Computer Science
Northwestern Polytechnic University Globalization and Cyber Security Questions

Northwestern Polytechnic University

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Questions 1

Chapter - 9

Review the section on Establishing a Security Culture. Review the methods to reduce the chances of a cyber threat noted in the textbook. Research other peer-reviewed source and note additional methods to reduce cyber-attacks within an organization.

Questions 2

Please explain the concept of globalization and the role information technology has in the global market.

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Information Technology and Organizational Learning Managing Behavioral Change in the Digital Age Third Edition Information Technology and Organizational Learning Managing Behavioral Change in the Digital Age Third Edition Arthur M. Langer CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 © 2018 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed on acid-free paper International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4987-7575-5 (Paperback) International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-138-23858-9 (Hardback) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access ( or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at and the CRC Press Web site at Contents xi Fo re wo rd Acknowledgments xiii xv Author Introduction C h a p t e r 1 Th e “ R av e l l” C o r p o r at i o n Introduction A New Approach The Blueprint for Integration Enlisting Support  Assessing Progress Resistance in the Ranks Line Management to the Rescue IT Begins to Reflect Defining an Identity for Information Technology Implementing the Integration: A Move toward Trust and Reflection Key Lessons  Defining Reflection and Learning for an Organization  Working toward a Clear Goal  Commitment to Quality  Teaching Staff “Not to Know”  Transformation of Culture  Alignment with Administrative Departments Conclusion xvii 1 1 3 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 12 14 14 15 15 16 16 17 19 v vi C o n t en t s C h a p t e r 2 Th e IT D i l e m m a Introduction Recent Background IT in the Organizational Context IT and Organizational Structure The Role of IT in Business Strategy Ways of Evaluating IT Executive Knowledge and Management of IT IT: A View from the Top Section 1: Chief Executive Perception of the Role of IT Section 2: Management and Strategic Issues Section 3: Measuring IT Performance and Activities General Results Defining the IT Dilemma Recent Developments in Operational Excellence C h a p t e r 3 Te c h n o l o gy a s a Va r ia b l e O r g a n i z at i o n a l D y n a m i s m and 21 21 23 24 24 25 27 28 29 32 34 35 36 36 38 Responsive Introduction Technological Dynamism Responsive Organizational Dynamism Strategic Integration Summary Cultural Assimilation IT Organization Communications with “ Others”  Movement of Traditional IT Staff Summary Technology Business Cycle Feasibility Measurement Planning Implementation Evolution Drivers and Supporters Santander versus Citibank  Information Technology Roles and Responsibilities Replacement or Outsource C h a p t e r 4 O r g a n i z at i o n a l L e a r n i n g Th e o r i e s Te c h n o l o gy Introduction Learning Organizations Communities of Practice Learning Preferences and Experiential Learning Social Discourse and the Use of Language Identity Skills 41 41 41 42 43 48 48 49 49 51 52 53 53 54 55 57 58 60 60 61 and 63 63 72 75 83 89 91 92 vii C o n t en t s Emotion Linear Development in Learning Approaches 92 96 C h a p t e r 5 M a n a g i n g O r g a n i z at i o n a l L e a r n i n g Te c h n o l o gy and The Role of Line Management Line Managers First-Line Managers Supervisor Management Vectors Knowledge Management Ch ange Management  Change Management for IT Organizations Social Networks and Information Technology C h a p t e r 6 O r g a n i z at i o n a l Tr a n s f o r m at i o n Bal an ce d S c o recard and the Introduction Methods of Ongoing Evaluation Balanced Scorecards and Discourse Knowledge Creation, Culture, and Strategy C h a p t e r 7 V i r t ua l Te a m s and Outsourcing Introduction Status of Virtual Teams Management Considerations Dealing with Multiple Locations Externalization Internalization Combination Socialization Externalization Dynamism Internalization Dynamism Combination Dynamism Socialization Dynamism Dealing with Multiple Locations and Outsourcing Revisiting Social Discourse Identity Skills Emotion C h a p t e r 8 S y n e r g i s t i c U n i o n o f IT a n d O r g a n i z at i o n a l L e a r n i n g Introduction Siemens AG Aftermath ICAP 109 109 111 111 111 112 116 120 123 134 139 139 146 156 158 163 163 165 166 166 169 171 171 172 172 173 173 173 177 178 179 180 181 187 187 187 202 203 viii Chapter 9 C o n t en t s Five Years Later HTC IT History at HTC Interactions of the CEO The Process Transformation from the Transition Five Years Later Summary 224 225 226 227 228 229 231 233 Fo rmin g 239 239 239 241 241 242 a C y b e r S e c u r i t y C u lt u r e Introduction History Talking to the Board Establishing a Security Culture Understanding What It Means to be Compromised Cyber Security Dynamism and Responsive Organizational Dynamism Cyber Strategic Integration Cyber Cultural Assimilation Summary Organizational Learning and Application Development Cyber Security Risk Risk Responsibility Driver /Supporter Implications C h a p t e r 10 D i g i ta l Tr a n s f o r m at i o n C o n s u m e r B e h av i o r and Changes in Introduction Requirements without Users and without Input Concepts of the S-Curve and Digital Transformation Analysis and Design  Organizational Learning and the S-Curve Communities of Practice The IT Leader in the Digital Transformation Era How Technology Disrupts Firms and Industries Dynamism and Digital Disruption Critical Components of “ Digital” Organization  Assimilating Digital Technology Operationally and Culturally Conclusion C h a p t e r 11 I n t e g r at i n g G e n e r at i o n Y E m p l oy e e s A c c e l e r at e C o m p e t i t i v e A d va n ta g e 242 243 245 246 246 247 248 250 251 251 254 258 260 261 262 264 264 265 267 268 to Introduction The Employment Challenge in the Digital Era Gen Y Population Attributes Advantages of Employing Millennials to Support Digital Transformation Integration of Gen Y with Baby Boomers and Gen X 269 269 270 272 272 273 C o n t en t s Designing the Digital Enterprise Assimilating Gen Y Talent from Underserved and Socially Excluded Populations Langer Workforce Maturity Arc Theoretical Constructs of the LWMA The LWMA and Action Research Implications for New Pathways for Digital Talent Demographic Shifts in Talent Resources Economic Sustainability Integration and Trust Global Implications for Sources of Talent Conclusion C h a p t e r 12 To wa r d B e s t P r a c t i c e s Introduction Chief IT Executive Definitions of Maturity Stages and Dimension Variables in the Chief IT Executive Best Practices Arc Maturity Stages Performance Dimensions Chief Executive Officer CIO Direct Reporting to the CEO Outsourcing Centralization versus Decentralization of IT CIO Needs Advanced Degrees Need for Standards Risk Management The CEO Best Practices Technology Arc Definitions of Maturity Stages and Dimension Variables in the CEO Technology Best Practices Arc Maturity Stages Performance Dimensions Middle Management The Middle Management Best Practices Technology Arc Definitions of Maturity Stages and Dimension Variables in the Middle Manager Best Practices Arc Maturity Stages Performance Dimensions Summary Ethics and Maturity C h a p t e r 13 C o n c l u s i o n s Introduction G lo s sa ry References Index ix 274 276 277 278 281 282 282 283 283 284 284 287 287 288 297 297 298 299 305 306 306 307 307 307 313 314 314 315 316 323 325 325 326 327 333 339 339 357 363 373 Foreword Digital technologies are transforming the global economy. Increasingly, firms and other organizations are assessing their opportunities, developing and delivering products and services, and interacting with customers and other stakeholders digitally. Established companies recognize that digital technologies can help them operate their businesses with greater speed and lower costs and, in many cases, offer their customers opportunities to co-design and co-produce products and services. Many start-up companies use digital technologies to develop new products and business models that disrupt the present way of doing business, taking customers away from firms that cannot change and adapt. In recent years, digital technology and new business models have disrupted one industry after another, and these developments are rapidly transforming how people communicate, learn, and work. Against this backdrop, the third edition of Arthur Langer’ s Information Technology and Organizational Learning is most welcome. For decades, Langer has been studying how firms adapt to new or changing conditions by increasing their ability to incorporate and use advanced information technologies. Most organizations do not adopt new technology easily or readily. Organizational inertia and embedded legacy systems are powerful forces working against the adoption of new technology, even when the advantages of improved technology are recognized. Investing in new technology is costly, and it requires xi x ii F o re w o rd aligning technology with business strategies and transforming corporate cultures so that organization members use the technology to become more productive. Information Technology and Organizational Learning addresses these important issues— and much more. There are four features of the new edition that I would like to draw attention to that, I believe, make this a valuable book. First, Langer adopts a behavioral perspective rather than a technical perspective. Instead of simply offering normative advice about technology adoption, he shows how sound learning theory and principles can be used to incorporate technology into the organization. His discussion ranges across the dynamic learning organization, knowledge management, change management, communities of practice, and virtual teams. Second, he shows how an organization can move beyond technology alignment to true technology integration. Part of this process involves redefining the traditional support role of the IT department to a leadership role in which IT helps to drive business strategy through a technology-based learning organization. Third, the book contains case studies that make the material come alive. The book begins with a comprehensive real-life case that sets the stage for the issues to be resolved, and smaller case illustrations are sprinkled throughout the chapters, to make concepts and techniques easily understandable. Lastly, Langer has a wealth of experience that he brings to his book. He spent more than 25 years as an IT consultant and is the founder of the Center for Technology Management at Columbia University, where he directs certificate and executive programs on various aspects of technology innovation and management. He has organized a vast professional network of technology executives whose companies serve as learning laboratories for his students and research. When you read the book, the knowledge and insight gained from these experiences is readily apparent. If you are an IT professional, Information Technology and Organi­ zational Learning should be required reading. However, anyone who is part of a firm or agency that wants to capitalize on the opportunities provided by digital technology will benefit from reading the book. Charles C. Snow Professor Emeritus, Penn State University Co-Editor, Journal of Organization Design Acknowledgments Many colleagues and clients have provided significant support during the development of the third edition of Information Technology and Organizational Learning. I owe much to my colleagues at Teachers College, namely, Professor Victoria Marsick and Lyle Yorks, who guided me on many of the theories on organizational learning, and Professor Lee Knefelkamp, for her ongoing mentorship on adult learning and developmental theories. Professor David Thomas from the Harvard Business School also provided valuable direction on the complex issues surrounding diversity, and its importance in workforce development. I appreciate the corporate executives who agreed to participate in the studies that allowed me to apply learning theories to actual organizational practices. Stephen McDermott from ICAP provided invaluable input on how chief executive officers (CEOs) can successfully learn to manage emerging technologies. Dana Deasy, now global chief information officer (CIO) of JP Morgan Chase, contributed enormous information on how corporate CIOs can integrate technology into business strategy. Lynn O’ Connor Vos, CEO of Grey Healthcare, also showed me how technology can produce direct monetary returns, especially when the CEO is actively involved. And, of course, thank you to my wonderful students at Columbia University. They continue to be at the core of my inspiration and love for writing, teaching, and scholarly research. x iii Author Arthur M. Langer, EdD, is professor of professional practice of management and the director of the Center for Technology Management at Columbia University. He is the academic director of the Executive Masters of Science program in Technology Management, vice chair of faculty and executive advisor to the dean at the School of Professional Studies and is on the faculty of the Department of Organization and Leadership at the Graduate School of Education (Teachers College). He has also served as a member of the Columbia University Faculty Senate. Dr. Langer is the author of Guide to Software Development: Designing & Managing the Life Cycle. 2nd Edition (2016), Strategic IT: Best Practices for Managers and Executives (2013 with Lyle Yorks), Information Technology and Organizational Learning (2011), Analysis and Design of Information Systems (2007), Applied Ecommerce (2002), and The Art of Analysis (1997), and has numerous published articles and papers, relating to digital transformation, service learning for underserved populations, IT organizational integration, mentoring, and staff development. Dr. Langer consults with corporations and universities on information technology, cyber security, staff development, management transformation, and curriculum development around the Globe. Dr. Langer is also the chairman and founder of Workforce Opportunity Services (, a non-profit social venture xv xvi Au t h o r that provides scholarships and careers to underserved populations around the world. Dr. Langer earned a BA in computer science, an MBA in accounting/finance, and a Doctorate of Education from Columbia University. Introduction Background Information technology (IT) has become a more significant part of workplace operations, and as a result, information systems personnel are key to the success of corporate enterprises, especially with the recent effects of the digital revolution on every aspect of business and social life (Bradley & Nolan, 1998; Langer, 1997, 2011; LipmanBlumen, 1996). This digital revolution is defined as a form of “ disruption.” Indeed, the big question facing many enterprises today is, How can executives anticipate the unexpected threats brought on by technological advances that could devastate their business? This book focuses on the vital role that information and digital technology organizations need to play in the course of organizational development and learning, and on the growing need to integrate technology fully into the processes of workplace organizational learning. Technology personnel have long been criticized for their inability to function as part of the business, and they are often seen as a group outside the corporate norm (Schein, 1992). This is a problem of cultural assimilation, and it represents one of the two major fronts that organizations now face in their efforts to gain a grip on the new, growing power of technology, and to be competitive in a global world. The other major x vii x viii In t r o d u c ti o n front concerns the strategic integration of new digital technologies into business line management. Because technology continues to change at such a rapid pace, the ability of organizations to operate within a new paradigm of dynamic change emphasizes the need to employ action learning as a way to build competitive learning organizations in the twenty-first century. Information Technology and Organizational Learning integrates some of the fundamental issues bearing on IT today with concepts from organizational learning theory, providing comprehensive guidance, based on real-life business experiences and concrete research. This book also focuses on another aspect of what IT can mean to an organization. IT represents a broadening dimension of business life that affects everything we do inside an organization. This new reality is shaped by the increasing and irreversible dissemination of technology. To maximize the usefulness of its encroaching presence in everyday business affairs, organizations will require an optimal understanding of how to integrate technology into everything they do. To this end, this book seeks to break new ground on how to approach and conceptualize this salient issue— that is, that the optimization of information and digital technologies is best pursued with a synchronous implementation of organizational learning concepts. Furthermore, these concepts cannot be implemented without utilizing theories of strategic learning. Therefore, this book takes the position that technology literacy requires individual and group strategic learning if it is to transform a business into a technology-based learning organization. Technologybased organizations are defined as those that have implemented a means of successfully integrating technology into their process of organizational learning. Such organizations recognize and experience the reality of technology as part of their everyday business function. It is what many organizations are calling “ being digital.” This book will also examine some of the many existing organizational learning theories, and the historical problems that have occurred with companies that have used them, or that have failed to use them. Thus, the introduction of technology into organizations actually provides an opportunity to reassess and reapply many of the past concepts, theories, and practices that have been used to support the importance of organizational learning. It is important, however, not to confuse this message with a reason for promoting organizational In t r o d u c ti o n xix lear ...
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Discussion on Globalization and Cyber Security
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Question 1
Establishing a Security Culture
Most businesses suffer from delusions that small cybersecurity experts can offer protection to
the company's workforce from exposing business-sensitive or critical information malicious
external or internal actors. In the current era of widespread security awareness, every business is
expected to build a security culture that consists of security programs with policies, work rules,
policies, and procedures (Langer, 2017). Moreover, companies need to regulate employees'
communication with both outsiders and other staff in the business and set practices that
adequately protect the business. All areas of vulnerability need to be identified and managed too.
Reducing Chances of Cyber Attack
Businesses should establish underlying cyber defense mechanisms to protect their
organizations and reputation. Detecting and disrupting cyber-attacks at the earliest stages
possible limits the impacts and potenti...

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