AHA Massage and Facial Skin Care Proposal for A Volunteer Program Case Study

Academy of Healing Arts Massage and Facial Skin Care

Question Description

I’m studying and need help with a Writing question to help me learn.

Paper should be 2,80 in length, not including the title page, abstract, and reference sections. You should use and cite a minimum of 10 scholarly and credible professional sources in support of your proposal. All sections of your paper, including references, must follow APA guidelines. no plagiarize, spell check, and check your grammar. Please use the references below

Imagine that you have recently accepted a position as the new Volunteer Administrator at Difference Today Nonprofit (hypothetical). Because of your expertise, you have been hired to establish the volunteer program.

Develop a proposal describing your volunteer program and how you see yourself working as the Volunteer Administrator for Difference Today Nonprofit. This is an organization struggling with recruiting, retaining, and coaching volunteers. The organization is well-funded by a for-profit company and has experienced great success, but has never established a strong volunteer program. You are the first Volunteer Administrator that the organization has hired.

Your role will be to assess how to:

  1. Create and manage the volunteer program.
  2. Prepare the organization prior to launching the program.
  3. Develop a strategy for recruiting and retaining volunteers.
  4. Train and develop volunteers.
  5. Develop policies and procedures for the volunteer program.
  6. Evaluate the effectiveness of the volunteer program.

Your volunteer program proposal should include a section corresponding to each of the above six issues. Support your recommendations in each section, where appropriate, with research or examples from scholarly and credible professional sources.

In addition, since you are responsible for developing the comprehensive program to be rolled out in the next six months, a timeline for important functions and milestones should be included in its own section of the proposal. It will help to think in terms of what is in the best interest of Difference Today Nonprofit, the volunteers, and the support staff.


Carvalho, A., & Sampaio, M. (2017). Volunteer management beyond prescribed best practice: A case study of portuguese non-profits. Personnel Review, 46(2), 410-428. doi:http://dx.doi.org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.110...

Connors, T. D. (Ed.). (2011). The volunteer management handbook: Leadership strategies for success. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.proxy-library.as... (Links to an external site.)Chapter 10: Training Volunteers

Dunn, J., Chambers, S. K., & Hyde, M. K. (2016). Systematic review of motives for episodic volunteering. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 27(1), 425-464. doi:10.1007/s11266-015-9548-4

Einolf, C. (2018). Evidence-based volunteer management: A review of the literature. Voluntary Sector Review, 9(2), 153-176. doi:http://dx.doi.org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.133...

Kolar, D., Skilton, S., & Judge, L. W. (2016). Human resource management with a volunteer workforce. Journal of Facility Planning, Design, and Management, 4(1) doi:10.18666/JFPDM-2016-V4-I1-7300

Lee, Y. (2019). Variations in Volunteer Use among Human Service Organizations in the USA. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary & Nonprofit Organizations, 30(1), 208–221. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1007/s11266-018-9969-y

Manetti, G., Bellucci, M., Como, E., & Bagnoli, L. (2015). Investing in volunteering: Measuring social returns of volunteer recruitment, training and management. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 26(5), 2104-2129. doi:10.1007/s11266-014-9497-3

Mind Tools. (n.d.). SWOT analysis: Discover new opportunities, manage and eliminate threats [Web page]. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMC_05.h...

NCVO Knowhow Nonprofit. (2015, December 15). Volunteer policies [Web page]. Retrieved from https://knowhownonprofit.org/people/volunteers/kee...

Vantilborgh, T., & Van Puyvelde, S. (2018). Volunteer Reliability in Nonprofit Organizations: A Theoretical Model. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary & Nonprofit Organizations, 29(1), 29.

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Voluntas (2019) 30:208–221 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-018-9969-y ORIGINAL PAPER Variations in Volunteer Use among Human Service Organizations in the USA Young-joo Lee1 Published online: 27 February 2018 Ó International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University 2018 Abstract Knowledge of volunteering and volunteer management requires understanding from both individual and organizational perspectives. However, most existing research focuses on individual volunteers and the supply side of volunteering, leaving the demand side substantially understudied. The present study examines the organizational perspective of volunteering, focusing on the differences in volunteer use among nonprofit organizations. In particular, this study tests how various organizational characteristics predict the size of the volunteer program in human service organizations in the USA. The results show that, controlling for revenue and employment size, the size of volunteer program is negatively associated with the proportion of business income, while it is not significantly associated with the proportion of charitable contributions and grants. This finding provides supports for the concerns that increasing commercialization of nonprofit organizations will weaken the role of volunteers in human service delivery. The results also reveal that the extent of volunteer use is positively associated with the culture of good governance within the organization as well as organizational involvement in political activities. Keywords Demand for volunteers  Volunteer programs  Human service organizations & Young-joo Lee ylee@utdallas.edu 1 The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Rd. GR 31, Richardson, TX 75083, USA 123 Introduction Knowledge of volunteering and volunteer management requires understanding from both individual and organizational perspectives. Nonprofit organizations, as conduits of volunteering, differ greatly in their demand for and the use of volunteers as well as in other characteristics. However, much of the existing literature focuses on individual volunteers’ motivation, i.e., the supply side of volunteering, and scant research has examined the demand side of volunteering and how volunteer demands vary across organizations (Hustinx et al. 2010). One of the reasons for the paucity of demand-side research can be attributed to the indispensability of volunteer labor to many nonprofit organizations. Volunteers play an important role in nonprofit organizations’ service delivery, working in partnership with paid staff (Handy et al. 2008). Studies reveal a shortage of qualified volunteers in nonprofit organizations and challenges in recruiting and retaining them (Wymer and Starnes 2001). In the USA, the demand for volunteers has continued to increase for a number of reasons, including the growing demand for nonprofit services, escalating competition for charitable funds and expanding involvement of faith-based organizations’ in social service provision (Clerkin and Grønbjerg 2007; Nunnenkamp and Öhler 2012). Another reason for the lack of demand-side analysis is the false assumption that volunteers do not impose costs on organizations because they are not paid. With marginal costs of volunteer involvement for organizations being equal to zero, nonprofits always have an infinite demand for volunteers. However, scholars have shown that involving volunteers requires various types of expenses associated with recruiting, screening, managing, and recognizing volunteers (Brudney 2016; Hustinx, Cnaan, and Handy Voluntas (2019) 30:208–221 2010; Steinberg 1990). Further, a growing body of research suggests that organizations do not blindly accept all the volunteer labor offered to them, but make a conscious choice of their use of volunteers (Emanuele 1996; Handy and Srinivasan 2005). Scholars argue that organizations weigh the costs of involving volunteers against the costs of paid labor and other inputs and determine the amount of volunteer labor they will use (Emanuele 1996). Recognizing that the demand for volunteer labor varies across organizations, scholars call for more demand-side research on volunteer involvement in nonprofit organizations (Handy and Brudney 2007; Handy and Srinivasan 2005). Understanding the organizational perspective on volunteering and exploring the variation in volunteer demand is essential to developing a more complete knowledge of volunteerism and volunteering. This focus on organization-level variation in volunteer use provides a ‘‘meso-level’’ view between the micro-level approach to understanding individual volunteers’ motives and the macro-level approach to studying societal values and government policies (Studer and von Schnurbein 2013, p. 406). Responding to this call, the present study examines the variations of volunteer use in human service organizations (HSOs) in the USA and what contributes to the differences across organizations. Among all nonprofit organizations, volunteers are of particular importance to HSOs due to these organizations’ financial vulnerability and heavy reliance on volunteer labor in service delivery (Cnaan and Cascio 1998). HSOs provide a broad range of social services for individuals and families, including counseling, employment assistance, and substance abuse services (Guo 2006; National Center for Charitable Statistics 2016b). Homeless shelters, food banks, youth services, and family and legal services agencies are classified as HSOs in the USA. Facing an unfavorable economic conditions, including government cutbacks and increasing competition for private funding (Bittschi et al. 2015), these organizations turn to volunteer labor in order to cut costs. This study examines how HSOs’ organizational characteristics predict their use of volunteers, focusing on the size of the volunteer program. In particular, this study tests if an HSO’s reliance on particular funding sources explains the number of volunteers in the organization. This study also examines how other demand factors, such as an organization’s non-program activities and organizational culture for good governance, predict the number of volunteers involved. The next session of the study discusses the theoretical background and its implication for nonprofit organizations’ use of volunteers. The subsequent sections present the hypotheses on nonprofits’ demand for volunteers, research method, and estimation results. This paper concludes with discussions of implications for volunteer 209 management in the era of increasing commercialization and diversity. Nonprofit Organizations’ Use of Volunteers: Literature Review and Hypotheses The purpose of this study is to examine how an HSO’s organizational characteristics explain its extent of volunteer use, measured by the number of volunteers involved in the organization. Understanding this relationship will improve the knowledge of demand-side of volunteering, which the existing research has not studied sufficiently. Various organizational conditions can affect a nonprofit’s incorporation of volunteers. This study focuses on an organization’s resource dependencies, its activities and good governance practices. Revenue Mix and Volunteer Use Resource dependence theory posits that an organization’s dependence on external environments for resources determines its behaviors (Pfeffer and Salancik 2003). A nonprofit organization’s reliance on different funding sources, i.e., its revenue structure, therefore has important implications for organizational priorities. Nonprofit organizations, public charities especially, rely on diverse activities and resource providers in order to support their programs, including fees for service, membership dues, private contributions, government grants, and investment income. Research also shows that there exists a significant variation in nonprofit organizations’ revenue mixes (Fischer et al. 2011). Nonprofits’ dependence on different funding sources, in turn, suggests dissimilarities in organizational priorities regarding the stakeholders across organizations. The resource dependence theory posits that organizations make adaptive behaviors in order to respond to the demands from their environment and therefore, the patterns of dependence affect organizational attitudes and decision making (Pfeffer and Salancik 2003). The theory has had an enduring influence on the study of organizations across the disciplines. For instance, research in stakeholder theory adopts the resource dependence perspective and suggests that an organization’s approach to different groups of stakeholders is shaped by the interdependence between the organization and group. An organization’s reliance on different groups, then, creates power differentials among parties. The power relationship between an organization and these groups determines the organizational priorities and strategies (Frooman 1999; Mitchell et al. 1997; Wry et al. 2013). The public administration literature also explains that an organization’s dependence on different types of resources has an impact on the organization’s goal 123 210 setting, structure, and the composition of personnel (Bozeman and Moulton 2011). In particular, the dimensional publicness research reports that organizations relying on market-based resources rather than governmental funding have more market-like structures and personnel. Although nonprofit organizations obtain their resources from various sources, two of the sources have the most practical and symbolic importance, respectively. First, the income source with the most practical importance is earned income. Studies report that incomes from fees for services and goods account for the largest part of all exempt nonprofits’ revenue in the USA, not to mention public charities (McKeever 2015). Research also finds that nonprofits’ reliance on commercial revenue has steadily increased regardless of type (Kerlin and Pollak 2011). Next, the income source with the most symbolic importance is charitable contributions. As Mark Moore (2000) explains, charitable contributions are the defining and unique source of revenue because they are set up exclusively to capture and channel philanthropic endeavors. Charitable contributions also provide nonprofit organizations with the social justification for their existence although they are not the largest or principal source of revenue to nonprofit organizations (Moore 2000). Business Income and Use of Volunteers According to the Urban Institute (2015), the income that 501(c)(3) nonprofits earned from commercial activities in 2013 accounted for an average of 72% of their total revenue. Nonprofits’ earned income includes revenues from sales of goods, services rendered, or work performed. Nonprofits’ engagement in these activities is generally driven by financial sustainability to support mission-related activities. The literature suggests that nonprofits’ commercial activities have such consequences as more attention to market discipline, efficiency, and reduced cost structures (Dart 2004). At the same time, scholars are concerned that commercialization of nonprofit organizations has a negative influence on nonprofits’ adherence to their social missions, causing mission drift (Phills and Chang 2005; Weisbrod 2004). Along with other organizational consequences, the literature suggests that the expansion of commercial activities in a nonprofit organization has an important implication in terms of volunteer use. First, research suggests that increasing commercialization and focus on financial performance diverts nonprofit organizations from building social capital. Building social capital is one of the important functions of nonprofit organizations, and the accumulated social capital is an important asset not only to individual organizations, but also to society as a whole. Research also suggests that building social capital requires 123 Voluntas (2019) 30:208–221 a substantial investment of time in communicating a shared vision and collective goals (King 2004). Eikenberry and Kluver (2004) argue that nonprofit organizations’ increasing commercial activities will weaken their role in social capital building, as these organizations have less need for building strong relationships with traditional nonprofit key stakeholders and constituents, including community volunteers. They further explain that the drives for commercial revenue and entrepreneurial strategies result in a shift of the organization’s focus from creating networks of trust among stakeholders to creating opportunities for selling more products or services to individuals, endangering citizen engagement. Second, evaluation of business activities is based on the calculation of costs and benefits in market transactions. Therefore, increasing reliance on commercial revenue suggests that nonprofits become more cost-conscious. Brudney (2016) points out that, unlike the common perception, involving volunteers in service delivery is not without a cost. Volunteer programs require expenditures, including the effort of paid labor to recruit, train, supervise, and recognize volunteers (Emanuele 1996). While these costs are relatively easy to measure, the improvement in the service quality that the volunteers bring may not be readily measurable on a short-term basis. Therefore, when an organization is driven by strong business logic, it may focus on short-term costs associated with volunteer involvement, rather than the invisible long-term benefits that the volunteers create. Backman and Smith’s (2000) study provides an example of such consequences in their description of how a nonprofit art organization eliminated its volunteer program because the program was considered not worth the cost. Their findings suggest that HSOs that are more driven by business logic have less incentive to recruit and retain volunteers. Lastly, the trend for commercialization is often accompanied by increasing professionalization, the belief that experts should be in charge (Salamon 1999). Individuals who identify themselves as paying customers rather than program beneficiaries may also demand services provided by professionals rather than volunteers. Hence, the growing trend of professionalization can lead to replacing volunteers with paid staff and minimizing volunteer involvement in organizational activities (Maier et al. 2016). Because volunteers have greater freedom in joining and leaving the organization, management has less control over their behaviors compared with paid employees (Nichols 2013; Vantilborgh and Van Puyvelde). Therefore, paid employees may be better suited than volunteers from the perspective of consistent service to customers (Ellis 2008). Nonprofit organizations may also prefer paid staff in certain positions to volunteers from the risk management perspective, as volunteering involves risk, both to Voluntas (2019) 30:208–221 organizations and volunteers themselves, and therefore raises a liability issue (Ellis 2010). Although volunteers are protected from liabilities caused by their negligence when working for a government or nonprofit agency, the coverage varies widely across states, and liabilities regarding volunteer involvement often demand for insurance coverage (Groble and Brudney 2015; Martinez 2003). For these reasons, this study hypothesizes that HSOs with greater reliance on commercial income have a smaller volunteer program than those with a smaller proportion of such income. Hypothesis 1 Human service organizations with a greater proportion of commercial revenue use fewer volunteers than those with a smaller proportion of commercial revenue. Charitable Gifts and Grants and Volunteer Use Although charitable donations are not necessarily the primary revenue source for nonprofit organizations and their share in the nonprofit revenue continues to decrease, they still are the defining source of revenue of nonprofit organizations (Moore 2000). Moore (2000) further explains that nonprofit organizations are unique in that they appeal to people’s charitable aspirations in order to generate this type of revenue. He adds that, although other types of organizations may generate a part of their revenue from charitable contributions, this source of income generally does not make a significant impact on organizational priorities in other organizations as they do in nonprofit organizations. Despite the symbolic importance of charitable contributions, the proportion of these sources in the revenue varies among organizations (Fischer et al. 2011). Therefore, importance of charitable donations and their impact on organizational priorities differs from one organization to another. Studies also find that nonprofits do not just passively accept donations, and their solicitation of donation is a goal-oriented and strategic behavior (Bryant et al. 2003). Depending on the strategic importance of donations to organizations, nonprofits exert different levels of efforts in soliciting help from outside. The literature provides a couple of reasons why the importance of charitable contributions to a nonprofit organization may predict its volunteer use. First, research on individual monetary giving and volunteering reports that these two behaviors are closely related (Brown and Ferris 2007; Bryant et al. 2003). Most of all, the two charitable behaviors are based on an individual’s concern for others and ‘‘giving spirit’’ (Houston 2006). Lee and Chang (2008) explain the close relationship between an individual’s donation of money and time with the concept of role identity. Simply put, the concept suggests that both 211 types of giving behavior are motivated by psychological identification with the organization’s mission. Studies show that volunteers are significantly more likely to donate to a charity than non-volunteers (Choi and DiNitto 2012; CNCS 2015). For example, CNCS (2015) reports that 80% of volunteers donated to charity in 2014, compared to 40% of non-volunteers. Given the common motivational basis of giving and volunteering, Susan J. Ellis (2003) states, ‘‘there are very blurry lines between volunteers and donors.’’ She further asserts that a nonprofit’s development office and volunteer service office must work together to cultivate volunteer-donor base rather than working separately. Therefore, the prevalence of private donations as a source of income suggests that the organization has successfully appealed to philanthropic initiatives, which relates to attracting more volunteers. Second, the relative importance of charitable contributions to nonprofits has a critical implication for volunteer involvement due to the performance and accountability standards imposed by donors. Many nonprofit HSOs compete for donations from individuals and grants from private foundations and government agencies, and they are under increasing pressure to demonstrate their high performance and accountability to potential donors. One of the commonly used criteria in assessing a nonprofit’s accountability and performance is a set of financial measures such as fundraising efficiency and administrative– program costs ratio (Ritchie and Kolodinsky 2003). Research finds that both private and government funders have expectations for their grantees to have low overhead costs and high program costs ratios and nonprofit organizations feel pressured to conform to these expectations (Bowman 2006; Gregory and Howard 2009). Therefore, organizations that rely more heavily on charitable donations and grants may be under greater pressure to lower their overhead costs and place volunteers in more positions as a way of lowering personnel expenses. For such reasons, the present study hypothesizes a positive relationship between the proportion of charitable gifts and grants in revenue and the ...
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Final Answer



Proposal for a Volunteer Program
Institution Affiliation


This is a proposal for the creation and management of a volunteer program for Difference
Today Nonprofit to address current struggles in recruitment, retention, and coaching of
volunteers. Despite the company being well funded and with great success, the lack of a formal
volunteer program has a significant impact on sustainability. The proposal recommends a
strategic approach to volunteer management to align the organizational goals of the volunteer
program. The first section highlights the creation of the volunteer program, which includes
formal structure, well-defined volunteer roles, good volunteer positions, liability insurance, and
integration to the organization's human resource management. The second section is on
organization preparation prior to launching the program, which includes gathering the
appropriate resources for the programs, including dedicated staff. The third section explains
recruitment and selection, emphasizing diverse communication, informal process, screening for
commitment, enthusiasm, and qualification, and orientation and integration. The fourth section
explains the training and development initiatives based on organization roles, communication
and leadership, and career development. The fifth section explains policies and procedures, such
as the dismissal of volunteers and recognition and evaluation. The sixth section explains the
process for evaluation of program effectiveness based on performance appraisal, commitment,
retention, and continuation. The last section is a timeline for six months, highlighting key
functions and milestones.
Keywords: volunteer program, strategic-approach, recruitment and retention, training and
development, evaluation, orientation and integration.



Difference Today Nonprofit, require a comprehensive volunteer program that addresses
the current challenges in the recruitment, retention, and coaching of volunteers. This is important
since despite being well funded and experiencing great success in its operations management of
the volunteers has been a key challenge. According to Carvalho and Sampaio (2017), a strategic
approach to volunteer management and diversification of the source of funds is an important
opportunity lacking in many programs. A conscientious and professional approach to managing
volunteers is important to leverage the economic and social benefits to the organization. For
instance, Difference Today Nonprofit would need to manage the limited resources such as
finances and volunteers to deliver economic and social value. Despite such general views that the
values of volunteering are best integrated through an informal process, a human resource
management initiative must be enhanced similar to other employees. However, there is a need to
accept and account for those volunteers who are not employees and have unique expectations.
For the episodic volunteers, their expectations are unique, mainly socializing, and helping others
(Dunn, Chambers, & Hyde, 2016). Considering that volunteers are not paid, they are less
dependent on the organization, and motivation, reward, and discipline strategies for employees
cannot be duplicated (Carvalho, and Sampaio 2017).
This proposal recommends the creation of a strategic approach based volunteer
management program to integrate the role of volunteers to the organization process, including
HR, while responding to their unique expectations. A mutual benefit approach is emphasized
promoting volunteer's practical experiences and their value to the organization (Kolar, Skilton, &
Judge, 2016). The proposal includes the development of a volunteership program, pre-launch
efforts, recruitment and retention, training, policies and procedures, and evaluation criteria for


program effectiveness. The proposal also includes a timeline for important functions and
milestones to uphold the interests of all stakeholders. A strategic based approach to volunteer
management is appropriate for Difference Today Nonprofit since it will enhance maximizing on
mutual benefits by aligning volunteer's expectations to the organization's goals.

Creation and Management of the Volunteer Program

Difference Today, Nonprofit will create a formal volunteer program with a well-defined
structure. As a non-profit profit organization, there will be a high dependence on volunteer work
to complete important tasks (Manetti et al., 2015). Establishing the volunteer program as an
element of the organization's human resource structure will enhance the attainment of the
workforce objectives. The volunteer program will help reduce the human resource costs.
Decreasing human costs will be achieved through the elimination of salaries and wages that
would otherwise be paid to employees to perform the same tasks. Although the volunteer
program will not be the sole source of the workforce in the organization, it will provide more...

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