HIST 2702 University of Denver Mau Uprising in Kenya Paper

HIST 2702

University of Denver


Question Description

I’m studying for my History class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

Please read the instructions very carefully from the file titled "2702 research proposal paper," and follow the instructions accordingly. The paper should be 3-4 pages single spaced (or 7-8 pages double spaced), and the citations must follow the instructions from the "Turabian2009" file attached below. You may only used the approved sources attached for citations ( I can't attach them all here so I will upload the rest when the bid is accepted). The paper is meant to be a research PROPOSAL paper, meaning that the paper should analyze the sources and answer the following questions: 1. Can you find enough documentation in the archives available to write a good historical paper on the topic? 2. Of the sources included, what do they reveal about the topic? 3. What aspect of the event or issue (Mau Mau Uprising in Kenya is chosen topic) are not covered by these databases? 4. How has this issue resonated in Modern British society and/ or the place under discussion (Kenya)? *** I need this by Monday at 12pm EST (March 23rd, 2020) at the latest, and will pay a LARGE amount for a good essay!!!! *** $$$

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Winter 2020 HIST 2702: Topics: The British Empire Research Paper Proposal Kreider Paper Due Friday March 13th via Canvas. 25% of grade. Can be turned in early! One of the big themes of this course has been the continued debates in contemporary British society over the legacy of the British Empire and how to deal with its repercussions. Think the issues over the camps in Kenya and reparations for the Mau Mau victims in Elkins as an example. One big part of those debates has been the availability of historical documentation and evidence of what happened, who has access to that evidence, and how the government has hidden or revealed those documents. Thus this assignment asks you to gather evidence on an issue both at the time of a major event, and in more recent British society through the press. You are to prepare a typed, footnoted, double-spaced, 6-7 page paper, in which you identify at least 5 historical sources and 3 contemporary ones and explain how you would use them to write a historical research paper on the topic. Please focus on post 1850, either Africa, India, or Australasia. First go to the library website and hit the Databases A-Z link. Find the below databases and look for something on your topic, if you have picked one already. Alternatively, you might just go to the Empire Online and start browsing…if I were you I’d narrow it down by region first (click on the buttons on the left) and years. See what is there that might interest you. You can also narrow the search by collection/theme. Peggy Keeran peggy.keeran@du.edu can help you in the library. Empire Online http://libguides.du.edu/az.php?a=e Click on Empire ONline British and Irish Women's Letters and Diaries Spans more than 400 years of personal writings, bringing together the voices of women from England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales. British Library Newspapers, 1732-1950 Alternative Name(s) & Keywords: 19th Century British Newspapers More than 160 regional and local newspapers, held by the British Library, published in Britain between the mid-eighteenth- mid-twentieth centuries. British Online Archives Documents on British Foreign Policy Overseas British Periodicals Provides access to the searchable full text of hundreds of periodicals from the late seventeenth century to mid twentieth, comprising millions of high-resolution facsimile page images. This is a research proposal paper, identifying the sources you would use and what you hope they reveal. Along with how this the more modern articles reveal the significance of the issue you are investigating. Questions to address in your paper: Can you find enough documentation in the archives available to you to write a good historical paper on the topic? Of the sources you are including, what do they reveal about the topic? What aspect of the event or issue are not covered in these databases? How has this issue resonated in modern British society and/or the place under discussion? Please remember, you are making an argument. Use complete sentences and organize your paper. Please PROOFREAD your work, I cannot evaluate and award your great ideas and argument if I cannot understand what you are trying to say! I am happy to go over an early draft with you. Use footnotes, and the Turabian/Chicago Manual of Style to cite your sources and where they can be found. 12 point Times New Roman Font, double spaced, standard 1” margins. The Indian “Mutiny” of 1857 Women’s Treatment in Africa (African or British) Imperial Troops in WWI Boer War Camps Mau Mau Uprising in Kenya Indian Labor in Africa and migration to UK Medical contributions of Empire Resource exploitation in Africa Independence movements in Africa Rhodesian crisis Kikuyu crisis Amritsar Massacre 1919 Gallipoli Tasmanian genocide Repatriation of artifacts (Elgin Marbles) Gen. Gordon at Khartoum Gideon Were Publications THE TRUTH ABOUT THE MAU MAU MOVEMENT: THE MOST POPULAR UPRISING IN KENYA Author(s): Mwangi Wa-Githumo Source: Transafrican Journal of History, Vol. 20 (1991), pp. 1-18 Published by: Gideon Were Publications Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/24520300 Accessed: 15-03-2020 23:01 UTC JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at https://about.jstor.org/terms Gideon Were Publications is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Transafrican Journal of History This content downloaded from on Sun, 15 Mar 2020 23:01:05 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms THE TRUTH ABOUT THE MAU MAU MOVEMENT: THE MOST POPULAR UPRISING IN KENYA Mwangi Wa-Githumo Accepted December 2 1989 Abstract Between World War I and World War II there developed deep sentiment within the ranks of some of the Kenya's proto-nationalists that the political, economic and educational aspirations of the people of Kenya could never be realized short of organized armed action. Between 1946 and 1952 this sentiment was translated into the creation of a movement, which later came to be known as the Mau Mau. The history of the Mau Mau movement is, therefore, inextricably the history of the struggle for the return of all lands that had been expropriated from Kenya's agrarian and pastoral communities at gun point by European empire-builders, commercial companies and settlers. It was the first revolt in colonial Kenya to seek workers' and peasants' support in an organized manner. The popular view of the meaning of the Mau Mau movement was reinforced in its early stages by a series of political and religious awakenings through oath-taking as well as patriotic songs, which the colonial authorities characterized as seditious: The Mau Mau freedom fighters' attitudes toward Britain's incursion and vampirism in Kenya, as well as her draconian land ordinances further contributed to the idiosyncratic nature of the Mau Mau movement. These freedom fighters believed, and many shared their beliefs, that the colonial land and labour policies and their accompanying legislations were dispecably riddled with hypocrisy, repression and bigotry. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief but incisive picture of the Mau Mau Movement. The article is not a historical treatise on the movement, but it does direct attention to that history by emphasizing political, economic and social concerns of the past. Those who oppress do not respond to petitions, demonstrations, and the demands of the oppressed. The oppressor murders at his leisure and does not cease until the oppressed, recognizing that the oppressor has not right to oppress, assert their right to live by using the only language the oppressor has ever used and the only language that he understands — the Transafri' an Journal of History. Vol. '20. 1991 1-18 This content downloaded from on Sun, 15 Mar 2020 23:01:05 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms 1 The Truth about the Mau Man Movement sound of gunfire, the sound of dynamite, the sound of his own death in his ear. —Julius Lester (1970) Revolutionary Not New York: Grove Press Although it is not intended to trace the entire history of the Mau Mau uprising, or to tell its full nature in any detail here, a few facts should be noted about this movement, for it will help our understanding of some of the aspects of African nationalism, as well as the politics of land in Kenya.1 It must also be realized that Kenya was the only British colony in Africa whose economic and racial policies, as well as land question paralleled those of Rhodesia and South Africa. It therefore occupies a significant position in the study of nationalist movements in Africa. The first of these facts is that viewed from both unbiased and an appropriate angle, the most dynamic aspect of African nationalism in Kenya has been the Mau Mau uprising. It was a revolutionary and military response to the imperialists' incursions, aggression, land expropriation, as well as the exploitation of the Africans' natural and human resources. Although the movement did not reach its height until 1952, it had began long before it became an identifiable and cohesive movement. Not only did the movement grow out of land grievances as reflected by and articulated in persistent demands and militant agitation of the proto-nationalist organizations of the early 1920's, but the movement also reflected political realities which became more permanent in the struggle for political and economic independence in Kenya. This is one of the reasons why the movement resolutely challenged the propensity of the so-called white settlers, who had persistently and stubbornly refused Africans to share with them the very best lands which .they had expropriated and which belonged to Africans by right. Most important, the movement questioned the professed legal rights and justification which the British settlers used when they unilaterally declared Kenya in 1915 a 'white man's country' at least for 999 years, during which period no economic or political changes were to take place, especially if those changes were intended to improve the economic status or the lot of the black peoples of Kenya.2 One of the earliest and leading roles that the Mau Mau movement played in the struggle for Kenya's Independence was to politicize and to mobilize the agrarian sectors in Kenya in order to shape their political awareness and economic thinking, and to set the stage for future national consciousness of the whole country. It was this consciousness which passionately stirred the peasants of Kenya out of decades of somnolence that was characterized by passivity and docility. Not only was this awakening vital and inevitable, but it also helped, in the long run, to stimulate a growing and militant sense of human dignity in one's 2 This content downloaded from on Sun, 15 Mar 2020 23:01:05 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms 'Vransafrvan Journal of History land hitherto experienced in cdlonial Kenya. Thanks to the courageous Mau Mau freedom-fighters who exerted with a balanced virtuosity the deepest intensity of conscious influence among the rural population, especially in the Central and the Rift Valley Provinces, thus making an uprising inevitable. It is also true that the Mau Mau movement was the logical and the most observable peak of the agrarian nationalist sentiments, whose political and economic grievances had their roots in the land question that goes back to the 1890's. Analytically, when compared with other nationalist movements that affected Kenya in the colonial period, the Mau Mau movement was the most revolutionary, sophisticated and the most effective nationalist movement ever launched in Kenya against British colonialism in general and land expropriation in particular between 1952 and 1956. Equally important, it was the most dynamic movement that successfully dismantled the repressive feudal-like colonial policies that had guided Kenya throughout its years of colonial disaster, thus disintegrating the settler-dominated slavocratic system of economy and government, both of which unalterably embraced the colonial land policies. The Mau Mau revolt was part of a fabric of audacious action which caused the brain of the adamant and entrenched European settlers to reel. The movement provided maximum political leverage to the united Mau Mau freedom-fighters. Unquestionaby, the Mau Mau uprising of the 1950's marked the highest point of the nationalist temper and potential of the black man's revolutionary struggle for his lost land. The uprising was an explosion that came about after a long process of subjugation and ruthless exploitation of Kenya's human and natural resources by European imperialists. It should also be emphasized at this juncture that no preparation for eventual independence for Kenya had ever been made by the British Government before the Mau Mau rebellion. Consequently, for those of us who looked to radical nationalist movements as the hope for the future of Kenya, the Mau Mau revolution marked not only a turning point in Kenya's political history, but also the most important period for celebration. The movement was also a conscionable call upon the British Government, the colonial administration, as well as the recalcitrant European settlers in Kenya, who were themselves guilty of excessive voraciousness and of an agregious abuse of African land rights, to correct their racist and prejudiced attitudes toward the African peoples and owners of the land that they were unconscionably prostituting and, at the same time, to heed the cry of the unjustly assaulted and deprived peasants. The basic character of the Mau nationalists was that they were from the beginning imbued with the idea of wiping out colonial rule from Kenya roots and branches. The Mau Mau nationalists themselves were fundamentally and consciously connected with the ongoing agrarian efforts of the 1890's through 3 This content downloaded from on Sun, 15 Mar 2020 23:01:05 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms The Truth about the Mau Mau Movement 1930's to cast off the settlers' economic and political domination in order to take charge of their own land, as well as of other political and economic affairs. One of the most notable contributions of the Mau Mau movement to the overall nationalist sentiments was that it stirred the slumbering parts of Kenya in uncontrollable fires and flames of national consciousness.24 The Mau Mau freedom-fighters pursued their struggle for the stolen lands in a manner that was commensurate with the entire framework of the people's needs, the needs which were purely broad-based upon the people's expectation and will. The martyred Mau Mau freedom-fighters and the concept of land rights were the fundamental and ideological guide as well as inspirer of the Mau Mau movement itself. The Mau Mau freedom-fighters were also imbued with a revolutionary commitment and vehemence which made them willing to sacrifice their lives in the cause of 'land or death'. Objectively, the Mau Mau movement was the most articulate public spokesman for African peasants yearning for the restoration of their forcibly and illegally obliterated land rights. In truth, before the Mau Mau freedom-fighters registered their grievance, this yearning seemed a dim and distant reality in a Country where economic, political and judicial powers were in the hands of the white minority, and where the majority of the black peoples remained at the mercy of the white man's claws and teeth. Given the greed and the appetite of the white settlers, the Mau Mau freedom fighters knew that the white man was not in a position to hand the lost land back to the black peoples of Kenya on a platter. The success of the Mau Mau movement in politicizing, mobilizing and revolutionizing the rural masses in the Kikuyu, as well as its armed victories over the British troops and their African puppets had a profound psychological effect on Kenya as a whole, despite settlers' efforts to characterize the movement as a purely Kikuyu agitation. The distortion and misinterpretation of the authentic aims of the Mau Mau movement in Kenya stemmed primarily from the lack of understanding, hypocrisy and racial biases on the part of the Europeans about the changes which were taking place in East Africa, especially during the period following World War II. The growth of nationalist movements in Kenya was regarded by most European settlers as an expression of deviant behaviour — something that could never lead to any political equality between Africans and Europeans.25 As for an example, commenting on Kikuyu nationalism in Kenya, two Western writers, namely E. Stillman and W. Pfaff, have described the Mau Mau movement and the entire Kikuyu nationalist movement as a nonpolitical phenomenon, characterized by 'terrible atavism and barbarity' and as 'a savage revenge which sought escape in a pathological violence that had no real objective'.26 As J.C. MacLean righdy observed in (Africa: The Racial Issue, vol. 26, No. 1, 1954), press 4 This content downloaded from on Sun, 15 Mar 2020 23:01:05 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms Transqfrican Journal of History dispatches from Nairobi during the Mau Mau movement stated that European setders refused to place much weight on economic motives, 'preferring to characterize Mau Mau as an atavistic phenomenon, yet Africas could list a number of Kikuyu grievances, political, economic, and land-hunger, without compensating opportunities and instances where the white community had had successfully interceded with the Colonial Office to retard African political representation'. The truth about the Mau Mau movement was that in addition to fighting for land and freedom and against other forces that embraced exploitative capitalist inherent ideology, the movement served as a voice which spoke loud and clear for immediate national independence that was to be followed by full economic liberty and full rights for constructive political participation, without first making political or economic accomodation with the oppressive British imperialists. The most disturbing and equally inescapable fact, which most biased Western writers who have written about the Mau Mau movement appear to have been unable to see or to admit is that the economic frustrations and the brutalization of the political organizations of black Africans in Kenya were the work of the colonial administration itself, that significantly precipitated the upheavals of the colonial era. Evidently, it was their short-sightedness and biased attitudes toward the black peoples as well as toward their nationalist movements which prevented some of the Western writers, such as Edmund Stillman and William PfafT, from seeing that it was the unsympathetic European settlers, with their discriminatory economic and political policies and racist institutions, who had created and perpetuated subhuman conditions under which the black man was forced to serve the white man. For one to characterize the African struggle against colonialism as terrible atavism and, at the same time, to rationalize the oppressive and equally racist behaviour of the white setder is not only incredible, but it is also nothing short of monstrous. Stillman and PfafT and those who share their arguments and beliefs would have been accurate had they been able to observe that the behaviour of the white setders had undoubtedly created a breeding ground for the Mau Mau movement, and that it was the white community in Kenya that was responsible for the racial and economic pathology of colonial Kenya. Specifically land robbery and forced labour in Kenya between 1901 and 1939 produced a nationalist independence movement that nourished the spirit of the nationalist groups all over Kenya. Because of this spirit, the Mau Mau freedom fighters and their sympathizers were not only hated by most Europeans, but they were also projected as irresponsible terrorist guerrillas without genuine support from the masses. This was a wrong and biased projection. While the avowed purpose of the Mau Mau movement was to secure the return of the stolen lands, the British used their deadly and sophisticated guns and bombs to suppress the 5 This content downloaded from on Sun, 15 Mar 2020 23:01:05 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms The Truth about the Mau Mau Movement movement, charging that the Mau Mau revolt was characteri ...
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Final Answer


Mau Uprising in Kenya
1. Availability of Enough Documentation
2. What Sources Revel about the Topic
3. Aspects of the Topic Not Covered
4. Resonance of the Topic in Modern Kenyan Society
5. Bibliography

Mau Uprising in Kenya

Students’ name

Professor’s Name

Mau Uprising in Kenya
Availability of Enough Documentation
After several hours evaluating the British imperial documents, as discussed below, it
proved that there exist sufficient materials and documentation in the archives available to write
an excellent historical paper. While the selected sources, as discussed below, offer the state-ofthe-art background of account of the colonial authorities’ activities in Kenya, they also explain
the reasons prompting different revolts and rebellion. Also, all the sources have contributed to
the understanding of the uprising and revolution in the country during the period 1952 through
1964. According to the historians highlighted in the following discussion, the pattern of the
Kenyan revolution characterized people's resentments, leading to the struggle for equality, reacquisition of land, and gain independence. The authors also offer the conditions in that
prevailed in Kenya, especially beginning in 1952, and the years before the formation of the Mau
uprising in the country. While the colonial regime formed a system of labour for its white people
and other settles, they drove away Kenyans from their ancestral lands, maimed them, and also
forced them into forced labour. In reiteration, Kenyans, especially the Kikuyus, created different
insurgent groups in attempts to support their families and acquire their land back. According to
the sources, for the years this system rained, Kenyans become more and more squatters and
slaves in their homeland.
What Sources Revel about the Topic
The sources obtained reveal a lot about the uprising, rebellion, and the British imperial
forces’ role in Kenya’s pre-independence period. Most of these sources link the colonial regime
with the sufferings and killings of people suspected as rebels. Featuring the years between 1952
and 1964, the uprising remains a disturbing part of the Kenyan history, a period when many

people bore cruelty and misery on the hands of the British colonizers.1 Among other areas, these
sources established sufficient documentation on this topic, investigated different camps, and
examined the deep-seated discriminations in the creation of these camps, especially as presented
by historian Caroline Elkins. By and large, racism thrived and developed into a common thing
that pigeonholed the colonial regime. During these years, the Kenyans went through events
would define their politics until today. For instance, in October 1952, the colonial government
declared the State of Emergency in search of those involved in the uprising. While the origins of
this group is unclear, it did emerge out of Kikuyu people's discontent with the government.2
The first documentation is that of Bennett, who talks about colonial Kenya and the
spirited efforts wedged by British colonizers to fight insurgents. He argues that for most of the
1950s, insurgents from the Mau movement created violence in Kenya. He also argued that the
uprising comprised three dominant groups in the country, ...

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