Consequences of Louisiana Purchase Response Paper

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Help me study for my History class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

Mission: The goal of these response papers is to encourage you to think critically about the material, formulate an argument based on your thinking, and present your argument in a clear, coherent, and concise paper. Argument: It is up to you to formulate an argument on the material. You should never watch, listen to, or read anything passively, so always be thinking about themes, problems, and questions as you read the material. Your thesis statement, or the sentence that tells us what your argument is, can be at either the beginning or the end of your introduction. This statement tells us your argument and gives us an idea of where your paper is headed. A good way to get the ball rolling when you are stuck is to ask yourself some questions: What is the author’s argument, and is it convincing? What are the weaknesses of the work? What are the strengths? What are some themes that emerge from the author’s discussion of the subject? A good argument should be plausible, but it should also be debatable, i.e., a point with which an intelligent person could disagree.

Organization: A good paper MUST have an introduction, a conclusion, and a main body consisting of several paragraphs in between that develop the evidence for the argument. Each paragraph should have a “topic sentence” that tells what the paragraph is about and gives the reader an idea of how it relates to the main argument. Use paragraphs to show the paper’s structure. For example: a.) Introductory Paragraph (including argument) b.) Main Body Paragraph 1 c.) Main Body Paragraph 2 d.) Main Body Paragraph 3 e.) Concluding Paragraph You can, of course, have more than five paragraphs, but you should think of each paragraph as a piece of evidence that proves your point. Creating an outline before writing your paper is an effective way to organize your ideas.

Consequences of Louisiana Purchase Response Paper

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SEVENTH EDITION Discovering the American Past A Look at the Evidence VoLUME I: To 1877 William Bruce Wheeler University of Tennessee Susan D. Becker University of Tennessee, Emerita Lorri Glover St. Louis University ! .j #- • - WADSWORTH CENGAGE Learning· Australia • Brazil• Japan • Korea• Mexico• Singapore• Spain• United Kingdom • United States - # WADSWORTH ~. - CENGAGE Learning· Discovering the American Past: A Look at the Evidence, Volume I: To 1877, Seventh Edition William Bruce Wheeler, Susan D. Becker, and Lorri Glover Senior Publisher: Suzanne Jeans Senior Sponsoring Editor: Ann West © 2012, 2007, 2002 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Development Editor: Kirsten Guidero Assistant Editor: Megan Chrisman Senior Marketing Manager: Katherine Bates Marketing Coordinator: Lorreen Pelletier Executive Marketing Communications Manager: Talia Wise Associate Content Project Manager: Anne Finley Senior Rights Acquisition Specialist, Text: Katie Huha Senior Image Rights Acquisition Specialist: Jennifer Meyer Dare Production Service: MPS Limited, A Macmillan Company Cover Designer: Walter Kopec, Boston For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests on line at www.cengage.com/permissions. Further permissions questions can be emailed to permissionrequest@cengage.com. Library of Congress Control Number: 2001012345 ISBN-13: 978-0-495-79984-9 ISBN-10: 0-495-79984-X Wadsworth 20 Channel Center Street Boston, MA 02210 USA Cover Image: Les Polders/Alamy Images Compositor: MPS Limited, A Macmillan Company Preface X For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-3S4·9706 Senior Art Director: Cate Rickard Barr Senior Print Buyer: Judy Inouye Contents (engage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with office locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, and Japan. Locate your local office at international.cengage.com/region (engage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd. For your course and learning solutions, visit www.cengage.com Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred on line store www.cengagebrain.com. CHAPTER 1 A History Mystery: What Happened at Roanoke? 1 The Problem Background The Method The Evidence 2 6 8 1 Colonization promotional literature Early travelers' reports on America John White's drawings of Native Americans Accounts from the Roanoke Colony Images of Sir Walter Ralegh and Queen Elizabeth 31 32 Questions to Consider Epilogue • CHAPTER 2 The Threat of Anne Hutchinson 35 The Problem Background The Method The Evidence 35 35 41 42 Excerpts from the trial of Anne Hutchinson Questions to Consider Epilogue 54 55 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 [ V l • CHAPTER CHAPTER 4 What Really Happenedinthe Boston Massacre? The Trial of Captain Thomas Preston they were aiming at. . . . " 38 Even so, the Patriot leader claimed that "the foundation of American independence was laid" on the evening of March 5, 1770. Although he may have overstated the case, clearly many Americans living today have come to see the event as a crucial one in the buildup to the revolution against Great Britain. Now that you have examined the evidence, do you think the Boston Massacre of March 5, 1770, was a justifiable reason for rebellion against the mother country? Could the crowd action on that evening secretly have been directed by the Patriot elite, or was it a spontaneous demonstration of antiBritish fury? Why was Paul Revere's engraving at such variance with what actually took place? Few Americans have stopped to ponder what actually happened on that fateful evening. Like the American Revolution itself, the answer to that question may well be more complex than we think. 5 The Evolution of American Citizenship: The Louisiana Purchase, 1803-1812 • The Problem In 1782, J. Hector St. John, 1 naturalized citizen living in New York, wrote a series ofletters about his adopted country that were published in London but soon reached the United States, where they were read with enormous interest. In Letter III, St. John posed his central question: "What then is the American, this new man?" As a small part of the answer to his question, he explained He is an American, who, leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced, the new government he obeys, and the new rank he holds. . . . Here individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of men, whose labours and posterity 38. Quoted in John C. Miller, Sam Adams, Pioneer in Propaganda (Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press, 1936), p. 187. [ 102] 1. Born Michael Gullaume Jean de Crevecoeur in France in 1735, he served in the French army in Canada during the French and Indian W0.;, resigned his commission at war's end, and ultimately settled in New York where he became a citizen and changed his name to John Hector St. John. He died in France in 1813. will one day cause great changes in the world .... 2 One reason so many Americans pored over St. John's letters is that they were asking that same question themselves: What, indeed, was an American? Those who lived in one of the former thirteen colonies and who supported the Patriot cause automatically became citizens of their respective states, and former Loyalists who took an oath of allegiance also were granted citizenship. Immigrants who arrived in the United States after the war went through a citizenship process in the states where they settled. Then, after the ratification of the Constitution in 1788 and the beginning of the new government in 1789, Congress passed a 2. J. Hector St. John, Letters from an American Farmer, originally published in London in 1783 (New York: Oxford University Press ed 1997). Letter III, pp. 43-44. ., [ 103] • CHAPTER 5 The Evolution of American Citizenship: The Louisiana Purchase, 1803-1812 Background series of acts to establish a process of conferring American citizenship on individuals. The first such act was passed in 1790, setting out the requirements for free white people of a two-year residency period in the United States, proof of "good character," and the taking of an oath "to support the constitution of the United States." Subsequent laws were passed in 1795, 1798, and 1802, the major difference being the residency requirement. 3 Although citizenship had been granted to free white individuals of all ethnic groups who resided either in the thirteen original states or in states created from lands ceded by the British in the 1783 treaty that ended the War for Independence, citizenship had never been awarded to any group of people en masse who were living in lands acquired by the United States after the Revolution. In 1803, however, the United States purchased from France an immense territory of 828,000 square miles, roughly equal to the size of the nation. Moreover, the majority of those living in the Louisiana Territory were of French background, with significant Spanish and German minorities. Finally, in 1803, there were approximately 3,200 gens de couleur libre or free people of color (approximately 11.26% of the total population) who enjoyed most of the rights of free people. 4 Here was a population that for the most part did not speak English, was unfamiliar with Anglo-American political and judicial institutions, and had enjoyed the easygoing colonial administrations of France and Spain. The Louisiana Purchase forced Americans to come to grips with the issue of citizenship. Article III of the 1803 treaty ceding Louisiana to the United States stated clearly that 3. See United States Constitution, Article One, Section 8. For an excellent work on the subject, see James H. Kettner, The Development of American Citizenship, 1608-1870 (Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1978), especially pp. 225-247. 4. For Louisiana's 1803 population, see Peter J. Kastor, ed., The Louisiana Purchase: Emergence of an American Nation (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2002), pp. 261-262. 5. The Northwest Ordinance mandated that when a territory's population reached 5,000 free adult males a bicameral legislature would be established. When the population reached 60,000 it would be permitted to draw up a state constitution and, when approved, would be admitted as a state. The Ordinance originally applied to the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, but later was applied to the Mississippi Territory. The inhabitants of the ceded territory shall be incorporated in the union of the United States, and admitted as soon as possible, according to the principles of the Federal Constitution, to the enjoyment of all the rights, advantages, and immunities of citizens of the United States.... The residents of Louisiana interpreted Article ill to mean that they would be admitted to statehood immediately or, at the very least, they would be allowed the same rights and privileges as were granted to residents of the territories under the 1787 Northwest Ordinance. 5 But most United States leaders thought this would not be feasible. Why not? What alternative did they propose? How did Louisianans react? What alterations to the original plan were made? Finally, why was statehood ultimately granted to the Territory of Orleans (the present state of Louisiana) in 1812? By answering these [ 104] questions, you will ultimately be able to answer this chapter's central question: How did the Louisiana Purchase influence the United States' ideas and policies of citizenship? Just about every schoolboy and schoolgirl knows how the United States was able to purchase Louisiana from France in 1803. And yet, as we shall see, an equally important aspect of that purchase took place after 1803, as Americans struggled with the concept of and criteria for citizenship, since the process of admitting large populations of nonAnglo-Americans to citizenship was repeated numerous times after 1803. Background The history of Louisiana can best be understood within the larger fabric of European and world history. As Europe's population began to recover from the devastating plagues of the 1300s, 6 economic recovery spurred a revival of trade that reached as far as Asia and the Middle East, the growth of towns and cities, and the beginnings of national consolidation into early forms of nation-states. As evolving monarchical dynasties supported merchants, bankers, and manufacturers as a way of increasing royal treasuries and as a check against the declining but still powerful feudal lords, these new monarchs attempted to consolidate their reigns through warfare against other monarchs, control of the church, and amassing huge treasuries through new taxes, fees, and conquests. The capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks in 1453 gave them control of the eastern Mediterranean 6. Due to the plagues, it took approximately 200 years for Europe to reach the same population that it had in 1300. Sea, allowing them to block European trade routes into China. Beginning with the emerging nation of Portugal, European monarchs began to encourage and often support explorers searching for alternative trade routes to the East, acting in roughly the same chronological order as their emergence as nation-states. For its part, Portugal charted new routes and established fortified trading stations along the African coast, rounding the tip of Africa in 1498. The consolidation of Spain resulting from the marriage of the two feudal houses of Aragon and Castille (Ferdinand and Isabella) financed explorers such as Columbus and conquerors such as Cortes and Pizarro who enriched Spain (and, in fact, much of Europe) with the gold and silver taken from the "New World" which they encountered while searching for another passage to the Far East. France was late in exploring, colonizing, and exploiting the Americas due in large part to a bloody civil w~ that wracked the area from 1562 to 1598. French explorers and wouldbe colonizers such as Jacques Cartier and Jean Ribault made attempts at [ 105] • CHAPTER 5 The Evolution of American Citizenship: The Louisiana Purchase, 1803-1812 Background founding French settlements, which came to naught. The consolidation of the French nation under Louis XN (king from 1643 to 1715, nicknamed the "Sun King") gave France the internal order and economic power it needed both to engage in a series of wars and to support American colonization. In 1604, Samuel de Champlain took two ships filled with convicts, adventurers, Protestant exiles, and Roman Catholic priests southward on the St. Lawrence River (that Cartier earlier had found ran into the Great Lakes) and founded Quebec in 1608. From there the French built a series of forts at Montreal, Frontenac, St. Joseph, St. Louis, Detroit, and others. Settlements grew slowly. A Spanish expedition already had discovered the mouth of the Mississippi River in 1519. Yet it was the French who first settled the region. In 1673, Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet traveled the entire Mississippi River and claimed all of its valley for France. Thus France laid claim to all of North America from Canada to the mouth of the Mississippi, an enormous expanse of territory. In 1684, Louis XN named Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, the first governor of the territory. In return, La Salle named the area "Louisiana" in honor of Louis xrv. As in Canada, initial settlement was slow until, in 1718, the French crown granted John Law a contract to send 6,000 white settlers and 3,000 slaves to Louisiana. That same year Jean Baptiste Lemoyne, Sieur de Bienville, the new governor, built a new settlement and named it New Orleans, in honor of France's Prince Regent. 7 In the meantime, English settlements along the coast of North America were burgeoning in population, largely because these colonies for the most part contained more permanent settlers and fewer soldiers, traders, and missionaries. For example, by 1720, the population of the English North American colonies was over 450,000, whereas the white population of Louisiana was only around 8,000. A series of wars with England chipped away at French territory in North America. In 1717, the British acquired Acadia (later Nova Scotia) and, in 1763, gained all of New France (later Canada). Meanwhile, in 1761, France had secretly ceded all of Louisiana to Spain in return for a declaration of war against England. Therefore, by the end of the French and Indian War (1754-1763), France had lost her entire empire in North America, retaining only some valuable sugar islands in the Caribbean. At the end of the war, England expelled a large number of Acadians and turned their homes over to Protestant Scots immigrants (hence the new name Nova Scotia, or New Scotland). Many Acadians migrated to Louisiana, "only to find they were almost as unwelcome there as they were in the English colonies." 8 Moving into the swamps 7. At Louis XIV's death in 1715, the heir to the French throne, Louis's great-grandson, was only five years old. Therefore the due d' Orleans, an elder cousin of the child king, became Prince Regent. The child, eventually Louis XV, later took the throne and lived until 1774. His grandson was the unfortunate Louis XVI. 8. John Keats, Eminent Domain: The Louisiana Purchase and the Making of America (New York: Charterhouse, 1973), p. 171. [ 106] and bayous of the backcountry, they became known as "Cajuns," a corruption of "Acadians." Elsewhere in Louisiana, when French settlers learned of the secret cession to Spain in 1764, they protested and undertook an illfated revolt that was brutally crushed by Spanish General Alejandro O'Reilly and 3,600 soldiers. It was no secret that the new nation of the United States strongly coveted Louisiana. By the American Revolution, merchants from Philadelphia, Boston, and New York virtually dominated commerce in New Orleans. Agricultural goods coming down the Mississippi and its tributaries were almost exclusively from American farmers and traders. Even before the War for Independence was over, the London Morning Post claimed that the United States is "not content with independence, it aims at conquest." A short time later, in 1797, one worried French official warned foreign minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, "The Americans are gathering in crowds upon the banks of the Mississippi. If Spain delays in fortifying Louisiana . . . she will unquestionably be dispossessed. The Americans . . . are spreading out like oil upon cloth. . . . In a few years there will be no halt to their expansion." For his part, Talleyrand himself was deeply concerned: "Americans . . . meant at any cost to rule alone in America." And as for Americans, Massachusetts clergyman and geographer Jedediah Morse (the father of F.S.B. Morse, of the telegraph and Morse code) opined, "We cannot but anticipate the period, as not far distant when the AMERICAN EMPIRE wili comprehend millions of souls, west of the Mississippi. "9 Thus Americans in general and President Jefferson in particular were extremely disturbed when they learned, in May 1801, that France had forced Spain to return Louisiana which it had ceded to Spain in 1761'. By 1801, Spain was very nearly impotent, whereas France was the strongest nation in Europe, perhaps in the entire world. As U.S. Secretary of State Timothy Pickering explained to American minister to Britain, Rufus King, "The Spaniards will actually be more safe, quiet and useful neighbors." For his part, Jefferson actually contemplated seizing Louisiana as soon as France and England resumed warfare: "The day that France takes possession of New Orleans . . . we must marry ourselves to the British fleet and nation." Since Jefferson instructed his friend and personal messenger to pass along that threat to French foreign minister Talleyrand and, if it could be done, to Napoleon himself, it is possible that the American president was bluffing. If so, however, that would have been a very dangerous ploy. 9. The London Morning Post (August 21 1782) and Jedediah Morse are quoted in Al~ exander DeConde, This Affair of Louisiana, pp. 38, 41. Letombe to Talleyrand, November 25, 1797, quoted in Lewis William Newton "The Americanization of French Louisiana: A Study of the Process of Adjustment between the French and the Anglo-American Populations of Louisiana, 1803- 1860" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1929), p. 30. For Talle~and, see Henry Adams, History of the United States of America during the First Administration of Thomas Jefferson (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1891) vol. I, p. 356. ' ' [ 107] • CHAPTER 5 The Evolution of American Citizenship: The Louisiana Purchase, 1803-1812 Background And yet, the stakes could not have been higher.' 10 Since coming to power as First Consul in 1799, army officer Napoleon Bonaparte had envisioned a resurrection of the French Empire in America. Many Frenchmen referred to the cession of Louisiana to Spain as "a crime," and any efforts to rebuild that empire would have been exceedingly popular. The nuclei of that empire would be the Caribbean sugar islands of Saint Domingue, Martinique, Guadeloupe, and St. Barthelemey, which would provide the funds necessary for Napoleo ...
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