CSU Martin Luther King Junior and Civil Rights Movement Discussion

Columbia Southern University

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Need help with my History question - I’m studying for my class.

This course has introduced and assessed many noteworthy figures related to the continuing buildup of the United States and its place within the world and globalization during the last 170 years. For this assignment, you will choose an influential public figure from the mid-19th century to the present. Your selection may be taken from speakers or religious, economic, or social leaders. This assignment is open to any reform discussed in this course (e.g., creed, race, age, status, gender), but you may not use any U.S. president. You should focus on communicating the figure’s relevance in today’s modern era. Why and how is this figure important today? This is not meant to be a biography. Your argument should highlight how society remembers him or her now.

Create a one-page outline. The purpose of an outline is to help you plan, organize, and connect ideas together so that you can see the overall picture of your final project. At the beginning of the outline, make sure to include a 2–3 sentence introduction that lets the reader know your chosen topic. At the end of the outline, include at least two potential sources you would like to consider using for your final project. Make sure the two sources listed are in APA format.

Any person will work as long as they are influential in that time era above. No U.S. Presidents may be used.

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UNIT III STUDY GUIDE The Great War Course Learning Outcomes for Unit III Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 5. Contrast varied perspectives concerning America’s presence in the world. 5.1 Discuss America’s experience in becoming a world military power during World War I (WWI). 5.2 Describe reactions to America’s impact on the world stage during the WWI era. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes 5.1 5.2 Learning Activity Unit Lesson Readings: U.S. History Unit III Scholarly Activity Unit Lesson Readings: U.S. History Unit III Scholarly Activity Reading Assignment Throughout this course, you will be provided with sections of content from the online resource U.S. History. You may be tested on your knowledge and understanding of the material listed below as well as the information presented in the unit lesson. Click on the link below to access your material. Click here to access this unit’s readings from U.S. History. The chapter/section titles are also provided below. Chapter 22 (Sections 22.1–22.5): Age of Empire: American Foreign Policy, 1890-1914 Chapter 23 (Sections 23.1–23.5): Americans and the Great War, 1914-1919 Unit Lesson We ended the previous unit with the ascent of Teddy Roosevelt taking over as president for the deceased McKinley. The turn of the century would prove to be a period of great change for the United States, and it began with a larger-than-life figure in the Oval Office. Roosevelt was viewed as a warrior, sportsman, cowboy, activist, reformer, and politician. He led the American people with a confidence and charisma that inspired feelings of American infallibility and arrogance. Politically, his influence is perhaps best known for trust-busting, or enforcing regulations on the monopolies that had overtaken the railroads, oil, and other economic entities, which used laissez-faire tactics to widen the economic gap. Roosevelt also believed in holding these corruptive influences publicly liable, which would become synonymous with his role in supporting muckrakers—and arguably being one. He was first a man of the citizens, hoping to build relationships rather than enemies, and he even served as a mediator of labor disputes such as with the United Mine Workers (UMW). He did not seek to punish the successful but simply to ensure that the system was fair for all. At the beginning of the 20th century, the contiguous U.S. map, with the exception of a few southwestern territories, closely resembled that of modern America—at least politically. The treatment of Hawaii and Alaska, as protected U.S. territories at the time, along with Roosevelt’s arrogance, led to questions about America’s imperial potential. The same “big stick” that Roosevelt had used to bust corrupt corporations would also sometimes reach beyond U.S. boundaries. He would be directly influential in U.S. actions in Cuba and Panama. As a Navy man, he was an advocate of international ambition. The idea of the United States as a “world police” agency would be made law with his Roosevelt Corollary, which was an amendment to the HY 1120, American History II 1 Monroe Doctrine that spelled out the United States’ role as an international police in theGUIDE Western UNITpower x STUDY Hemisphere. Title The threat of a developing American empire became very apparent under Roosevelt’s watch. Though his terms would not include the inclusion of any particular U.S. military conflicts, it is arguably fair to consider his time as executive similar to that of wartime presidents. His impact in foreign affairs would change U.S. positioning in the world and set the stage for leaving the Western Hemisphere in case of world conflict. Fluctuations in Unity Roosevelt would serve the remainder of McKinley’s term and earn reelection the following term. He was so popular as President that even his chosen successor, William Howard Taft, would fail to keep the nation, or the Republican Party, united. Taft was not the Cartoon of Teddy Roosevelt and the big stick charismatic presence Roosevelt had (Rogers, 1904) been, and he also proved susceptible to swaying from Congress and allowed the courts to return to social politics. In a few short years, almost all of Roosevelt’s good will with the American people was undone by rivals from both within and outside of the party. Anti-American sentiment was even fostered abroad due to unsupported economic plans. In 1912, one of the more fascinating political battles in American history occurred. A third political party, the Bull Moose Party, came out of nowhere to attack the Taft Administration. Led by former President Teddy Roosevelt, this political family feud would ultimately seal the victory for Democrat Woodrow Wilson to take office in 1913. Wilson, however, needed more than a civil conflict to guarantee victory. With the failures of Taft, progressivism once again gained steam, and Socialist Eugene Debs was again a legitimate national contender for office. Though four names were on the ballot, Wilson was the clear victor. The nation was the most politically divided it had been since Lincoln was in office, but Wilson had support throughout the nation, and helped to unite the nation after what had been a disaster for Republican supporters. HY 1120, American History II 2 Wilson, like Roosevelt, was UNIT a competent economist x STUDY GUIDE and a bulldog for reform. He wouldTitle quickly attack trusts, stabilize trade and taxation, and put the banks back in check; in addition, his Federal Reserve Act of 1913 gave the federal government an economic control that it had lacked since the Jackson Administration. Progressivism was in remission, except for a few strategic programs. Wilson had patched the nation back together, but his reelection in 1916 was won on a different platform: isolationism and neutrality. War had broken out in Europe, and the United States, with its melting pot of cultures, was a wildcard. Wilson knew that war could be an economic savior from the recession of 1913 but a political death sentence if the United States became directly involved. His best move was keeping the United States out of the fight while serving as supplier to those fighting. The Path to War Woodrow Wilson was the President of the United States for the entire war. (Pach Brothers, 1912) Oddly enough, the United States’ path to joining the war in Europe would start with disputes in Central America. The Monroe Doctrine once again encouraged U.S. influence in the Americas, and, like Roosevelt, Wilson felt that the U.S. model was to be the savior for struggling nations to the south. The United States wanted to firm up economic ties in the Caribbean and Central America and felt that helping to secure pro-U.S. leadership would be the best way to do so. Influences in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Nicaragua provided some positive results, but adjacent Mexico would incite a series of challenges. A takeover of Mexico by anti-U.S. General Victoriano Huerta would quickly result in U.S. interference. When Huerta fled to Spain, another rebellion emerged—this one under the leadership of Francisco “Pancho” Villa. Villa proved to be more adept at avoiding U.S. pressure, and with the war in Europe continuing to intensify, Wilson could not afford to dispatch too many resources to the dispute. On February 25th, 1917, the British intercepted a letter from Germany’s Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmerman. This letter stated that if Mexico would declare war on the United States, Germany would return its former holdings in the American Southwest to Mexico at the end of the war. In response, Wilson asked Congress to allow the arming of American merchant ships; the United States remained neutral, unnerved by Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare. While Wilson preached neutrality, the United States was not entirely out of the war’s influence. The U.S. trade with Britain constituted almost half of the country’s wartime supplies, and Wilson even approved billions of dollars in U.S. loans to cover the growing cost of the allied war effort. This trade was so lucrative that even the blockade by Britain against Germany did not significantly faze U.S. interests. In response to the British blockade, on May 7, 1915, German U-boats in the Eastern Atlantic sunk a luxury liner off the coast of Ireland carrying 128 U.S. citizens. Germany rationalized the sinking as an act of war, as the liner was carrying war supplies. Tensions calmed with the United States until March of 1917, when Germany again targeted passenger vessels that it considered to be a covert part of the war effort. These attacks would kill another 66 U.S. citizens, and with the Zimmerman threat from only weeks before, Wilson had no choice but to ask Congress to declare war on Germany. The First World War World War I began in 1914 with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary as he paraded in the city of Sarajevo. However, it can be argued that the battle lines were drawn much earlier. Upon the United States’ entry into the war, Europe was divided between the Central Powers (i.e., the Triple Alliance), which included the nations of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria, and the Allied Powers (i.e., the Triple Entente), which included Great Britain, France, Japan, and Russia. The war was as much a family feud as it was a political powder keg. Monarchs from multiple nations, including the HY 1120, American History II 3 aforementioned Franz Ferdinand of Austria as well as Wilhelm II of Germany, UNIT Nicholas II of Russia, x STUDY GUIDEand George V of Britain, all claimed some lineage to the Austrian Royal Family, which Titlewas once also part of the Holy Roman Empire. Some of the smaller nations would also boast leaders of great charisma and influence, such as Italy’s ambitious Victor Emmanuel III, Serbia’s sickly Peter I, and the fearless Belgian Albert I. These fronts, or battle lines, were crafted from a series of alliances, which had been drafted over the previous decades. The assassination of an Austrian heir by a Bosnian extremist, Gavrilo Princip, was the spark necessary to cause a territorial dispute in the Balkan region to explode into a full-scale world conflict. Nation after nation, compelled by their allies, declared war against one another. Even the bloodline of the influential Habsburg family, which included many of the prominent royal families of Europe, was not enough to suppress the chaos that politics and fear had created. Gavrilo Princip was a teenage Serbian militant who assassinated Franz Ferdinand in 1914. (Producer, 2013) World War I is also known as the Great War. It was the first modern war, the first trench war, and the last war to be dominated by the traditional European monarchies, which used nationalism as a method for championing combat as a glorious rite of passage. This conflict was brutal for those on the front lines, as weeks to months at a time were spent crouching in dirt trenches. Covered in filth and waste, gas masks at the ready, soldiers had to hold their resolve while preparing for the worst. Reinforcements and supplies were not always on schedule or reliable; when there was an advance, it was rarely more than a few feet. For those who did brave “no-man’s land” between the trenches, all too often, they had maybe only moments to reach the next trench. Any gains meant braving a sprint over barbed wire, mud, and fallen comrades, all while machine gunfire mowed down entire lines of soldiers. The nationalistic ideals and image that had been portrayed were far from the truth, as the narratives from those present reflect this more barbaric scene. Erich Maria Remarque’s unforgettable account of innocence lost as a German soldier in All Quiet on the Western Front matches lesser known but equally horrific versions from both sides of the conflict. On the home front, the war received mixed reviews. In the mix of hysteria and fear from loved ones half a world away, there was also a question of American purity, which became especially hostile, with even multiple-generation Americans who had German ancestry being ostracized. Politically, on one side, Socialists saw this as an unnecessary threat to the American people and fueled by a Capitalist agenda. On the other side, Progressives saw this as an opportunity for reform; with the men away, there were opportunities for others to advance and capitalize on the wartime production. This even fed into prohibition (Eighteenth Amendment) as an effort to conserve resources. The suffrage debate would also quickly gain support in this charged atmosphere. By 1918, Wilson had changed his perspective to one of support for the betterment of the war. By 1919, the Nineteenth Amendment was passed and then ratified in 1920, giving women the right to vote. It is important to note, however, that there was still a heavy lobby against the passage of this suffrage bill; even in the prohibition years, alcohol companies held a strong political pressure, and they were frantically jumping from state to state to slow the passage. HY 1120, American History II 4 It would be a showdown in Nashville, Tennessee, that ultimately decided the bill’s WithGUIDE a strong sense UNITfuture. x STUDY of anti-suffrage among the state congress, most did not ever expect the bill to Title pass. The sudden disappearance of large numbers from the Tennessee Congress kept the vote from reaching quorum. It would take legal threats to return quorum to the chambers, and even then the outcome was still expected to be a “no.” It was after receiving a letter from his mother that a shocking change of heart compelled one representative, Harry Burn, to change his vote. This tipped the scale toward ratification, and women were finally granted their voting rights. Women would have their first opportunity to vote in the presidential election of 1920, which witnessed Republican Warren G. Harding take all but the American South. Eugene Debs would run yet again as a Socialist, but in a charged post-war atmosphere, his support was barely registered. By the time the U.S. entered the war, it was in its latter stages. The Bolsheviks, a Russian revolutionary group, had taken control of Russia from Nicholas II and soon after pulled out of the war—essentially removing the Eastern front. With the help of the draft (Selective Service Act) and some effective nationalist propaganda, the U.S. built a military just shy of 5 million in number, including draftees and volunteers. As at home, there was a cultural divide among different races, creeds, and cultures in the ranks of the military. The 92nd Division, which was composed of African Americans, was the first such regiment to be integrated with the French. Interestingly enough, being stationed in France became a kind of utopia for these African Americans, as European prejudices were not as pronounced as those in the United States, and many earned medals of valor that came with extended times at the front. Most American soldiers would not see war until March 1918, when they were sent to reinforce the war-weary French troops along the Western front. A couple months later, Wilhelm was forced to abdicate. Armistice Day, November 11, 1918, would be the official ending date for the conflict. Working Toward Peace and Cooperation One of Wilson’s most infamous failures was his Fourteen Points plan, from which he hoped to inspire a peaceful forum for debate and discussion, a proposed League of Nations reminiscent of today’s United Nations. With the Democrats no longer in control of the legislature, this plan flopped on both the national and international levels, failing to even receive the support of the U.S. Senate. Still, the year 1919 would see official peace and strides made toward Wilson’s desired cooperation. HY 1120, American History II 5 There would also be sanctions that gravely wounded the nations that compromised the Central powers— especially Germany—which would end up on the cusp of total economic failure. Left with mountains of debt and the loss of the disputed Alsace-Lorraine region to France, and without the right to retain a standing army, Germany was a shell of its former self, providing a dangerous opportunity for a charismatic and ambitious young German corporal named Adolf Hitler. Other nations, too, would suffer from these sanctions, many of which were decided by Western powers without account to local cultural ties and potential new powder kegs. As with the end of any conflict, so also ends the wartime opportunities. This all too often causes the economy to slow and new “villains” to emerge. The new threat would be any opposition to democracy. The first Red Scare, which was a politically charged public warning against communism, emerged in full force, with vengeance toward anyone who threatened the American ideal. This would include two major migrating populations within U.S. borders: Mexicans and African Americans. UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title The war years and economic Cartoon about Kaiser Wilhelm considering Wilson’s 14-point plan (Bushnell, 1918) opportunities motivated the movement of approximately 500,000 African Americans to northern industrial cities in search of work and an escape from the continued harsh realities in the South. In the following two decades, another 500,000 also migrated, often as families came together. With day labor moving to industry, opportunities opened in agricultural centers such as the American South and Southwest. It is from this motivation that hundreds of thousands of Mexicans entered the United States in search of better lives and to escape from corrupt governments. As their numbers grew, so did their voice, representation, and, just as suddenly, renewed forms of segregation and hate. These first two decades of the 20th century proved to have both pros and cons, as almost every community would be drastically impacted by the war, migrations, or legal changes. As important as it is to consider the international impact of an event such as World War I, it is also important to reflect on the local impact; for some communities, entire generations of young adult men were lost, while in other communities, new laws led to an upsurge in family potential. In still others, the entire demographic changed as the need for labor surged during wartime production. The next 2 decades would be stark reminders of just how quickly life could change and how even positive developments, such as the end of a bloody war, can have negative consequences. References Bushnell, E. A. (1918). Bushnell cartoon about Kaiser Wilhelm considering Wilson’s 14-point plan [Image]. Retrieved from n%27s_14-point_plan.jpg HY 1120, American History II 6 Pach Brothers. (1912). President Woodrow Wilson portrait [Photograph]. Retrieved UNIT from x STUDY GUIDE Title #/media/File:President_Woodrow_Wilson_portrait_December_2_1912.jpg Producer. (2013). Gavrilo Pincip [Photograph]. Retrieved from Rogers, W. A. (1904). Theodore Roosevelt and his big stick in the Caribbean [Image]. Retrieved from HY 1120, American History II 7 UNIT IV STUDY GUIDE The Great Depression and the New Deal Course Learning Outcomes for Unit IV Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Describe the impact of industrial expansion on the evolution of big business in the United States. 1.1 Recognize how the New Deal attempted to impact business in America. 1.2 Describe the impact that the Great Depression had on America’s changing economic landscape. 4. Summarize the impact of ...
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Thesis: Resolute determination provides one with a path to freedom in three simple steps.
Purpose: To educate the audience on resolute determination in decision making in life. Martin
Luther King Junior life is relevant because it symbolizes the African-American struggle for
equality and social justice.
1. Have you been displeased with something that you want out? Martin Lut...

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