Science
International College of Engineering Effluent Waste Water Management PPT and Paper

International College of Engineering and Management

Question Description

I need an explanation for this Environmental Science question to help me study.

title of my proposal: Study on effluent waste water management in oil and gas operations in ( Location ) of Oman

Task 1.

1. Title page should include:

Title of the research topic, student’s name, student’s number and supervisor’s name.

2. Introduction:

Introduce the key concept and the importance of these concepts in brief. Provide a description of the basic facts and importance of your research area, showing the motivation behind your research and how important is your research for particular area.

3. Background and statement of the problem:

(This is done in light of a thorough literature review)

4. Research Aims and Objectives:

The main question or questions that you hope to address in your research. What the research is going to achieve. The objectives provide a list of goals that will be achieved through the proposed research. Outline the benefits/impacts that will be generated if the research problem is answered.

5. Methodology:

Discuss in detail; the methods that you used in your research (e.g., survey, modelling, case study etc.), the type of data and its source must be specified.

5.1.Study design: (type of study) (Descriptive, correlation, semi-experimental, experimental, review)

5.2.Data collection methods and instruments: Primary data collection methods or secondary data collection method (in details).

5.3.Data analysis methods: Use data analysis tools and software to understand and interpret your results, choose the way to express your data analysis e.g. in words or maybe a table or chart.

6. Study period - Time duration or time plan of your research (yearlong).

8. References:

(Harvard style)

Task 2: Presentation

 A PowerPoint presentation should be prepared for presenting the research project work carried out.

 The presentation should be prepared for 15 minutes duration with not more than 10-12 slides and it must briefly explain the identification of the research problem, with the aims, objectives, methods and time plan.

* strictly follow the guidelines.


Unformatted Attachment Preview

ASSESSMENT BRIEF 2019-2020 Programme: BSc (Hons) Health, Safety and Environmental Management Module Code/Module Title: OM 3073 / Introduction to Research Module Tutor: Riyad/ Raju/ Girma Assessment Title/ Number: Research Proposal and Presentation Date of Issue: 18/02/2020 Date of Submission: 10/04/2020 (Tick in the appropriate box) You are encouraged to word process your assessment, although hand written work is acceptable. You are required to word process this assessment. You are required to submit this assessment electronically through UCLan BB √ √ Instructions:  This paper contains two tasks  Complete the tasks fully with all possible evidence for achieving the learning outcome/s.  This assessment is worth 60% of the module mark. Please do not submit this assessment brief with your work. This assessment includes preparation of a research proposal and presentation based on your first coursework (Literature Review). Task 1: Research Proposal (70 marks) You need to submit a proposal (~2000 words), which includes: 1. Title page should include: Title of the research topic, student’s name, student’s number and supervisor’s name. 2. Introduction Introduce the key concept and the importance of these concepts in brief. Provide a description of the basic facts and importance of your research area, showing the motivation behind your research and how important is your research for particular area. 3. Background and statement of the problem (This is done in light of a thorough literature review) What is already known or unknown? Why did you select this particular topic? Clear description of the issues that need to be addressed. For example: The specific problems that can be addressed are… 4. Research Aims and Objectives The main question or questions that you hope to address in your research. What the research is going to achieve. The objectives provide a list of goals that will be achieved through the proposed research. Outline the benefits/impacts that will be generated if the research problem is answered. 5. Methodology: Discuss in detail; the methods that you used in your research (e.g., survey, modelling, case study etc.), the type of data and its source must be specified. 5.1. Study design (type of study) (Descriptive, correlation, semi-experimental, experimental, review) 5.2. Data collection methods and instruments Primary data collection methods or secondary data collection method (in details). 5.3. Data analysis methods Use data analysis tools and software to understand and interpret your results, choose the way to express your data analysis e.g. in words or maybe a table or chart. 6. Study period - Time duration or time plan of your research (yearlong). This work may continue for your Year 4 dissertation on approval from the project supervisors 7. Resources required for the study, including budget if applicable (list of materials you need and the price). 8. References (Harvard style). Task 2: Presentation (30 marks)  A PowerPoint presentation should be prepared for presenting the research project work carried out.  The presentation should be prepared for 15 minutes duration with not more than 10-12 slides and it must briefly explain the identification of the research problem, with the aims, objectives, methods and time plan. Guidelines for preparation of the proposal The submitted report of this assessment should be simple and easy to understand, without any excessive use of complex statements. The text should be prepared on one-side of A4 sheet in single spacing and should suitably divided into the following sections below: 1. Introduction 2. Background 3. Aim and objectives 4. Methodology 5. Conclusion 6. References 7. Study plan The following specifications may use for the preparation of the text: Section heading: Title case, Arial, font size 14, bold, left aligned. Sub-sections: Title case Arial, font size 14, left aligned. Text: the text must be divided into suitable paragraphs in single spacing in Arial font size 12, justified. Use Harvard Style of referencing. Please make sure that all items mentioned in the list of references must referred in the main text (and vice versa). Marking Criteria The course work will be assessed and graded on the overall report submitted and weightage is indicative to knowledge and understanding, application of knowledge and understanding including the theoretical analysis and synthesis, critical analysis of the document, evaluation and conclusion, citation/referencing/supporting evidence/originality and sources and presentation of the overall piece of work. LEVEL SIX FIRST (80-100%) FIRST (70-79%) UPPER SECOND (60-69%) LOWER SECOND (50-59%) THIRD (40-49%) COMPENSATABLE FAIL (35-39%) UNCOMPENSATABL E FAIL (30-34%) FAIL (20-29%) FAIL Written work is directly relevant to the title. Knowledge and understanding is comprehensive in both breadth and depth. Student demonstrates an exceptional ability to contextualise, to critically appreciate concepts and their inter-relationship, and/or to relate theory with evidence. Exceptional ability to apply, in the right measure, the skills necessary to achieve a desired outcome. Evidence of very extensive, if not exhaustive reading and study beyond the course content. Clear evidence of independent thought. The presentation is highly sophisticated, fluent and accurate and in an appropriate format. The material is presented in a focused way, so as to help sustain the argument. Citation and referencing are impeccable. The work may be as good, if not better, than you imagine a professional tutor could write, and is possibly of publishable quality. Written work is directly relevant to the title. Knowledge and understanding is comprehensive in both breadth and depth. Student demonstrates a clear ability to contextualise, to critically appreciate concepts and their inter-relationship, and/or to relate theory with evidence. Outstanding ability to apply, in the right measure, the skills necessary to achieve a desired outcome. Evidence of extensive reading and study beyond the course content. Clear evidence of independent thought. The presentation is highly sophisticated, fluent and accurate and in an appropriate format. The material is presented in a focused way, so as to help sustain the argument. Citation and referencing are impeccable. Written work is directly relevant to the title. The knowledge-base is up-to-date and relevant, but may also be broad or deep. Work reflects a thorough grasp of concepts and of the inter-relationship, and a significant ability to relate theory to practice. The presentation is very good and in an appropriate format, the material generally well focused, reflecting a high degree of literacy. Arguments may sometimes be outstanding and reflective of genuine independent thought, but are not always consistently at that level. Material is very well presented and citation and referencing are very good. Written work is directly relevant to the title. Arguments may be generally relevant but not necessarily comprehensive. The student displays an awareness of what concepts are, but the ability to conceptualise, and/or to relate theory to evidence, is clearly limited. Frequent use of assertion rather than argument. Grammar and spelling sound, but perhaps with occasional lapses. Material is well presented and in an appropriate format. Citation and referencing are generally good but may contain some errors. Written work is predominantly relevant to the title. Knowledge is adequate but limited and/or superficial, with a tendency to inaccuracy. Limited awareness of concepts. Limited ability to contextualise, and to relate theory to evidence. Frequently, evidence (which may be accurate) is deployed superficially with lack of focus. Almost always offers description/assertion rather than argument. Grammar may be poor, or the linkage between paragraphs may be weak. Competent presentation and an acceptable format, although deficiencies are clearly evident. Citation and referencing are present but may contain quite a few errors. At least 45% of material presented is relevant but there may be limited reference to the question. A generally poor but compensatable answer with extensive errors and omissions, or a substantial answer on the general topic in which the specific, central question is misinterpreted or avoided, or a very good essay in note form. Presentation is poor and sometimes inarticulate. Little evidence of appropriate reading but citation and referencing must be present, although there may be a substantial number of errors. (Note – absence of citation and referencing at Level 3 must be regarded as a clear failure and must be awarded <30%)). At least 40% of material presented is relevant but there may be limited reference to the question. A generally poor but compensatable answer with extensive errors and omissions, or a substantial answer on the general topic in which the specific, central question is misinterpreted or avoided, or a very good essay in note form. Presentation is poor and sometimes inarticulate. Little evidence of appropriate reading but citation and referencing must be present, there may be a substantial number of errors. (Note – absence of citation and referencing at Level 3 must be regarded as a clear failure and must be awarded <30%). Less than 40% of material presented is relevant. . A generally weak answer with extensive errors and omissions, or a quite substantial answer on the general topic in which the specific, central question is misinterpreted or avoided. Limited understanding demonstrated. Presentation is poor, often inarticulate and sometimes incomprehensible. Very limited evidence of background reading; citation and referencing may be absent. An exceptionally poor answer with extensive errors and omissions and limited evidence of relevant knowledge, or a good essay in note form. Presentation is very poor, often inarticulate and incomprehensible. No evidence of background reading. (10-19%) FAIL Answer not attempted, or limited to only a few paragraphs, or of little or no relevance to the general topic of the question. Zero is reserved for failure to attempt an answer, or no, or late submission. LEVEL SIX (0-9%) Feasibility Studies in Solar Energy as A Potential Source of Alternative Energy Resources. Muscat International Airport. Table of Contents Table of Contents ....................................................................................................................... 2 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 3 Background ................................................................................................................................ 4 Research Aim and Objectives .................................................................................................... 5 Methodology .............................................................................................................................. 6 Study Design .......................................................................................................................... 6 Data Collection Methods and Instruments ............................................................................ 7 Data Analysis ......................................................................................................................... 8 Study Period ............................................................................................................................... 9 References ................................................................................................................................ 10 Introduction (Alrikabi, 2014) states the Sultanate of Oman is currently heavily reliant on natural gas, coal and oil for its energy. Fossil fuels are non-renewable, and they are finite resources; This means that eventually, it will decrease and become too expensive or too damaging for the environment in order to retrieve. Human activity discharges roughly 8 billion metric tons of carbon into the air, 1.5 billion from deforestation and 6.5 billion tons from fossil fuels. Visible damages have been caused to the environment due to the large consumption of fossil fuels. This has created a lot of issues in our environment and also, because of this, our ecological cycle will be affected. While continuing to search for new resources, the energy industry has to get more from existing areas. Nowadays, with the technology advancement, there are vehicles with better fuel efficiency and also hybrid vehicles that have been created; they have the ability to run on electricity and fuel, which makes it less harsh on the environment as they use less fuel than vehicles that run solely on fuel. Also, improvements are needed in order for solar, wind and hydrogen can be the resources that are most valuable in the energy field. Unlike fossil fuels, renewable energy resources such as solar and wind energy are infinite and will never run out; Most of the renewable energy comes either indirectly or directly from the sun. Solar energy, also known as sunlight, can be directly used for generating electricity to power up buildings, industries and commercial uses. Solar energy is effective for Muscat; according to (E-visa, 2018), the capital city of Oman is Muscat and is located in the north. Compared to other regions, Muscat experiences one of the highest temperatures with the maximum temperature in the summer season ranges from 40°C to 46°C. In Oman, solar power is the most effective and the best strategic option for the supply of electricity. With the large amount of unused land and mostly sunny days throughout the year, Oman has shown that it has a good potential for the development and implementation of solar energy. Solar power is an appropriate option in Oman and it could not only meet the increase of energy diversification requirements, but could also be beneficial for economic diversification. Although there are many renewable energy sources that can be utilized for different industries such as Muscat International Airport, none have been implemented so far due to the lack of research. Background According to (Alrikabi, 2014), renewable energy sources are not exhausted, and it is spread over a wide geographical zone. These resources are quickly replenished through natural processes and it will not create any environmental pollution issues. With only one investment, it could provide energy for many decades to come without damaging the environment. However, although there are many renewable resources available with numerous benefits, the majority of the buildings in the Sultanate of Oman run on electricity instead of investing in renewable resources; An example of one of the buildings would be Muscat International Airport. There are many resources available in Muscat where the most common and effective one is solar energy; (Alrikabi, 2014) states that solar energy has the greatest potential for providing safe, reliable and clean power. The solar energy that the Earth gets is more than 200 times the total commercial energy that is currently being used by human beings annually. As solar energy is an efficient resource to be utilized in Muscat International Airport; (Ruther, 2009) explains further the rationale by stating that in climates that are warm, a large chunk of the electricity demand in commercial buildings is because of the constant and heavy use of air conditioning systems. Airport buildings that are located in warm and sunny regions display a perfect match between solar resource availability and energy demand. Also, airport buildings are usually horizontal, large, free of shading, isolated and have an incredible potential for the unification of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems; Due to the large energy demands of the airport, not implementing renewable resources may lead to further harmful effects towards the environment; (Ruther, 2009) explains by stating over that within the last three decades, world energy demands have displayed a continuous growing movement with primary energy growing by 89.5% and carbon dioxide emissions by 79% in the period of 1973 to 2006 (IEA, 2008). The main issue predicted that this movement will continue, with rising economies, energy use will grow at an average yearly rate of 3.2% (Pe ́rez-Lombard, 2008). Buildings play a big role in the growth of energy demands on arising economies in next decades as they are responsible for a large share of energy consumption. Therefore, it is vital to propose to buildings with high demand for energy such as an airport. Research Aim and Objectives In (Koroneos, 2010), it is explained that within the last few decades, the operating environment of airports has changed considerably. The number of travellers travelling has shown a significant increase and this has led to the increased demand of energy in airports as a whole. While that is happening, at the same time, the demand of energy worldwide is growing very quickly with the ever-increasing demand from countries that are developing such as India and China. The electricity cost in airports has increased. Therefore, the research proposed aims to identify the possibility of implementing renewable resources along with the advantages that may arise from implementation if Muscat International Airport chooses to run electricity through renewable energy; the aim was based on the thesis gained from the literature review in which showed environmental advantages and cost effective benefits that emerged from implementing renewable resources in large institutions such as airports; However, as there has not been research conducted before on Muscat International Airport specifically, the research paper intends to find the advantages that may be gained within the largest airport of the Sultanate of Oman and whether it is possible. The aim of the research can be achieved through achieving various objectives; the first objective would be to identify the costs required annually to power up Muscat International Airport. The second objective would be to identify the disadvantages that may be present from the airport continuing to run on fossil fuels instead of renewable resources. The third objective is to identify the appropriate renewable resource that could replace fossil fuels and achieve the same power demands for the building. The last objective would be to analyse the energy building structure in terms of heat insulation and sunshine along with shading analysis throughout the year. Once all the objectives have been accomplished through following the appropriate methodology; the aim of the objective will be achieved. Achieving the aim will present further motivation and rationale on why to implement renewable resources and the various factors of benefits behind it; Furthermore, the rationale on why to stop utilization of fossil fuels throughout the building will also be clear towards the end of the research. Methodology The research’s aim is to identify whether implementation of the renewable resources is possible or not within Muscat International Airport; Hence, the research type is a feasibility report. (Tickle-Degnen, 2013) explains that there are many determinants that can affect the successful implementation and validity of intervention studies. An essential aim of pilot and feasible studies is to analyse the potential for successful implementation of the suggested main intervention studies and to lessen the threat to the effectiveness of these studies. The intention of most pilot and feasible studies should be to interpret evidence and information that is related to the successful implementation and effectiveness of a planned fundamental trial. Therefore, the methodology study design, data collection methods, and data anal ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

MARCH 28, 2020
Student Name:

Student No:

Supervisor

STUDY ON EFFLUENT WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT IN OIL AND GAS OPERATIONS IN DUQUM OF OMAN
OPERATING REFINERIES MUSCAT

International College of Engineering & Management

Contents
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 1
Background and statement of the problem ................................................................................ 2
Research aims and objectives ....................................................................................................... 3
Methodology........................................................................................................................................ 4
Study Design ..................................................................................................................................... 4
Data Collection Methods and Instruments .............................................................................. 5
Data Analysis .................................................................................................................................. 5
Study Period ........................................................................................................................................ 5
References ........................................................................................................................................... 7

Introduction
Effluent volumes wastewater from oil refineries has increased exponentially within a
few years due to the increase in both the number and the production scale of oil and
gas refineries across the world. This is because petroleum refineries need remarkable
amounts of freshwater. This wastewater produced by the petroleum companies
predisposes human life with life-threatening harms and hazards if not well if not
properly treated and this can lead to an immensely negative effect on public health.
Proper treatment of this wastewater leads to a harm-free zone and also has additional
advantages since the water can be useful in carrying out agricultural practices in some
circumstances.
In the sultanate of Oman, Oil and gas is a major contributor to the country’s economy.
According to a report on the key contributing factors in the country produced in 2017,
the oil and gas sector accounted for about 68% of the country’s revenue. The fact that
Oman is the leading nation in the production of oil and natural gas in the Middle East
makes the keen study on the management practices carried out in the petroleum
stations important. (Mackerel, 2007)
In the Sultanate of Oman, septic tanks are mostly used to handle the wastewater from
oil and gas refineries and also to contain the municipal waste. T...

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