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MGT 324 SEU Public Management 311 Changes in Organization & New Technology Essay

MGT 324

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MGT

Question Description

I need help with a Management question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

GUIDELINES FOR DOING ASSIGNMENTS

We expect you to answer each question as per instructions in the assignment. You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:the assignment with be evaluated in terms of your planning, organization and the way you present your assignment. All the three section will carry equal weight

Kindly read the instruction carefully and prepare your assignment and submit to your teacher.

1) Planning: Read the assignments carefully, go through the units on which they are based. (Please read chapters 10 and 12). Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange them in a logical order.

2) Organisation: Be a little selective and analytical before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. Give adequate attention to question’s introduction and conclusion.

Make sure that:

a) The answer is logical and coherent

b) It has clear connections between sentences and paragraphs

c) The presentation is correct in your own expression and style.

3) Presentation: Once you are satisfied with your answer, you can write down the final version for submission. If you so desire, you may underlining the points you wish to emphasize. Make sure that the answer is within the stipulated word limit.

Wishing you all the best.

Assignment Question

Select any one of the public organisations you are familiar with and discuss how leadership plays a role in bringing smooth change in the organization and analyse the effectiveness of new technological applications adopted by it in dissemination of information to citizens and also the effectiveness of public service delivery.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

College of Administrative and Financial Sciences Assignment 3 Academic Year: 1440/1441 H Course Name: Public Management Student’s Name: Course Code: MGT 324 Student’s ID Number: Semester: II CRN: For Instructor’s Use only Instructor’s Name: Students’ Grade: Marks Obtained/Out of Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY • The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder. • Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted. • Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page. • Students must mention question number clearly in their answer. • Late submission will NOT be accepted. • Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. • All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. • Submissions without cover page will NOT be accepted. Assignment 3 Submission Date by students: Before the end of Week12 Place of Submission: Students Grade Centre via blackboard. Weight: 15 Marks CLO: Develop information technology skills for fast and effective means of communication to address business issues. (LO4.3) CLO: Apply different management and leadership styles for different situations (Lo 3.1) GUIDELINES FOR DOING ASSIGNMENTS We expect you to answer each question as per instructions in the assignment. You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind: the assignment with be evaluated in terms of your planning, organization and the way you present your assignment. All the three section will carry equal weight Kindly read the instruction carefully and prepare your assignment and submit to your teacher. 1) Planning: Read the assignments carefully, go through the units on which they are based. (Please read chapters 10 and 12). Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange them in a logical order. 2) Organisation: Be a little selective and analytical before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. Give adequate attention to question’s introduction and conclusion. Make sure that: a) The answer is logical and coherent b) It has clear connections between sentences and paragraphs c) The presentation is correct in your own expression and style. 3) Presentation: Once you are satisfied with your answer, you can write down the final version for submission. If you so desire, you may underlining the points you wish to emphasize. Make sure that the answer is within the stipulated word limit. Wishing you all the best. Assignment Question Select any one of the public organisations you are familiar with and discuss how leadership plays a role in bringing smooth change in the organization and analyse the effectiveness of new technological applications adopted by it in dissemination of information to citizens and also the effectiveness of public service delivery. Public Administration: An Introduction Marc Holzer, PhD Dean and Board of Governors Professor School of Public Affairs and Administration Rutgers University – Newark, New Jersey Richard W. Schwester, PhD Associate Professor John Jay College of Criminal Justice The City University of New York (CUNY) ROUTLEDGE Routledge Taylor & Francis Group LONDON AND NEW YORK First published 2011 by M.E. Sharpe Published 2015 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017, USA Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business Copyright © 2011 Taylor & Francis. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Notices No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use of operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility. Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. While every effort was made to contact copyright holders of the materials printed here, we apologize for any inadvertent omissions. If acknowledgement is missing, it would be appreciated if the publisher were contacted so that this can be rectified in any future edition. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Holzer, Marc. Public administration : an introduction / by Marc Holzer and Richard W. Schwester. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978–0–7656–2120–7 (pbk) 1. Public administration. 2. Public administration—Decision making. 3. Policy sciences. I. Schwester, Richard Wilmot, 1977– II. Title. JF1351.H65 2011 351—dc22 2010040045 About the Authors Marc Holzer Dean Holzer (MPA, PhD University of Michigan) is Dean of the School of Public Affairs and Administration, and Board of Governors Professor of Public Affairs and Administration, at Rutgers University's Newark Campus. He is a Fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration and a Past President of the American Society of Public Administration. Since 1975, he has directed the National Center for Public Performance, and he is the founder and editor-in-chief of the journals Public Performance and Management Review and Public Voices, and is the co-founder/co-editor of the Chinese Public Administration Review. He has also recently founded the Public Performance Measurement and Reporting Network. His research, service, and teaching has been honored by awards from the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration, the American Society of Public Administration, and the Chinese Public Administration Society. He has published well over one hundred books, monographs, chapters and articles. Richard W. Schwester Professor Schwester (MA, PhD Rutgers University) is an Associate Professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice at the City University of New York. His research interests include the use of technology in government, e-government, prison privatization, critical incidents, and inter-local shared services. Some of Professor Schwester’s most recent work appears in Public Budgeting and Finance, Public Performance and Management Review, Public Administration Quarterly, International Journal of Public Administration, and the International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior. Public Administration: An Introduction iii PREFACE We have written a textbook that is distinct from the dozens of public administration texts now in the academic marketplace. Our vision is a unique blend of substance and style—a text that is both informative and enlivening, capturing the evolving nature of the field. A unique aspect of this volume vis-à-vis other textbooks is the extensive use of visuals. Artwork depicts bureaucratic issues, reinforcing each chapter’s themes and creating an informative and aesthetically engaging textbook. Charts, graphs, diagrams, and illustrations add dimensions to the text’s overviews of public administration. Of course, this text covers the traditional, essential elements of public administration such as organizational theory, human resource management, leadership, program evaluation, budgeting, and the politics of public administration. But it strives to do so in a contemporary way, addressing, for example, the changing role of intergovernmental relations in Chapter 6, including the federalist structure as well as interlocal shared services and regional consolidation initiatives. Public performance is treated as an indispensable subfield of public administration. Chapter 7 is devoted to performance-related topics such as knowledge sharing and training, total quality management, performance measurement, and the social aspects of organizational performance. Although these topics may be present throughout traditional texts, they are usually scattered over several chapters, underemphasizing the importance of public performance. Given the current economic climate, a focus on efficiency and effectiveness is increasingly important in the field of public administration. The emergence of e-government and the growing role of technology in public administration are introduced in Chapter 12. Technology has and will continue to change the way we interact and transact business with government on a daily basis. This chapter delves into emerging technologies of knowledge management, Geospatial Information Systems (GIS), the use of Internet applications as participatory and service delivery media, 311 call centers, and computer mapping programs. As a departure from the more orthodox model typical of other texts, Chapter 13 of this book examines the field of public administration and public service through the lens of popular culture. Countering the all-too-common image of bumbling bureaucrats, this chapter demonstrates that dedicated public servants add a great deal of value to the services government has promised its citizens. This chapter also provides helpful resources for people interested in engaging with government and professional networks that address critical quality-of-life issues. iv PREFACE Each chapter is complemented by key terms and supplementary readings. Beyond those “standard” resources that are present in any introductory text, video cases and simulations offer a gateway to engaging students, encouraging them to immerse themselves in virtual problem solving experiences—testing theory and skills through real-time practical applications. Students are challenged to evaluate the actions and decisions of public administrators and elected officials based on the theoretical models and best practices provided in the specific chapter. These cases focus on single and multisector issues that allow for the best collaborative thinking of those students evaluating the problem. The simulations, also tailored to each chapter topic, offer students a place to apply theory to practice in a decisionmaking role rather than in an evaluative one as is with the case studies. Students will deal with issues related to unemployment, budgeting, the environment, crime, and education. These computer- and Internet-based learning tools allow students to test their decision-making skills and to evaluate the results of those decisions in a pure learning environment—applying theory to practice. All of the electronic resources are free to the user—avoiding additional costs to students and representing a sample of similarly accessible resources on the Web, YouTube, and other media outlets. This text, then, is very much a dynamic learning system rather than a static volume. We expect that it will not only enliven the teaching of public administration but will markedly improve the learning experience and help motivate students of public service to become problem-solving public servants. Our thanks to the team that helped us construct this text and whose research and critiques improved it immensely: Dan Bromberg, Peter Hoontis, Iryna Illiash, Jyldyz Kasymova, Anna Bolette Lind-Valdan, Emily Michaud, Yetunde Odugbesan, and Ginger Swiston. This book could not have been completed without the assistance of a number of dedicated individuals. In particular, we wish to thank Harry Briggs, Elizabeth Granda, Angela Piliouras, Stacey Victor, and Jim Wright. Public Administration: An Introduction v Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society . . . . . . . . 2 Government Requires Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 What Do We Get for All of These Resources? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 How Government Is Organized to Deliver Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 How Government Serves Others. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 What, Then, Is Public Administration?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Key Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 CHAPTER 2 Organizational Theory and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Theories of Managerial Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 The Classical Management Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 The Neo-Classical School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 The Human Side of Organizational Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Contemporary Organizational Theories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 vi TABLE OF CONTENTS Structural Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Systems Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 W. Edwards Deming and Japanese Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Organizational Economic Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Organizational Culture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 National Performance Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 CHAPTER 3 Managing Human Resources . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Human Resources Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Productive Human Resource Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Cultivating and Maintaining a High-Quality Diverse Workforce . . . . . . . 91 Creating a Quality Work Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 CHAPTER 4 Public Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 How Decisions Are Made . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 The Nature of Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Theoretical Models of Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Dysfunctions in Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Public Administration: An Introduction vii References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 CHAPTER 5 Politics and Public Administration . . . . 172 The Intersection of Politics and Administration . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Reform and Neutrality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 The Reality of Bureaucratic Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Checking Bureaucratic Discretion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Electronic Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Case Citations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 CHAPTER 6 Intergovernmental Relations . . . . . . . . . . 198 The Layers of Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 The Idea of Federalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Interlocal Shared Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Improving Performance via Intragovernmental and Intergovernmental Competition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 viii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 7 Public Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Improving Government Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 The Importance of Knowledge Sharing and Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Total Quality Management: Customer Focus and Responsive Public Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Issues in Organizational Responsiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Measuring Performance to Improve Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 The Role of Privatization in Government Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Electronic Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 CHAPTER 8 Program Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 What is Program Evaluation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 How to Collect Empirical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Conducting Evaluations and the Importance of Stakeholders . . . . . . . 266 Ethical Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Key Terms . . . . . . ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

College of Administrative and Financial Sciences

Assignment 3

Academic Year: 1440/1441 H
Course Name: Public Management

Student’s Name:

Course Code: MGT 324

Student’s ID Number:

Semester: II

CRN:

For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name:
Students’ Grade: Marks
Obtained/Out of

Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low

Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY


The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated
folder.



Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.



Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced
for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.



Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.



Late submission will NOT be accepted.



Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other
resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks.



All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font.



Submissions without cover page will NOT be accepted.

Assignment 3
Submission Date by students: Before the end of Week12
Place of Submission: Students Grade Centre via blackboard.

Weight: 15 Marks
CLO: Develop information technology skills for fast and effective means of communication to address
business issues. (LO4.3)
CLO: Apply different management and leadership styles for different situations (Lo 3.1)

GUIDELINES FOR DOING ASSIGNMENTS
We expect you to answer each question as per instructions in the assignment. You will find it
useful to keep the following points in mind: the assignment with be evaluated in terms of your
planning, organization and the way you present your assignment. All the three section will carry
equal weight
Kindly read the instruction carefully and prepare your assignment and submit to your teacher.
1) Planning: Read the assignments carefully, go through the units on which they are based.
(Please read chapters 10 and 12). Make some points regarding each question and then
rearrange them in a logical order.
2) Organisation: Be a little selective and analytical before drawing up a rough outline of your
answer. Give adequate attention to question’s introduction and conclusion.
Make sure that:
a) The answer is logical and coherent
b) It has clear connections between sentences and paragraphs
c) The presentation is correct in your own expression and style.
3) Presentation: Once you are satisfied with your answer, you can write down the final version
for submission. If you so desire, you may underlining the points you wish to emphasize. Make
sure that the answer is within the stipulated word limit.
Wishing you all the best.

Assignment Question
Select any one of the public organisations you are familiar with and discuss how leadership plays
a role in bringing smooth change in the organization and analyse the effectiveness of new
technological applications adopted by it in dissemination of information to citizens and also the
effectiveness of public service delivery.

ANSWER:
Discussion Concerning Public Organizations
Indeed, even in urban communities where an alternate telephone number is utilized, 311 is the, for
the most part, perceived moniker for non-crisis telephone frameworks. Since its initiation, 311 has
developed with mechanical advances into a multi-channel administration that interfaces resident
with government, while additionally giving an abundance of information that improves how urban
areas are run. In this discussion, I will focus on the roles played by the Leadership in bringing
change to 311 hotlines and effective technologies used by the Organization.
How Leadership has Played a role in Bringing Smooth Change in the Organization
Administration changes are inescapable in a hierarchical life cycle. Top administration
significantly impacts the heading and the technique where the Organization accomplishes its
objectives. New pioneers take part in creating sound work associations with the representatives
and check their degree of skill. The Organization, thus, profits by the experience, mastery, and the
executive's style of the new pioneers while building up the self-awareness of the representatives.
As the representatives look for security in the new initiative condit...

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