BIO 207 Lehigh Carbon Community College Biological Inheritance Questions

BIO 207

Lehigh Carbon Community College


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What is a gene? What is the structure of a nucleotide. What are the components of a DNA helix? What is Chargaff’s base pair rule? Describe the replication process; include the appropriate enzymes that are involved. How are the leading and lagging strands replicated differently? Describe transcription, use the terms ; promoter, sense strand, RNA polymerase, base pairing, terminator. Explain translation, where does it occur? What is a codon? An anti codon, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA? How can you determine the anti codon on a tRNA , and the amino acid sequence of a gene from the genetic code? How is transcription different between eukaryotes and prokaryotes? What are the following; inducible, repressive operons, constitutive genes. List the types of mutations and the results of each. What is meant by the genetic is degenerate? How is genetic material transferred between bacteria? What an R facor? An F factor? What is the difference between a chromosome and a plasmid? Describe the bacterial chromosome. What structure is essential What is an antibiotic? Name three microorganisms that produce antibiotics. What do they produce? What is selective toxicity? What is a superinfection? How can it occur? Would a superinfection be promoted by the use of broad spectrum or narrow spectrum antibiotics? Why? Name 5 mechanisms of antibacterial action. Describe 4 mechanisms of acquired drug resistance in bacteria. Why is a sulfa drug not considered an antibiotic? What are the benefits and limitations of broad vs. narrow spectrum antibiotics? Complete the following table regarding antibiotics Mode of Action Drug class and examples Selective toxicity Acquired Resistance ...
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Running head: Questions on Genetics

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Questions on Genetics

Questions on Genetics


What is a gene?
It is a unit made up of DNA which and serves as a means of heredity. A gene passes
down genetic material from parent to child (Genetics Home Refference, 2020). These genes are
determinants of some of the physical and behavioral characteristics of the offspring.
What is the structure of a nucleotide? What are the components of a DNA helix? What is
Chargaff’s base pair rule?
A nucleotide comprises of three components. They are; a phosphate, a carbon sugar
(deoxyribose) and one of four nitrogenous bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine) (H,
2000). Both cytosine and thymine are classified as pyrimidine bases while adenine and guanine
are categorized as purine bases. Nucleotides make up the primary building block for DNA.
A DNA helix is also referred to as a double helix. It is made up of two long strands as
well as six smaller molecules that make up the nucleotide, that is, a sugar, phosphate molecule as
well as the four nitrogenous bases (Watson & Crick). These molecules are arranged in sequence
to make up a helix. The helix is held in place by two long strands that twist around each other in
the form of a twisting ladder. The strands are made up of alternating molecules of deoxyribose
and the phosphate molecule. It is all held together with a weak hydrogen bond.
Chargaff’s base pair rule outlines that any organisms with cells should have a DNA
comprising of a 1:1 ratio of nitrogenous bases (Vische & Chargaff, 1948). Specifically the
pyrimidine bases (cytosine and thymine) should be in equal measure same for the purine bases
(adenine and guanine).
Describe the replication process; include the appropriate enzymes that are involved.

Questions on Genetics


Replication is the process where a strand of DNA molecule that is double sided is copied
and an exact replica of the molecule is produced. During separation, the double helix strands are
separated after which each strands serves as a sample for the purpose of replication. This process
is known as semiconservative replication. The process is facilitated by enzymes that are known
as DNA polymerases, DNA primase, DNA helicase, DNA ligase and topoisomerase (nature
Education, 2016). The enzymes require a template and a primer. They synthesize DNA in 5’ to
3’ direction.
How are the leading and lagging strands replicated differently?
During replication, the helicase unzips the stands of DNA to facilitate replication. In the
leading strand an enzyme DNA polymerase that works in the direction 5’ to 3’ replicates the
leading strand continuously (nature education, 2018). For the lagging strands, since the enzyme
is working in the 3’ to 5’ direction, the strand replication occurs in fragmented bits with the
creation of short Okazaki fragments that are created and afterwards linked together.
Describe transcription, use the terms; promoter, sense strand, RNA polymerase, base
pairing, terminator.
Transcription is the processes in which a DNA sequence is copied in order to produce a RNA
molecule (ribonucleic acid, a similar molecule to DNA but more short-lived). These is the where
the information stored in a gene’s DNA to produce proteins. This protein gives a cell its structure
and keeps the cells going. RNA polymerase is important in the process of transcription because it
facilitates the process of copying DNA into RNA. The process of transcribing a gene begins
when a RNA polymerase binds to DNA at a region called the promoter within the gene. The
promoter helps the polymerase where to locate the attachment site on the DNA so...

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