Science
BIO 317 California State University Principles of Cellular Signaling Exams

BIO 317

California State University Fullerton

BIO

Question Description

I’m working on a Ecology exercise and need support.

I need you to solve this ecology exam attached below. I've attached all the required materials to complete the questions. You will need to include information from the readings to support your answer. please follow the instructions and write in you own words. No plagiarism. don't exceed the word limit and try to be brief with your answer

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BIO317 Exam #2 You can use any and all resources for this exam; however, the words and ideas must be your own because this is your education (and this in line with CUI academic honesty policies). That means: • No working with others, including fellow students but also any other human being, on your answers (do not share your potential answers, written work, or get feedback on it – but you can ask me questions just like you might if the exam were in person) • No quotes (but you can cite resources that helped you develop your ideas – you don’t need to go beyond what we’ve read for class, but can – and include a works cited page that will not count toward your word count) The exam is as similar as possible to the first one given the change in format: • The exam is still designed to be answered in 50 minutes, but there is no time restriction due to the online nature and flux in everyone’s lives at this time. I expect that many of you will choose to take longer, but my expectations will not change as to what a “good” answer is. If you are spending more than a few hours, you are definitely over-doing it. Please note the word count limits below. • There are 3 questions, each with two parts. You are required to answer 2/3 and must only include answers for 2/3 in your submission to Blackboard. If you answer 3/3, I’ll just grade the first 2 questions. • It is formatted with each part of each question having about 1 blank page in which to fit your answer, but also a maximum word count of about 200 words (fairly equivalent to the max most people could handwrite in a page) for each section since I expect most of you will end up typing it. • Download a copy of the exam. You can type your answers, print it and handwrite your answers, or import into a note-taking app (e.g., OneNote) and handwrite answers – I want you to take the exam however you are most comfortable. o Please save frequently to avoid losing your hard work! • Please submit your answers to the “Exam #2” assignment on Blackboard as a Word docx, pdf, or link to a Google Doc that you have shared with me (sarah.karam@cui.edu). • If you have any questions or issues, please call/text me at 530-414-1505 for the fastest response. BIO317 Exam #2 p. 1/6 Question 1: You read Connell (1961) about niche partitioning between two barnacle species. We talked about this in relation to the idea of a “fundamental” versus “realized” niche. Here are two graphs depicting the distributions of two spider species from a recently published paper: Related questions are on the next two pages… BIO317 Exam #2 p. 2/8 A. Which of the two figures on the previous page depicts niche partitioning? Explain your reasoning. (Max 200 words) BIO317 Exam #2 p. 3/6 Question 1 continued… B. Is the spatial distribution of a species a direct representation of its realized niche? Explain, drawing on at least two different readings from the class. BIO317 Exam #2 p. 4/8 Question 2: You developed a MaxEnt model for the distribution of a species and saw the human element to developing models and interpreting their output. Here is an example output from a MaxEnt model for a population of the Brown Bear in Eurasia (aka Grizzly Bear in the USA). A. Interpret the response curves to describe where Brown Bears are more likely to be found and explain why there isn’t ever a 100% chance of finding a Brown Bear, even under those conditions. BIO317 Exam #2 p. 5/6 Question 2 continued… B. Lawton (1999) proposes several laws of ecology, including that “organisms interact with one another (no species, anywhere in nature, lives in splendid isolation) and with their environment” (#5). Are the results of this model empirical support for this law? Another way of asking: how do the model results relate to what’s really going on in nature? Explain, drawing on at least one reading. BIO317 Exam #2 p. 6/8 Question 3: Species interact, and we expect that this will affect how they occupy their niche. Here are three models of the relationship between the fundamental and realized niche that may arise from species interactions: A. How could positive and negative species interactions (e.g., mutualism versus competition) affect the fundamental versus realized niche? Explain, relating both types of interactions to the drawings above and relating them to at least one of the readings from the course. BIO317 Exam #2 p. 7/6 Question 3 continued… B. How can both positive and negative species interactions (e.g., mutualism versus competition) lead to biodiversity? Explain, drawing on at least one of the readings from the course. BIO317 Exam #2 p. 8/8 BIO317 Exam #2 You can use any and all resources for this exam; however, the words and ideas must be your own because this is your education. That means: • No working with others, including fellow students but also any other human being, on your answers (do not share your potential answers, written work, or get feedback on it – but you can ask me questions just like you might if the exam were in person) • No quotes (but you can cite resources that helped you develop your ideas – you don’t need to go beyond what we’ve read for class, but can – and include a works cited page that will not count toward your word count) The exam is as similar as possible to the first one given the change in format: • The exam is still designed to be answered in 50 minutes, but there is no time restriction due to the online nature and flux in everyone’s lives at this time. I expect that many of you will choose to take longer, but my expectations will not change as to what a “good” answer is. If you are spending more than a few hours, you are definitely over-doing it. Please note the word count limits below. • There are 3 questions, each with two parts. You are required to answer 2/3 and must only include answers for 2/3 in your submission to Blackboard. If you answer 3/3, I’ll just grade the first 2 questions. • It is formatted with each part of each question having about 1 blank page in which to fit your answer, but also a maximum word count of about 200 words (fairly equivalent to the max most people could handwrite in a page) for each section since I expect most of you will end up typing it. • Download a copy of the exam. You can type your answers, print it and handwrite your answers, or import into a note-taking app (e.g., OneNote) and handwrite answers – I want you to take the exam however you are most comfortable. o Please save frequently to avoid losing your hard work! • Please submit your answers to the “Exam #2” assignment on Blackboard as a Word docx, pdf. BIO317 Exam #2 p. 1/6 Question 1: You read Connell (1961) about niche partitioning between two barnacle species. We talked about this in relation to the idea of a “fundamental” versus “realized” niche. Here are two graphs depicting the distributions of two spider species from a recently published paper: Related questions are on the next two pages… BIO317 Exam #2 p. 2/8 A. Which of the two figures on the previous page depicts niche partitioning? Explain your reasoning. (Max 200 words) BIO317 Exam #2 p. 3/6 Question 1 continued… B. Is the spatial distribution of a species a direct representation of its realized niche? Explain, drawing on at least two different readings from the class. BIO317 Exam #2 p. 4/8 Question 2: You developed a MaxEnt model for the distribution of a species and saw the human element to developing models and interpreting their output. Here is an example output from a MaxEnt model for a population of the Brown Bear in Eurasia (aka Grizzly Bear in the USA). A. Interpret the response curves to describe where Brown Bears are more likely to be found and explain why there isn’t ever a 100% chance of finding a Brown Bear, even under those conditions. BIO317 Exam #2 p. 5/6 Question 2 continued… B. Lawton (1999) proposes several laws of ecology, including that “organisms interact with one another (no species, anywhere in nature, lives in splendid isolation) and with their environment” (#5). Are the results of this model empirical support for this law? Another way of asking: how do the model results relate to what’s really going on in nature? Explain, drawing on at least one reading. BIO317 Exam #2 p. 6/8 Question 3: Species interact, and we expect that this will affect how they occupy their niche. Here are three models of the relationship between the fundamental and realized niche that may arise from species interactions: A. How could positive and negative species interactions (e.g., mutualism versus competition) affect the fundamental versus realized niche? Explain, relating both types of interactions to the drawings above and relating them to at least one of the readings from the course. BIO317 Exam #2 p. 7/6 Question 3 continued… B. How can both positive and negative species interactions (e.g., mutualism versus competition) lead to biodiversity? Explain, drawing on at least one of the readings from the course. BIO317 Exam #2 p. 8/8 The Influence of Interspecific Competition and Other Factors on the Distribution of the Barnacle Chthamalus Stellatus Author(s): Joseph H. Connell Source: Ecology, Vol. 42, No. 4 (Oct., 1961), pp. 710-723 Published by: Ecological Society of America Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1933500 Accessed: 15/01/2009 23:07 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=esa. Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995 to build trusted digital archives for scholarship. We work with the scholarly community to preserve their work and the materials they rely upon, and to build a common research platform that promotes the discovery and use of these resources. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Ecological Society of America is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Ecology. http://www.jstor.org Nordic Society Oikos Are There General Laws in Ecology? Author(s): John H. Lawton Reviewed work(s): Source: Oikos, Vol. 84, No. 2 (Feb., 1999), pp. 177-192 Published by: Wiley on behalf of Nordic Society Oikos Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3546712 . Accessed: 07/03/2013 13:21 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. . Wiley and Nordic Society Oikos are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Oikos. http://www.jstor.org This content downloaded on Thu, 7 Mar 2013 13:21:17 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions OIKOS 84: 177-192. Copenhagen1999 Are theregenerallaws in ecology? JohnH. Lawton FopoS A. 03 . 4~ Lawton,J.H. 1999.Aretheregenerallawsin ecology?- Oikos84: 177-192. formulation basedon a seriesof The dictionary definition ofa law is: "Generalized eventsor processes observedto recurregularly undercertainconditions; a widely I arguethatecologyhas numerous lawsin thissenseof the observable tendency". in nature, buthardlyanylaws repeatable patterns word,in theformofwidespread, inotherwords,ecological andthelaws, patterns thatareuniversally true.Typically, involved, on theorganisms thatunderpin themarecontingent rulesandmechanisms is manageable at a relatively simplelevelof andtheirenvironment. Thiscontingency of singleand small dynamics ecologicalorganisation (forexamplethepopulation of species),and re-emerges also in a manageableformin largesetsof numbers in theformofdetail-free species,overlargespatialscales,or overlongtimeperiods, - recently called'macroecology'. Thecontingency becomesoverstatistical patterns ofcommunity ecology, at intermediate scales,characteristic whelmingly complicated and verylittleotherthanweak, wherethereare a largenumberof case histories, are illustrated on examplesof Thesearguments by focusing fuzzygeneralizations. on themacroecological incommunity andbywayofcontrast, studies ecology, typical and thesizeof theregional between local speciesrichness relationship thatemerges illustrated richness plotsis bylocalvs regional pattern poolofspecies.Theemergent of contingent and interactions processes extremely simple,despitethevastnumber lawsand rulesin nature, To discovergeneralpatterns, involvedin itsgeneration. tothe'middleground'ofcommunity ecologymayneedto paylessattention ecology, research lesson reductionism andexperimental manipulation, butincreasing relying intomacroecology. efforts . 0ko$ NERC Centrefor PopulationBiology,ImperialCollege at Silwood JohnH. LawtXton, Park, Ascot,Berkshire,UK SL5 7PY U.lawton@ic.ac.uk). and definitions Introduction Minireviewcould have been: Are therelaws in ecology?;the word "general" is redundant. Of coursethereare generallawsin ecology.However, Parts of science,areas of physicsfor instance,have fewuniversallaws.Mydictionarydeep universal laws, and ecology is deeply envious oursciencehasrather of thewordlaw. The because it does not. It has part ownershipof a few definitions givesseveraldifferent based universal laws, and I will say what they are in a is: "Generalizedformulation mostappropriate on a seriesof eventsor processesobservedto recur moment.In this essay I particularlywant to consider a widelyobservable why ecology does not have many universallaws, and undercertainconditions; regularly inthisdefinitionwhythegreatmajority,probablyall, of our actual laws Noticethatthereis nothing tendency". true;onlythat (in the senseof "widelyobservabletendencies")cannot to say thata law has to be universally laws are usuallytrue.In otherwordsthetitleof this simplybe derivedfromfirstprinciples,buildingon the This is an invitedMinireviewon the occasion of the 50th anniversaryof the Nordic Ecological SocietyOikos. CopyrightC OIKOS 1999 ISSN 0030-1299 Printedin Ireland - all rightsreserved 177 OIKOS 84:2 (1999) This content downloaded on Thu, 7 Mar 2013 13:21:17 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions universallaws. Ecology,incidentally, is not alone in this position;it is shared by many othercomplexparts of thebiologicalsciences,broadlydefined,and by geology. There are threedeep universallaws thatunderpinall ecological systems,a set of generalphysicalprinciples thatcan be groupedtogetherto constitutea fourthset of laws, and one 'law' so simplethatit is reallyno more than an observation.They are: 1. The firstand second laws of thermodynamics. a particularapplication 2. The rules of stoichiometry, of the universallaw that matter(in a non-nuclear world) cannot be created or destroyed,and the explanationforwhyalchemyis a dead profession. 3. Darwin's law of naturalselectionas an explanation forevolution. 4. The set of general physical principlesgoverning diffusionand transportof gasses and liquids, the mechanicalpropertiesof skinand bone, aerodynamics and hydrodynamics, etc.,thatsinglyor in combiof individual nationdefinelimitsto theperformance livingorganisms,and whichunderpinthe studyof plant and animal physiology. 5. The trivial,but importantobservationthat organismsinteractwithone another(no species,anywhere in nature,lives in splendidisolation)and withtheir environment. In deliberatelysimplifiedterms,it is 3-5 (and particularly 5) that make life difficultfor ecologistsseeking grand,unifyingtheories(GUTs), and whichmean that we live on a wonderfully complicatedbiologicalplanet. The universal laws do not allow us to predict the existenceof kangaroos;theyevolved(law 3), underthe influenceof myriadsof interactions(5), constrainedby laws 1, 2 and 4. Without being too prescriptive, let me now define some terms.Patternsare regularitiesin what we observe in nature; that is, they are "widely observable tendencies".These emergefromthe combinedactions of laws 1-4 and observation 5; when we seek to understandpatternsin ecology,a great deal of effort concentrateson tryingto cut throughthe Gordian knotscreatedby 3, 4 and 5. Althoughit is not actually consistentwith the dictionarydefinitionabove, most ecologiststhinkof laws and rulesas the generalprinciples that underpinand create the patterns,just as the laws (or rules) of sports and other games create rich patternsof humanactivity,but whywe can tellquickly whetherwe are watchinga hockeymatchor a football match.In manypeople's minds,laws are stronger, more fundamentaland more general than rules. The most usefulscientific laws yielddeep insightsinto the workings of nature; rules are less grand. Mechanismsare weakerstill;a mechanismor mechanismscan generate unique phenomena;but generalrules requirecommon mechanisms.Generalisation is a loose term,and implies somethingthat usually happens, be it a pattern,or a rule. Hypothesesand theoriesare attemptsto workout what the laws or rules are; hypothesesare more tentativethan theories,and extremely well establishedtheories eventuallytake on the mantle of laws and rules. Models are theoriesor hypothesesthat codifylaws or rules in mathematicalform. In ecology (and 1-5 above aside) our underlying laws and rulesare not universal.Because environments and are different, organismsare wonderfully different, the laws, rules and mechanismswe end up withvary with the circumstances,that is they are contingent. Contingentmeans "only trueunderparticularor stated circumstances".A contingentrule (or law) takes the form:ifA and B hold, thenX willhappen,but ifC and D hold, then Y will be the outcome. It followsthat patternswill also be contingent,and so will theory. Some of thecontingency may be 'historicalaccident'in its broadestsense,fromtheimpactof meteorites, to the vagariesof chance mutations. Notice that the same patterncan be generatedby different rules (patterndoes not imply process), and that the same underlyingrules (for example a mathematicalmodel) can generatedifferent patterns,depending upon the contingentdetails. Not everybodywill agree with the terminology definedhere.'Cope's law', 'Bergman'srule' and 'Rapoport'srule' are, in myterminology, patternsnot laws or rules,and not veryregularpatternsat that(e.g. Gaston et al. 1998a). Indeed theyraise the vexingproblemof how many exceptionsto generalpatternsmightexist beforewe would no longerregardthemas patterns,or at least usefulpatterns.I have no answerto that,and basicallyproposeto duck theissue,takingrefugein the commonsense view that a patternoughtto be trueat least in a majorityof cases, and preferably muchmore oftenthan this. Having scrubbedand polished the semanticdecks, we can now launch into the question.I will argue that ecology has plenty of (contingent)patterns,underpinnedby laws and rules,but to discoverusefulgeneralisationswe need to look at thecorrectscale. The most useful contingenttheory,and the boldest contingent patterns,emergeboth in relativelysimplesystems(e.g. populations),and in verylarge-scalesystems(speciesarea relations ...
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BIO317 Exam #2
You can use any and all resources for this exam; however, the words and ideas must be your own
because this is your education (and this in line with CUI academic honesty policies). That means:
• No working with others, including fellow students but also any other human being, on your
answers (do not share your potential answers, written work, or get feedback on it – but you can
ask me questions just like you might if the exam were in person)
• No quotes (but you can cite resources that helped you develop your ideas – you don’t need to go
beyond what we’ve read for class, but can – and include a works cited page that will not count
toward your word count)
The exam is as similar as possible to the first one given the change in format:
• The exam is still designed to be answered in 50 minutes, but there is no time restriction due to
the online nature and flux in everyone’s lives at this time. I expect that many of you will choose
to take longer, but my expectations will not change as to what a “good” answer is. If you are
spending more than a few hours, you are definitely over-doing it. Please note the word count
limits below.
• There are 3 questions, each with two parts. You are required to answer 2/3 and must only
include answers for 2/3 in your submission to Blackboard. If you answer 3/3, I’ll just grade the
first 2 questions.
• It is formatted with each part of each question having about 1 blank page in which to fit your
answer, but also a maximum word count of about 200 words (fairly equivalent to the max most
people could handwrite in a page) for each section since I expect most of you will end up typing
it.
• Download a copy of the exa...

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