Computer Science
Golden Gate University San Francisco CH13 Data Warehouse Architecture Paper

Golden Gate University San Francisco

Question Description

I don’t understand this Computer Science question and need help to study.

This is a 2 part assignment -

First you will submit a draft and with the below guidelines and then your final paper. Hence you will need to submit two parts of this assignment

Final Portfolio Project Draft

Please submit a draft of your final project for review. Final submissions are due during week 15 (from the week 15 content folder)

Final Project Prompt:

The final portfolio project is a three- part activity. You will respond to three separate prompts but prepare your paper as one research paper. Be sure to include at least one UC library source per prompt, in addition to your textbook (which means you'll have at least 4 sources cited).

Start your paper with an introductory paragraph.

Prompt 1 "Data Warehouse Architecture" (2-3 pages): Explain the major components of a data warehouse architecture, including the various forms of data transformations needed to prepare data for a data warehouse. Also, describe in your own words current key trends in data warehousing.

Prompt 2 "Big Data" (2-3 pages): Describe your understanding of big data and give an example of how you’ve seen big data used either personally or professionally. In your view, what demands is big data placing on organizations and data management technology?

Prompt 3 “Green Computing” (2-3 pages): One of our topics in Chapter 13 surrounds IT Green Computing. The need for green computing is becoming more obvious considering the amount of power needed to drive our computers, servers, routers, switches, and data centers. Discuss ways in which organizations can make their data centers “green”. In your discussion, find an example of an organization that has already implemented IT green computing strategies successfully. Discuss that organization and share your link. You can find examples in the UC Library.

Conclude your paper with a detailed conclusion section.

The paper needs to be approximately 6-10 pages long, including both a title page and a references page (for a total of 9-13 pages). Be sure to use proper APA formatting and citations to avoid plagiarism.

Your paper should meet the following requirements:

• Be approximately 6-10 pages in length, not including the required cover page and reference page.

• Follow APA6 guidelines. Your paper should include an introduction, a body with fully developed content, and a conclusion.

• Support your answers with the readings from the course, the course textbook, and at least three scholarly journal articles from the UC library to support your positions, claims, and observations, in addition to your textbook. The UC Library is a great place to find resources.

• Be clearly and well-written, concise, and logical, using excellent grammar and style techniques. You are being graded in part on the quality of your writing.

Yang, Z., Sun, J., Zhang, Y., Wang, Y., & Cao, L. (2017). Employees’ collaborative use of green information systems for corporate sustainability: motivation, effort and performance. Information Technology for Development, 23(3), 486-506. Retrieved from

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Managing and Using Information Systems: A Strategic Approach – Sixth Edition Keri Pearlson, Carol Saunders, and Dennis Galletta © Copyright 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 13 Privacy and Ethical Considerations in Managing Information Three Breaches: TJX, Target, Home Depot • TJX Co: largest security breach of its computer system in the history of retailing: 90 million customer records were stolen • Target: 40 million; Home Depot: 56 million • All had to decide between notifying their customers immediately, or waiting the 45 days allowed by the jurisdictions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 Outcomes • Target: • Stock fell 9% a few days after disclosure • Profits fell 46% in the following quarter • TJX: • Stock fell 8% © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 4 Cybersecurity Bill, 18 Dec, 2014 • • • • Supports R&D to develop best practices Supports education in the area Prepares the workforce Federal agencies need a cybersecurity plan: • Guarantee individual privacy, verify software and hardware, address insider threats • Determine the origin of messages • Protect cloud information and data transmission © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 5 Normative Theories of Business Ethics • Managers must assess initiatives from an ethical point of view • Most managers are not trained in ethics, philosophy, and moral reasoning • Difficult to determine or discuss social norms • Three theories of business ethics are useful for assessing an initiative © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 6 Figure 12.1 Three normative theories of business ethics. Theory Definition Metrics Stockholder Maximize stockholder wealth in legal and nonfraudulent manners. Will this action maximize stockholder value? Can goals be accomplished without compromising company standards and without breaking laws? Stakeholder Maximize benefits to all stakeholders while weighing costs to competing interests. Does the proposed action maximize collective benefits to the company? Does this action treat one of the corporate stakeholders unfairly? Social contract Create value for society in a manner that is just and nondiscriminatory. Does this action create a “net” benefit for society? Does the proposed action discriminate against any group in particular, and is its implementation socially just? © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 7 Stockholder Theory • Stockholders advance capital to corporate managers who act as agents in advancing their ends. • Managers are bound to the interests of the shareholders (maximize shareholder value). • Manager’s duties: • Bound to employ legal, non-fraudulent means. • Must take long view of shareholder interest. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 8 Stakeholder Theory • Stakeholders are: • Any group that vitally affects corporate survival and success. • Any group whose interests the corporation vitally affects. • Management must balance the rights of all stakeholders without impinging upon the rights of any one particular stakeholder © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 9 Social Contract Theory • Corporations are expected to create more value to society that it consumes. • Social contract: • 1. Social welfare – corporations must produce greater benefits than their associated costs. • 2. Justice – corporations must pursue profits legally, without fraud or deception, and avoid actions that harm society. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 10 The Three Normative Theories • How do they apply to TJX, Target, Home Depot? • What are the advantages of notifying customers early? • What are the advantages of waiting as long as legally permitted? • What are the advantages of finding a way to avoid notifying customers? © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11 Big Data • Can guess income from zip code • Therefore, can identify targets from zip codes • Should you pass up the opportunity to alert potential customers of your products? • If not, your competitors will get there first! © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12 Interesting Outcomes • Pregnant daughter – Target knew and accidentally alerted her dad. How? • Buying habits were shared by other pregnant women: • Unscented soap • Cotton balls • Vitamins • How did Target reveal this to the dad? • Target sent her some ads for diapers and maternity clothes © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13 New Study in Science • Take a file from a credit card agency, with disguised credit card numbers: 1.1 million records • 90% of the identities can be found by connecting three things • Information easily found on Instagram, Facebook, FourSquare © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 14 Ethical Tensions with Governments • UAE tried to require RIM to disclose confidential information for national security • Sony Pictures had a project ruined by North Korean threats • Google’s features are restricted in China © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 15 Mason’s areas of managerial concern “PAPA” Area Critical Questions Privacy What information must a person reveal about one’s self to others? What information should others be able to access about you – with or without your permission? What safeguards exist for your protection? Accuracy Who is responsible for the reliability and accuracy of information? Who will be accountable for errors? Property Who owns information? Who owns the channels of distribution, and how should they be regulated? Accessibility What information does a person or an organization have a right to obtain, under what conditions, and with what safeguards? © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 16 Privacy • The right to be left alone • Possessing and using the “best” information helps an organization win • High priority: Keeping it safe and secure • Regulations cover the authorized collection, disclosure and use of personal information • But is it clear enough? © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 17 Privacy Paradox • Convenience vs privacy • Make it harder for criminals to steal information, it will be less convenient for genuine users • 15,000 customers in 15 countries: • Overall, 51% said they wouldn’t trade off privacy for convenience; 27% said they would. • India: 40% wouldn’t; 48% would • Germany: 70% wouldn’t; 12% would © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 18 What about Actual Behavior? • Teens repeatedly demonstrate a lack of concern about privacy • Often they regret their decisions • 70% of recruiters have rejected candidates for postings they found online • But only 20% strengthened their privacy settings when Facebook began allowing it • Privacy is valued more in Europe than in the US © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 19 Software or Site Terms of Service • Ignored widely, often due to length and legal language • Pen Pal’s Terms of Service are longer than Hamlet • Fewer than 2% read the terms • A UK site included selling a person’s immortal soul and thousands accepted it. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 20 Cookies • Can access only the cookie it created! • So what’s the concern? • Easy. Have a third party place content on your page • Widespread practice: DoubleClick has content on thousands of sites • But back to convenience: Without cookies, you could not have a “shopping cart” © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 21 Accuracy • Controls are needed to ensure accuracy • Data entry errors must be controlled and managed carefully • Data must also be kept up to date • Removing data after needed or when legally mandated is not easy © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 22 Bank of America Example • What did Bank of America do to the couple near Christmas? • Just from checking out refinancing rates, appearance of risk rose • B of A admitted error but neglected to report this to credit agencies © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 23 Property • • • • Mass quantities of data are stored Who owns the data? Who has rights to it? Who owns the images that are posted in cyberspace? Photographer? Subject? Facebook? • Proper ownership implies legal rights but duties too © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 24 Accessibility • Access to systems and their data is paramount • Users must be able to access this data from any location (if legal and it can be properly secured) • Major issue – how to create and maintain access to information for society at large • This access needs to be limited to those who have a right to see and use it (to limit identity theft). • Also, adequate security measures must be in place on their business partners’ end. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 25 What Should a Manager Do? • Create a culture of responsibility • Post policies • Implement governance processes for information control • Avoid decoupling responsibility • i.e., make Managers responsible for their decisions that lead to privacy problems © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 26 Green Computing • The digital economy uses 10% of the world’s energy • In 2007, the 5 largest search companies used 2.4 gigawatts. • Hoover Dam only generates 2.0 • Since then it has reduced thanks to “green” efforts in data centers • Virtualization • Relocation for more natural cooling • e.g., Google in Finland © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 27 Triple Bottom Line Impact • TBL (3BL) • People: Being socially responsible • Planet: Saving the environment • Profit: Saving money © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 28 Managing and Using Information Systems: A Strategic Approach – Sixth Edition Keri Pearlson, Carol Saunders, and Dennis Galletta © Copyright 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ...
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Final Answer


Outline for the final project
Prompt 1
Data Warehouse Architecture
Here I have started with introduction about what data warehouse architecture mean.
Components of the data warehouse architecture
I have discussed in detail the five major components of data warehouse architecture
Prompt 2
Big Data
I have introduced the topic by defining in details big data
Characteristics of big data
Here I have discussed various characteristics of big data
Demands which are coming with big data
Here I have discussed the demands that big data is exposing to different companies then I have
concluded my discussion by summarizing he key issues.
Prompt 3
Green Computing
I have introduced the topic by telling what green computer is
Ways of implementing Green Computing
Here I have discussed ways different companies can implement green computing
Then I have concluded the topic
Here I have listed sources where I have cited my work

Running head: FINAL PROJECT


Final Project
Institutional Affiliation

Prompt 1

Data Warehouse Architecture
A data warehouse is in simple terms the information system where the historical and the
cumulative data from multiple or single choices are contained. For this to be accomplished, a
data warehouse has got different characteristics (Singh, 2019). These include one it should be
subject-oriented. This is because it only aims at offering information about the theme of the
company instead of giving them information about the ongoing projects in the company. This is
also because a data warehouse will always give data which is can be used in decision making and
for this reason the data warehouse must be subject-oriented. It should also be time-variant,
integrated as well as non- volatile.
Components of the data warehouse architecture
Data warehouse architecture is mainly made of the following components.
Data warehouse database
This type of database is implemented by RDBMS technology. Since the database is the
central part and it forms the foundation for every data warehouse. But on some occasions is not
implemented by the use of RDBMS because sometimes it can lead to low performance and this
method of implementation is also very expensive. Therefore, there are different ways of
implementing this component (Gupta et al, 2019). These include using a database that is
multidimensional to ensure that limitations that may come with the other method are taken care
of. Another method is using new index structures to ensure that the speed is improved.

Sourcing, Acquisition, Clean up and Transformation Tools (ETL)
This component is used for performing all the summarizations, conversations as well as
the changes that may be needed to ensure that the data is transformed into that format which is
unified (Yang et al, 2019). They are very important since they help in bringing data together as
stipulated by the regulations. It is also important since it helps in eliminating the data which is
not useful in the operational database and this helps since these data cannot reach the data
warehouse (Singh, 2019). They also perform calculations and make a summary of the data which
is already derived into the system. In cases where the data which are needed is missing this
component help in populating the missing data by defaults.
This is the data that help in defining the data which is contained in the warehouse. It is
very critical since it is used in the management and maintenance of the data warehouse. It is
connected very closely to the data warehouse since it defines how data can be changed or even
processed. It is divided into three categories which include technical metadata which is majorly
used by the management and business metadata which is used by the end-users (Gupta et al,
Query tools
This is very important since it helps in connecting decision-makers and data warehouse
systems (Singh, 2019). They are of four different types which are query and reporting tools,
application development tools, data mining tools as well as OLAP tools. These are very
important since they help in the decision-making process in the data warehouse.
Data warehouse bus architecture

It is very important since it helps in determining the flow of data in the system. Data flow
can either be inflow, up flow, down flow, outflow or even meta flow (Yang et al, 2019). Some of
the major trends in the data warehouse architecture include data lake inspired, data marts which
are used for production lines, data lake inspired, using different column storages and even the
use of memory analytical engines.

Prompt 2
Big Data
Data is the raw information that is not processed by the computer. They are the qualities,
characters or even symbols which are store in the computer and then transmitted through
electronic signals and then later they are recorded. On the other hand, big data is also just data
that is the raw information but which is very large (Prabhu et al, 2019). Dig data is usually used
to refer to a collection of data which is very huge and also growing with time. On most of the
occasions, you will find that this data is very huge that it cannot be stored by the traditional
methods of data storage (Dai et al, 2019). A very good example of big data is the data for the
New York Stock Exchange. I have seen big data when I visited the New York Stock exchange
and I realized that the company has stored a very huge amount of data in its system.
Characteristics of big data
Big data is mainly characterized by its volume. Just from the name, it means that the data
is so huge. The size of the data plays a very vital role in telling us about the data. It is therefore
very important to consider volume as a characteristic of big data when dealing with it. Another
important characteristic that big data deals are a combination of a variety of data. This is because

this data is derived from heterogeneous sources hence it contains data that are both structured
and unstructured. And lastly, big data is variable this is because of the inconsistency that is
coming in with the data.
Demands which are coming with big data
Big data has made different companies look for effective ways of securing their data.
This is to ensure that big data is collected and managed effectively. It has made different
organizations to develop firewall security measures, spam filtering and also malware scanning to
ensure that their data is very safe (Helbing et al, 2019). This is also coming with a lot of costs
since the installation of all these require resources to be established. It has also strengthened the
audit department of any organization. Once an organization starts dealing with big data it calls
for a lot of keenness especially in the audit department since they will be dealing with a very
huge amount of data to answer the audit queries (Prabhu et al, 2019). The organization must also
start developing very good system storage for storing these very large data.
Big data also come with enhancing communication system in an organization. This is
because to ensure that the team knows everything concerning the data and how to use it is very
important (Helbing et al, 2019). The organization must share some of the outcomes and the
insights that come from the data so that they can understand the importance of that given work in
their areas of work. The organization will also require to conduct training to the members of the
company and by this, they will be able to provide insight to the employees and then holding them
accountable for the bog data (Prabhu et al, 2019). You must also ensure that the workers employ
data hygiene especially when cleaning up the data.


Storing data in huge amounts is very important since this data can be used for future
reference and it is also very important in decision making since the management will only use
the past data to come up with proper conclusions.

Prompt 3
Green Computing
Green computing is the use of computers as well as their resources in a friendly manner
to the environment (Sreenandana et al, 2020). It is the process of designing, manufacturing and
also disposing of the computer and its resources in a way that helps in reducing their impact in
the environment. Example of green computing includes purchasing of your devices from
companies which are committed to conserving the environment, participating in various
activities which are aimed at recycling of the electronic product...

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