Now that you have defined your problem, you must shed light on the solutions being discussed.
1) Think of the conclusion of your “Defining a problem” paper as a place to begin an exploration of
solutions. Use other information from Essay 2 in the introduction of Essay 3 as needed to
introduce the problem. Your Essay 3 introduction might be two paragraphs.
2) Your thesis should be a question about the solution? “What solution will work best?” “What
solution is a good one to try first?” etc.
3) Explore the solutions to this problem with 5/8 sources (two must be scholarly). This exploration
should be about 1500 words.
4) You need to cover at least 4-6 solutions.
5) After you introduce each solution, comment on its effectiveness. Consider these questions:
a) Has the solution been tested?
b) Are there obstacles to the solution?
c) Will the solution cause other problems?
d) Is the solution affordable?
e) Is the solution doable?
f) Is the solution on-track?
6) Think carefully about what order to put the solutions in? Similar solutions should be next to one
another, for example.
Works Cited page with 5-8 sources
Two scholarly articles
Solutions should be in a conversation, in that each solution should be talked about in light of all
solutions. Use the “Ways to Respond” method to give your educated opinion of each solution.
Your “I Say” should start and finish each paragraph. Don’t feel you must make each solution a
separate paragraph. Many solutions may be similar. Also, you may include solutions that don’t
specifically address your particular problem but that might work as a solution.
5) In the conclusion, about 10 sentences, suggest a solution. This solution might be a particular
one, a combination of many, a particular one that you have tweaked, or it even might be a
brand-new solution that you figured out. The solution might even be that your problem can’t
be solved until X is done. The conclusion should only explain briefly why the solution is the
best. That is the next essay. Use this language: “The evidence suggests that
____________________ might be the best solution. The solution will _________________the
problem of _________________________.
1) Introduction (1-2 paragraphs): introduce the
problem. Do not use F451 in this essay. You
may use some of Essay 2 to explain the
problem. You may use outside sources to
explain the problem.
2)Each body paragraph should introduce a
solution, using one or more articles. This/these
summaries take up half or more than half of
each body paragraph. You know how to
introduce a source using MLA format. At the
end of the body paragraph, give your opinion of
the solution (10 sentences). Use a signal phrase
to indicate the transition from the summary to
your words. Can you use the Annotated Works
Cited entries in Essay 3? Part of them should
work; delete any information unnecessary for
your Essay 3, like information that does not deal
3)You need to organize your solutions
strategically and you need to use transitions to
move from one solution to the next.
4)The conclusion of about 10 sentences, should
give your opinion of the best next step/solution.
This solution might be one of the articles or it
might be a combination. It might even be a
new solution you have come up with.
After each summary, respond in your own words with about 10 sentences.
Start with on of these signal phrases.
In my opinion… and
I would say…
I really think…
I strongly believe…
I truly feel… or
In my honest opinion…
From my point of view…
From my perspective…
In my view… or
It seems to me that…
Signal Words and Phrases for a Research Solution Paper
on the other hand
on the contrary
as opposed to
Kristin Rozzell Murray
February 25 2020
Fahrenheit 451 is set centuries from now in an antiintellectual world where firefighters serve the different role of setting fires, which
in this case to books that people have been illegally hoarding and reading.
"Picture it—nineteenth-century man with his horses, dogs, carts, slow motion.
Then, in the Twentieth Century, speed up your camera. Books cut shorter.
Condensations. Digests. Tabloids. Everything boils down to the gag, the snap
ending. Classics cut to fit fifteen-minute radio shows, then cut again to fill a twominute book column, winding up at last as a ten- or twelve-line dictionary resume.
I exaggerate, of course. The dictionaries were for reference. But many were those
whose sole knowledge of Hamlet… was a one-page digest in a book that claimed:
'now at least you can read all the classics; keep up with your neighbours.' Do you
see? Out of the nursery into the college and back to the nursery; there's your
intellectual pattern for the past five centuries or more."Captain Beatty explains
the working of the current world to Montag through his twisted knowledge that
may seem philosophical. Still, it is the unbalanced and severely wrong way of
thinking movies and television is evolving into brainwashing machines. What
more could this indicate if not the anti-intellectualism problem which is a distrust
of the informed reporters. In a way, it is similar to a conspiracy theory. Antiintellectualism movement is a distrust of the informed reporters whom the
populace believed give exaggerated reports or sometimes down-size them while
straight-up lie about important issues.
Lecklider in The Real Victims of Anti-Intellectualism asserts the chief
impact of anti-intellectualism is on those "whose boots in the streets bring about
radical social change". Well, the above statement can be summarized as that the
real victims of anti-intellectualism are the people who rely on fake news and start
trusting and following that "fake" news. The news media outlet can slow down
or hinder the growth of society because it is the filtering of information that does
it. Anti-Intellectualism emerged in the United States in the early decades of the
20th century (Lecklider). In that era the children who enjoy libraries, reading,
museums, and those who primarily like to read for pleasure who tend to be
mocked, shunned, neglected, or bullied by several other students and some
teachers who favour the superficialities. How can they live in a society where
your intellect would be treated in a way that oneself turn into a fool?
If not resolved, anti-intellectualism will result in a society that is likely
to become an ignorant society over time. Fahrenheit 451 shows near future where
books will be prohibited to the nation. It goes further to show how the populace
will be subjected to a low level of knowledge as a result of the lack of factual
basis that is mainly derived from books. Deteriorating human experience will
likely result in sprouting of violence. The irony will yet be a key element as
special interest groups will likely oppose the introduction of storybooks and
Additionally, as mentioned by Burkeman in Think reality TV is
mindless entertainment? What about the news? High-minded individuals have
often sneered at masses, frittering their days away on "mindless entertainment"
(Burkeman). Such a misdemeanour will likely cause more splits, especially since
ordinarily people think such activities like watching TV adds happiness to their
lives. The whole society will benefit from solving the issue. Reading broadens
one's scope of perception and knowledge of his or her surroundings, and this is
the hope for the community. Ray Bradbury's aim in authoring Fahrenheit 451
was an eye-opener to society upon the disastrous effects that a lack of a reading
culture can cause. Building on this, society as a whole, including the informed
reporters, the working class, researchers, politicians, and even young children
will benefit from resolving the problem.
Lecklider asserts that contemporary American culture, antiintellectualism represents a form of populism that is at best dangerous, at worst
an indicator of Western civilization in its final death throes. Either way, it is not
a good look as it also affects me. I believe that I am indirectly changed since
living in a society that distrust informed reporters and whose impact is criminal
activities and violence is not ideal. Anti-intellectualism creates an environment
that embraces less knowledge. As a student, the American education system is
becoming less useful in knowledge acquisition. Students are only focused on only
passing exams and moving on to the next education level rather than gaining
knowledge or learning for the improvement of society (Bradbury).
While Lecklider quoted "Dean Aldemaro Romero Jr., also of
CUNY, strikes a similarly portentous tone: "It is time for those of us involved in
higher education in this country to recognize that there is a long shadow being
cast on our institutions." The internet is also becoming less and less reliable as
my source of research as a majority of the information posted on the internet is
not factually proven (Bajrektarevic). This problem inhibits my personal
development as well as my contribution to national development as a result of
Naturally, the public always has an adverse reaction to
anything. Be it publicity, be it a success, be it intellect. News reporters nowadays
talk more about things that bring more viewers than things that are important for
community well-being. Do not mark me wrong I know that most of the media
people are well-intentioned but the few of those that only think of themselves and
only want more "clout" (slang for attention/popularity) is the reason we suffer
because of anti-intellectualism. What I am saying is that it is a product of their
work. One can never avoid critics. It bridges the society and even fosters crime
Bajrektarevic, Anis H. "What is more disruptive with the AI: Its dark potentials or our (antiIntellectual) Ignorance?" ModernDiplomacy February 15, 2020,
moderndiplomacy.eu/2020/02/15/what-is-more-disruptive-with-the-ai-its-darkpotentials-or-our-anti-intellectual-ignorance/. Accessed February 23 2020.
Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451. 40th. Simon & Schuster, 1993.
Burkeman, Oliver. "Think reality TV is mindless entertainment? What about the news." The
Guardian, November 17, 2017,
www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2017/nov/24/reality-tv-binge-news-addictedchange-life-oliver-burkeman. Accessed February 23 2020.
Lecklider, Aaron S. "The Real Victims of Anti-Intellectualism." The Chronicle of Higher
Education: The Chronicle Review September 10, 2017,
www.chronicle.com/article/The-Real-Victims-of/241101. Accessed February 23 2020
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