of blood, an ass, putrid meat with fly specks, and crocodile dung S (excrement of all types being highly favored for its ability to frighten off the evil spirits of disease).3 S How successful were these strange remedies? It is impossible to know because records were not kept on R or not patients were cured. Although some of whether the . ingredients, such as opium and castor oil, had true medicinal value, it may be that much of the improve, from these concoctions was psychological rather ment than physiological. In other words, improvement in the patient’s condition resulted from the belief on the G part that he or she would be helped, a phepatient’s nomenon known as the placebo effect (see Chapter 1). A Along with substances that had genuine healing R properties, other psychoactive drugs were put to other uses. R In the early Middle Ages, Viking warriors ate the mushroom Amanita muscaria (known as “fly agaric”) Y and experienced increased energy, which resulted in wild behavior in battle. They were called “Berserkers” because of the bear skins they wore, and reckless, vio2 lent behavior has come to be called “berserk.” Later, 0 operating on the periphery of Christian sociwitches ety9created “witch’s brews,” which were said to induce hallucinations and a sensation of flying. The brews 0 mixtures made of various plants such as manwere drake, T henbane, and belladonna. The toads that they included in their recipes did not hurt either: We know S that the sweat glands of toads contain a chemical now related to DMT, a powerful hallucinogenic drug, as well as bufotenine, a drug that raises blood pressure and heart rate (see Chapter 9).4 Drugs and Society: The Criminal Justice Perspective Drugs, Society and Criminal Justice, 3E by Ken Charles F. Levinthal. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education. M03_LEVI0484_03_SE_C03.qxd 11/24/10 5:50 PM Page 53 Drugs in the Nineteenth Century By the end of the nineteenth century, the medical profession had made significant strides with respect to medical healing. Morphine was identified as the active ingredient in opium, a drug that had been in use for at least three thousand years, and had become the physician’s most reliable prescription to control the pain of disease and injury. The invention of the syringe made it possible to deliver morphine directly and speedily into S the bloodstream. A Morphine quickly became a common treatment for pain during the Civil War, a time during which a surU geon’s skill was often measured by how quickly he could N saw off a wounded patient’s limb. Unfortunately, followD ing the war, morphine dependence among Civil War veterans was so widespread that it was called the “solE dier’s disease.”Doctors also recommended morphine R injections for women to treat the pain associated with “female troubles,” and by the late 1890s, morphine S dependence among women made up almost half of all cases of drug dependence in the United States (see Chapter 7).5 S Cocaine, having been extracted from South AmeriR can coca leaves, was also a drug in widespread use and taken quite casually in a variety of forms. The original . formula for Coca-Cola (as the name suggests) contained , cocaine until 1903, as did Dr. Agnew’s Catarrh Powder, a popular remedy for chest colds. In the mid-1880s, Parke, Davis, and Company (merged with Pfizer, Inc. in G 2002) was selling cocaine and its botanical source, coca, A in more than a dozen forms, including coca-leaf cigarettes and cigars, cocaine inhalants, a coca cordial, and R R Y 2 0 9 0 T S In the latter part of the nineteenth century in the United States, cocaine was a popular ingredient in over-the-counter medications. These products were totally unregulated, and customers included children as well as adults. Chapter 3 an injectable cocaine solution.6 A Viennese doctor named Sigmund Freud, who was later to gain a greater reputation for his psychoanalytical theories than for his ideas concerning psychoactive drugs, called cocaine a “magical drug.” Freud would later reverse his position when a friend and colleague became dependent on cocaine (see Chapter 8).7 During the nineteenth century, America’s public attitude toward drug use was one of laissez-faire, roughly translated from the French as “allow [people] to do as they please,” which means that there was little regulation or control of drugs. In fact, the United States was the only major Western nation that allowed the unlimited distribution, sale, and promotion of psychoactive drugs during this period. The result was a nation of medicinal and recreational drug users that has been described as a “dope fiend’s paradise.” 8 There were two major factors that explain why there were no major drug control policies during this period. First, unlike many European nations, the United States did not have any agencies regulating the medical field, and because doctors and pharmacists were unlicensed, it was not difficult to call oneself a doctor and distribute drugs. The American Medical Association (AMA) was established in 1847, but only a fraction of practicing health professionals were members during the 1800s. Doctors of this era had no choice but to rely upon untested and potentially toxic chemicals to treat both physical and psychological disorders (Drugs . . . in Focus). A second factor was the issue of states’ rights. During the nineteenth century, the prevailing political philosophy was a belief in the strict separation of state and federal powers, especially in southern states. Therefore, the regulation of drugs was left to the states, most of which had few, if any, drug laws. For the federal government to pass laws limiting the use of any drug would have been seen as a serious challenge to the concept of states’ rights.9 Drug Regulation in the Early Twentieth Century By 1900, the promise of medical advances in the area of drugs was beginning to be matched by concerns about the dependence that some of these drugs could laissez-faire (LAY-say FAIR) (Fr.): The philosophy of exerting as little governmental control and regulation as possible. The History of Drug Use and Drug-Control Policy Drugs, Society and Criminal Justice, 3E by Ken Charles F. Levinthal. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education. ■ 53 M03_LEVI0484_03_SE_C03.qxd 11/24/10 5:50 PM Page 54 Drugs… in Focus Abraham Lincoln, Depression, and Those “Little Blue Pills” It is well known to historians that Abraham Lincoln suffered from long bouts of melancholy, a condition that would today be diagnosed as major depression. What is less known is that Lincoln had been advised by his physician to take what he called his “little blue pills” to help him elevate his mood. A few months into his presidency, in 1861, however, Lincoln stopped taking these pills, complaining that they made him “cross.” During the late 1850s, Lincoln had experienced episodes of bizarre behavior that included towering rages and mood changes that appeared out of nowhere or were responses to innocuous and sometimes trivial circumstances. It is reasonable to assume that the symptoms were, as Lincoln himself surmised, due to the “little blue pills.” It is a good thing that Lincoln made this decision. The medication he was taking was a common nineteenth-century remedy for depression, called blue mass. It consisted of licorice root, rosewater, honey, sugar, and rose petals. But the main ingredient in these blue-colored pills, about the size of peppercorns, was approximately 750 micrograms of mercury, a highly toxic substance. At the common dosage level of two or three pills per day, individuals ingested nearly nine thousand times the amount of mercury that is considered safe by current health standards. produce. Probably the two most important factors that fueled the movement toward drug regulation in the beginning of the twentieth century were (1) the abuse of patent medicines and (2) the association of drug use with minority groups. Between 1890 and 1906, numerous patent medicines were sold that included such ingredients as alcohol, opium, morphine, cocaine, and marijuana. The term “patent medicine” can be misleading. Generally, one thinks of a patented product as one that is registered with the government, providing the producers with the exclusive right to sell that product. However, patent medicines around the turn of patent medicine: A drug or combination of drugs sold through peddlers, shops, or mail-order advertisements. 54 ■ Part One If Lincoln had continued to take blue mass for his depression, he undoubtedly would have continued to experience the behavioral and neurological symptoms common to chronic mercury poisoning as he led the nation during theS Civil War. Fortunately, the symptoms of mercury poisoning in Lincoln’s case were reversible after he stopped A blue mass. Lincoln would suffer from severe bouts taking of depression until his death in 1865, but America was U spared what might have been a catastrophe of historic proN portions. Postscript: Mercury poisoning was quite common D throughout the nineteenth century, as this substance’s toxic properties E had not yet been discovered or fully appreciated. Hat makers were particularly susceptible to mercury R because they would routinely rub mercury into toxicity the felt material of hats to preserve them for commercial Sabsorbing the substance through their fingers. Sympsale, toms of severe mood swings and eventually dementia were commonly observed among people in this profession and S became the basis for the expression “mad as a eventually hatter.” R Source: Hirschhorn, Norbert, Feldman, Robert G., and . Greaves, Ian (2001, Summer). Abraham Lincoln’s blue pills: Did, the 16th President suffer from mercury poisoning? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, pp. 315–322. G the A twentieth century were not registered with the federal government or any other agency, and their R formulas were often kept secret. Manufacturers did not R have to list the ingredients of patent medicines on the bottle label or the package in which they were Y sold. One of the most popular methods of marketing patent medicines was the traveling medicine show, which 2 included magicians and other performers, and culminated with a “pitch man” whose function was to0convince the gathering crowd to buy his patent 10 medicine. 9 As the popularity of patent medicines grew, so did 0 abuse. Unlike many of today’s drug abusers, the drug typical T nineteenth-century abuser was a white middleor upper-class married woman who became dependent S a patent medicine. In response to the growing upon number of drug-dependent Americans, President Theodore Roosevelt proposed a federal law that Drugs and Society: The Criminal Justice Perspective Drugs, Society and Criminal Justice, 3E by Ken Charles F. Levinthal. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education. M03_LEVI0484_03_SE_C03.qxd 11/24/10 5:50 PM Page 55 would regulate misbranded and adulterated foods, drinks, and drugs. This proposal was met with strong opposition from the business sector, which was making a good profit from the patent medicine industry. Public opinion s ...
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Final Answer



Consumption of Marijuana




Consumption of Marijuana
Before the nineteenth century, drug use was quite high. During that time, most of the
drugs were used for medicinal purposes. In this regard, they were cultivated and consumed
publicly. Some of the drugs were even sold in chemists (Levinthal, 2012). Marijuana is among
the drugs that were most cultivated and used during that time. It was prescribed in hospitals and
thus sold as an over the counter drug. Marijuana was used for treating various conditions like
mental disorders, appetite, gout, sexual interest, hydrophobia, cholera, and insomnia among

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