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NU 459 MUW Educating Patients on Health Risks of Electronic Cigarettes Paper

nu 459

Mississippi University for Women

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I need help with a Nursing question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

I need a research design section completed for my research paper under Chapter 3 of the attached research paper. Please see the rubric attached for the qualifications of the research design. We will be conducting surveys for this research. So please write a statement about it.

NU 459 MUW Educating Patients on Health Risks of Electronic Cigarettes Paper
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Running head: ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES 1 Are Nurses Educating Patients on Health Risks of Electronic Cigarettes? Mrs. Kimberly Ball, Mrs. Karie Brown, Mrs. Sharon L. Cox, Mrs. Shelby Creely, Mrs. Madison Green, Mrs. Mary Lirette, Mrs. Jessi Miller, Mrs. Summer Morris, Mrs. Bethany Pruitt, and Mrs. Jody Witherspoon Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for 459: Theory/Research/EBP for The Professional Nurse I In the Baccalaureate of Nursing Program Mississippi University for Women February 3, 2020 ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES 2 Table of Contents Abstract ............................................................................................................................................4 Chapter I: Introduction .....................................................................................................................5 Origin of the Problem ..........................................................................................................5 Significance of the Problem for Nursing .............................................................................6 Problem Statement ...............................................................................................................7 Purpose of the Study ............................................................................................................8 Research Hypotheses...........................................................................................................9 Null Hypotheses.................................................................................................................10 Definition of Terms............................................................................................................10 Assumptions.......................................................................................................................11 Summary ............................................................................................................................12 Chapter II: Review of Literature ....................................................................................................13 Product use and Lung Injuries……..……..........................................................................13 Efficacy and Adverse Effects,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,....................................................................13 Harms of Vaping,,,,,,,,,.......................................................................................................13 Chapter III: Methodology and Research Design ...........................................................................14 Research Design.................................................................................................................15 Variables ............................................................................................................................16 Selection of Subjects and Research Setting .......................................................................17 Data Collection Instruments ..............................................................................................18 Statistical Analysis .............................................................................................................19 Data Collection Procedure .................................................................................................20 ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES 3 Limitations .........................................................................................................................21 Chapter IV: Results of the Study ...................................................................................................14 Original Hypothesis ...........................................................................................................15 Findings from Similar Research Studies............................................................................16 Contradictory Findings ......................................................................................................17 Limitations and Intervening Variables...............................................................................18 Alterations ..........................................................................................................................19 Serendipitous Findings.......................................................................................................20 Statistical Analysis .............................................................................................................21 Chapter V: Summary......................................................................................................................22 Conclusions ........................................................................................................................22 Implications........................................................................................................................23 Recommendations ..............................................................................................................23 References ......................................................................................................................................24 Appendices .....................................................................................................................................26 Appendix A ........................................................................................................................23 Appendix B ........................................................................................................................23 ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES 4 Abstract Begin typing abstract in block format. Check APA for appropriate content depending on type of paper. This will be written in your last semester NU 464. ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES 5 Are Nurses Educating Patients on the Health Risk of Electronic Cigarettes? Electronic cigarettes have come to the forefront of many reviews about their dangers and effects on the consuming population. The significance of the dangers associated with consumption of the vapors from the cigarette are researched in this article. Electronic cigarettes were originally designed to help withdraw from nicotine; however, the popularity of the devices has grown with a variety of age groups. The research looks at the popularity of the device, along with the dangers of the effects on the consumer. There is concern that the popularity of electronic cigarettes will lead to more addiction by normalizing smoking. The nursing profession is at the forefront of this epidemic. We will research whether nurses assess for use of the electronic cigarettes with patients along with their confidence in educating the patients of the dangers of electronic cigarettes and the cessation of consumption. Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 1 involves understanding who is affected by using electronic cigarettes or “vaping.” This chapter also notes how these effects relate to nursing and why it is important. Nurses should consider the need for this knowledge to be able to properly educate patients on the risk involved with vaping. As with other forms of inhaling vapors, there is a risk involved when introducing particles into the lungs. By studying the effects of vaping, the proper labels can be applied to packaging to allow the public to know the risks of using the product. Origin of the Problem Cigarette smoking has undergone significant evolution, an aspect that has seen cigarette smokers turning to electronic cigarettes (EC). According to Hajek, Jean-Francois, Neal, Eissenberg, and McRobbie (2014), EC are devices that are designed to deliver nicotine without ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES 6 tobacco smoke through a process of heating a solution of nicotine, additives, flavoring, and propylene glycol. Hajek et al. (2014) further point out that competition has led to a rapid evolution of EC as well as an increased number of manufacturers and EC models. The increased popularity of EC among smokers has been linked to the urge by smokers to reduce the risk of smoking (Hajek et al., 2014). Despite their increased use by smokers, concerns have been raised regarding the potentially harmful health effects of the EC. In emphasis of this assertion, Hajek et al. (2014) mention that the proponents of EC restrictions hold the belief that the product can potentially increase cigarette use by re-normalizing smoking. This group of individuals suggests that EC should be banned entirely, or stricter controls imposed regarding its use. EC advocates, on the other hand, believe that the product can potentially reduce cigarette smoking or even allow smokers to use a safer product (Hajek et al., 2014). Based on this information, it can be noted that there exist contradicting perceptions regarding EC with some previous research evidence supporting that EC increases smoking habits while other research has proven that the use of EC helps to reduce smoking or give smokers a safer product. These contradicting research studies regarding EC supports the need for nurses to focus on assessing and educating patients of EC use and potential health risks. Significance of the Problem for Nursing According to Hajek et al. (2014), an increasing number of youth and adults are exploring electronic cigarettes. Initially developed with the intent of creating a safer, less harmful way to inhale nicotine and aide with smoking cessation, vaping has not lived up to its expectations. Nurses must address this rising epidemic head-on. Nurses must provide patient care to those who have been adversely affected by the toxins, addictions, and misuse of electronic cigarettes. As front-line patient advocates, nurses have a responsibility to stay informed by reviewing the most ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES 7 current evidence-based literature. By educating themselves, nurses can then help identify EC use through assessment and inform patients on the negative impact vaping can have on one's health. The field of healthcare, including nursing, has a responsibility to emphasize smoking and nicotine cessation. Members of the healthcare field must identify and implement strategies, such as patient education, to illuminate the undesirable health trends associated with vaping. Disciplines must work together to combat the growing addiction, use, misuse, and health issues associated with this ever-increasing plague. Problem Statement Are nurses assessing for electronic cigarette use among patients, and if so, are nurses educating patients on health risk of electronic cigarettes? Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to determine if nurses are assessing for the use of electronic cigarettes among patients and educating on the health risk of electronic cigarette use. Research Hypothesis Nurses are assessing for the use of electric cigarettes among patients and educating on the health risk of electronic cigarettes use. Null Hypothesis Nurses are not assessing for the use of electric cigarettes among patients and educating on the health risk of electronic cigarette use. Definition of Terms For the purpose of this study, the following terms have been defined: 1) Electronic Cigarettes-A cigarette-shaped device containing a nicotine-based liquid that is vaporized and inhaled, used to simulate the experience of smoking tobacco. (Merriam- ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES 8 Webster, 2020) 2) Liquid Ingredients- it may contain nicotine, as well as varying compositions of flavorings, propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin, and other ingredients. (MerriamWebster, 2020) 3) Harm-to damage or injure physically or mentally: to cause harm. (Merriam-Webster, 2020) 4) Users-one that uses. (Merriam-Webster, 2020) 5) Bystanders-one who is present but not taking part in a situation or event: a chance spectator. (Merriam-Webster, 2020) 6) Inhalation-the act or an instance of inhaling. (Merriam-Webster, 2020) 7) ingestion-The act or process of taking in something for or as if for digestion: the act or process for ingesting something. (Merriam-Webster, 2020) Assumptions 1. Initially, electronic cigarettes were produced as a safer way to smoke compared to that of tobacco cigarettes. 2. After a few years on the market, some electronic cigarette users began to experience harmful side effects, even fatal. 3. The community requires further education from medical professionals regarding the harms of vaping. 4. Nurses can provide education to the community on the harms of electronic cigarettes and vaping obtained from evidence-based practice. 5. Nurses should encourage vaping cessation to electronic cigarette users to prevent potentially harmful side effects. ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES 9 Summary Electronic cigarettes have become popular among not only patients trying to stop smoking traditional cigarettes, but our youth and non-smokers as well. Since research has shown that there are negative effects of electronic cigarette use, it is important to educate patients about the harmful effects of vaping. Many patients are unaware of the harmful toxins in vaping products and the potential for addiction to nicotine and therefore, misuse may occur. With the use of evidence-based practice, nurses can educate patients about the importance of vaping cessation. It is imperative to advocate for our patients and ensure patients have the proper education regarding the harmful side effects of vaping. It is also imperative that the nursing profession examine their own knowledge on the subject, in order to be beneficial to the people in which nurses care for. Chapter II: Review of Literature Electronic cigarette use has had a drastic increase since first being sold on the US market in 2007 (Payne, Orellana- Barrios, Medrano- Juarez, Buscemi, & Nugent, 2016). With the increase in use, there comes the need for healthcare workers to research and devise a plan of care for the growing population of individuals that are partaking in electronic cigarette use. A review of literature was conducted utilizing evidence-based practice to identify the use, content, safety, adverse effects, potential harm, media involvement, and benefits of electronic cigarettes. The intent of this review of literature is to support or dispute the statement; electronic cigarettes and the liquid ingredients cause harm to users and bystanders upon inhalation or ingestion. The educational value of the information obtained in the research will further help nurses to educate the consumers of the negative impacts of electronic cigarettes. Product Use and Lung Injuries ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES 10 According to Ellington et al. (2020), "CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders continue to investigate a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use–associated lung injury (EVALI)". This investigation was conducted in 2019 to explore the "demographic characteristics, substances used, and product sources among hospitalized cases of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use–associated lung injury (EVALI) reported to CDC in the United States" (Ellington et al., 2020). According to the investigation, e-cigarette, vaping, product use– associated lung injury (EVALI) patients nationwide reported the use of e-cigarettes containing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or products laced with nicotine (Ellington et al., 2020). The CDC's investigation revealed that vaping products were obtained from formal and informal suppliers. According to Ellington et al. (2020), formal suppliers include recreational dispensaries, medical dispensaries, or both; vape or smoke shops; stores; and pop-up shops and informal suppliers include friends, family, in-person or online dealers, or other sources. The CDC collected data from each states' health department to analyze vaping related incidences from August 2019 through January 2020 (Ellington et al., 2020). During this period, several vaping related lung injuries and deaths involving products obtained mainly from informal sources occurred. Adolescents aged 13–17 years were more likely to acquire both THC- and nicotine-containing products from informal sources than other age groups (Ellington et al., 2020). Lab testing identified the primary link associated with lung injury as the Vitamin E acetate additives present in THC-containing e-cigarette or vaping products (Ellington et al., 2020). Because of this vast incidence, FDA investigated the products obtained from 73 EVALI patients; 79% of them had at least one product test positive for THC; among those, 78% had at least one product test positive ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES 11 for vitamin E acetate. According to Ellington et al. (2020), to prevent possible injuries related to e-cigarette use, the CDC recommends consumers avoid the use of this product. Efficacy and Adverse Effects Electronic cigarette use has had a drastic increase since first being sold on the US market. With the increase in use, there comes the need for healthcare workers to research and devise a plan of care for the growing population of individuals that are partaking in electronic cigarette use. A review of literature was conducted utilizing evidence-based practice to identify the use, content, safety, adverse effects, potential harm, media involvement, and benefits of electronic cigarettes. The intent of this review of literature is to portray the use of electronic cigarettes and the liquid ingredients cause harm to users and bystanders upon inhalation or ingestion. The study conducted by Ellington et al. (2020) was to explore the product, substance-use, and demographic characteristics of hospitalized patients in a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarettes in the United States. Ellington et al. (2020) studied e-cigarette vaping product use–associated lung injury (EVALI) patients nationwide reported the use of e-cigarettes containing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or products laced with nicotine. Ellington’s et al. (2020) article revealed that vaping products were obtained from formal and informal suppliers. According to Ellington et al. (2020), formal suppliers include recreational dispensaries, medical dispensaries, or both; vape or smoke shops; stores; and pop-up shops and informal suppliers include friends, family, in-person or online dealers, or other sources. Data was analyzed from each state’s health department reports of vaping related incidences to the CDC from August 2019 through January 2020. During this period, several vaping related lung injuries and deaths involving products obtained mainly from informal sources occurred. Adolescents aged 13–17 years were more likely to acquire both THC- and nicotine-containing products from informal sources than other ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES 12 age groups (Ellington et al., 2020). Lab testing identified the primary link associated with lung injury as the Vitamin E acetate additives present in THC-containing e-cigarette or vaping products (Ellington et al., 2020). Because of this vast increase of electronic cigarette usage, the FDA investigated the products obtained from 73 EVALI patients; 79% of them had at least one product test positive for THC; among those, 78% had at least one product test positive for vitamin E acetate. According to Ellington et al. (2020), to prevent possible injuries related to ecigarette use, the CDC recommends consumers avoid the use of this product. The study conducted by Gualano et al. (2014) had a goal to discover if there is a benefit to the use of electronic cigarettes compared to the use of cigarettes and to determine the adverse effects of use over a period. The study's purpose is to see if the use of electronic cigarettes gave smokers a long-term solution to quit smoking or if smokers were more likely to relapse and return to cigarettes. In this study, researchers used samples taken ...
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Running head: ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES

Are Nurses Educating Patients on Health Risks of Electronic Cigarettes?
Mrs Kimberly Ball, Mrs Karie Brown, Mrs Sharon L. Cox, Mrs Shelby Creely, Mrs Madison
Green, Mrs Mary Lirette, Mrs Jessi Miller, Mrs Summer Morris, Mrs Bethany Pruitt, and Mrs
Jody Witherspoon

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for
459: Theory/Research/EBP for The Professional Nurse I
In the Baccalaureate of Nursing Program
Mississippi University for Women
February 3, 2020

1

ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES

2
Table of Contents

Abstract ............................................................................................................................................4
Chapter I: Introduction .....................................................................................................................5
Origin of the Problem ..........................................................................................................5
Significance of the Problem for Nursing .............................................................................6
Problem Statement ...............................................................................................................7
Purpose of Study ..................................................................................................................8
Research Hypotheses...........................................................................................................9
Null Hypotheses.................................................................................................................10
Definition of Terms............................................................................................................10
Assumptions.......................................................................................................................11
Summary ............................................................................................................................12
Chapter II: Review of Literature ....................................................................................................13
Product use and Lung Injuries………..…..........................................................................13
Efficacy and Adverse Effects……………….....................................................................13
Harms of Vaping……........................................................................................................13
Chapter III: Methodology and Research Design ...........................................................................14
Research Design.................................................................................................................15
Variables ............................................................................................................................16
Selection of Subjects and Research Setting .......................................................................17
Data Collection Instruments ..............................................................................................18
Statistical Analysis .............................................................................................................19
Data Collection Procedure .................................................................................................20

ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES

3

Limitations .........................................................................................................................21
Chapter IV: Results of the Study ...................................................................................................14
Original Hypothesis ...........................................................................................................15
Findings from Similar Research Studies............................................................................16
Contradictory Findings ......................................................................................................17
Limitations and Intervening Variables...............................................................................18
Alterations ..........................................................................................................................19
Serendipitous Findings.......................................................................................................20
Statistical Analysis .............................................................................................................21
Chapter V: Summary......................................................................................................................22
Conclusions ........................................................................................................................22
Implications........................................................................................................................23
Recommendations ..............................................................................................................23
References ......................................................................................................................................24
Appendices .....................................................................................................................................26
Appendix A ........................................................................................................................23
Appendix B ........................................................................................................................23

ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES

4
Abstract

Begin typing abstract in block format. Check APA for appropriate content depending on the type
of paper. This will be written in your last semester NU 464.

ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES

5

Are Nurses Educating Patients on the Health Risk of Electronic Cigarettes?
Electronic cigarettes have come to the forefront of many reviews about their dangers and
effects on the consuming population. The significance of the dangers associated with the
consumption of the vapors from the cigarette is researched in this article. Electronic cigarettes
were originally designed to help withdraw from nicotine; however, the popularity of the devices
has grown with a variety of age groups. The research looks at the popularity of the device, along
with the dangers of the effects on the consumer. There is concern that the popularity of electronic
cigarettes will lead to more addiction by normaliz...

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