Engineering
SDSU Electromagnetism & Medicine Detection of Breast Cancer Research Paper

San Diego State University

Question Description

I need support with this Health & Medical question so I can learn better.

This is a Electromagnetic Research and Design Project Report. I will need to submit this project by April 15, 2020. Please let me know if any of you guys can help. Appreciate it.

Research and Design Project Report (10% of grade)

What you should do: Your selected project topic by March 26, 2020 by email

Report Submission: April 15, 2020 (Electronic formats (blackboard))

Topics should be related to course and can be:

1. Design of co-planar waveguide transmission lines of different impedances (Including design equations, and MATLAB program)

2. Numerical methods for EM Analysis (A review + Programming of a selected method: follow appendix at the end of textbook)

3. Write MATLAB program for Smith chart and illustrate with couple of examples on impedance matching

4. Write MATLAB program for designing microstrip transmission lines of different impedances and widths for given substrate properties

5. Use of electromagnetics in medicine: Imaging of brain, Breast cancer detection, etc.

6. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna system exploiting multipath EM scattering

7. Any other topic you can come-up related to this course but should be approved by me

How to find the Review material:

(i) Books (Including Text book)

(ii) Published Research Papers from IEEE Xplore

(iii) Microwave Magazine (on line available: www.mwjournal.com)

(iv) Internet Resources

General Content of the Report: Report should be prepared in electronic format consisting of around 7-10 pages including figures of reasonable size and MATLAB Program (if such a topic selected). Use 1.5 line spacing and Times New Roman font size 12, Letter-paper size (8.5 inches x 11 inches). Below are general guidelines so you are free to decide your section headings and subheading which helps you in preparing the report.

a. Title and Author (as approved)

b. Abstract

c. Introduction

d. Theory/Working Principle/Design Methodology (If applies to your topic)

e. Design Examples (If project is of design type)

f. MATLAB program (If applies to your topic and I should be able to run it to verify)

g. Recommendation and Conclusion

h. References/Bibliography/Other sources/Acknowledgements

Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool's honor code & terms of service.

Final Answer

Attached.

1
Running head: ELECTROMAGNETISM AND MEDICINE: DETECTION OF BREAST

CANCER

Electromagnetism and Medicine: Detection of Breast Cancer

Student’s Name
Institution
Course
Date

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ELECTROMAGNETISM AND MEDICINE: DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER

Abstract
The field of medicine, especially in the radiology unit, has significantly relied on electromagnetic
and radiation knowledge for imaging and diagnosis purposes. Along with iterative methods of
image detections, electromagnetics has inspired the development of health screening equipment,
such as the mammogram, which aids in detecting cancer during its early stages. However, the
mammogram detects mass growth and tumor development, making it difficult to identify minor
growths. It is, therefore, important to highlight the impact of electromagnetism in healthcare, its
myriad applications, as well as its drawbacks- explicitly focusing on breast cancer.

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ELECTROMAGNETISM AND MEDICINE: DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER

1.0. INTRODUCTION
The technologies used in microwave imaging to detect early stages of breast cancer have
evolved over time, becoming better and more efficient tools in the field. There are several ways
and electromagnetic based methods of detecting breast cancer at its early stages. For instance, the
use of a mammogram (a low dose of x-ray) is efficient in detecting breast cancer early enough
even before the development of a lump (Fear, 2002). In turn, this fosters early treatment
measures. The mammogram is used in screening in cases where there are no symptoms of breast
cancer, as well as to diagnose in cases where there are presumed symptoms. When screening,
radiologists have to look at the calcifications, masses, and density of growth in breast tissues
using the mammogram. However, these machines are not 100% efficient; hence, a major
limitation, in that they can predict false negative results or the false positive results (Fear, 2002).
The most effective electromagnetic method used is the breast ultrasound screening, as
aforementioned, is checking the density of breast tissues, as well as inspecting further the
particular area suspected when under a mammogram. Ultrasound is useful in this instance since
it can help in discerning the difference between fluid-filled cysts and solid masses, which are
likely to be malignant tissues that need further testing. Additionally, this method is cheaper, and
it is widely used (Poplack et al., 2007).
Breast magnetic resonance imaging is essential for breast cancer screening as well. The
procedure uses radio waves and strong magnets to capture images of the inner parts of the breast.
This is often done to already diagnosed breast cancer to help measure the extent of the cancer
and checking the tumors. Tomography can be used for this purpose also. It is a radiologic

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ELECTROMAGNETISM AND MEDICINE: DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER

technique for obtaining clear images of internal structures of the human body using x rays. With
tomography, malfunctioning structures are easily visualized.
2.0. WORKING PRINCIPLE
2.1. Electromagnetic Elements of the Breast Making Electromagnetism Screening
Possible
The human body is an electrical object based on complex electrical functionalities,
therefore, developing high chances of having electromagnetic fields interaction with the body
(Poplack et al., 2007). The normal and malignant body tissues have different electromagnetic
properties and elements. This phenomenon has been greatly used in microwave imaging for the
detection and diagnosis of breast and brain cancer.
Since body tissues are deemed to be electromagnetic, their dielectric properties can be
formulated by complex permittivity. Aspects like static frequency and the static conductivity are
obtained for the process. Other elements, such as the relaxation time under the imaging, via
space time are also captured and analyzed to get the results.
3.0. DESIGN EXAMPLES
3.1. Tomography Analysis
Tomography utilizes an advanced model of microwave mammogram that uses a
computer model, rather than the physical antennae placed in the breast in the mammogram. The
antennae transmit signals generated by the microwave in the mammogram, which is then
received back to the mammogram for analysis via the antennae. In tomography, since the area or
part of the tissue affected is known, the tests done are iterative by newton Raphson method to

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ELECTROMAGNETISM AND MEDICINE: DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER

obtain the distribution of the field in the image area. Newton Raphson method is quite efficient
and easy to use compared to moment and finite element methods (Brooksby et al. 2004).
However, in the recent past, other commercial simulating tools have been developed to work in
line with external software for better and more efficient analysis.
3.2. Electromagnetic Analysis
According to Brooksby et al. (2004), electric fields are generated by the positive and
negative charges produced by an electric current. These magnetic forces are influenced by
electrical charges in relative motion and magnetized materials. The electrical and magnetic fields
properties are well described by the three of Maxwell’s equations. These are the faraday,
amperes, and the two gauss equations. For the faraday equation, it helps to predict the induction
of a magnetic field to produce an electromotive force. The amperes law dictates that the
magnetic field in space around an electric current is proportional to the electric current, which
serves as its source. Lastly, the gauss equation relates the distribution of the electrical charge to
the resulting electrical field.
3.3. The Development of the Results
Images from a mammogram are displayed with the aid of a UWB radar. However, the...

smithwiliams (18820)
Cornell University

Anonymous
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