Humanities
Hetorical Genre Impact of Neglecting User Centered Information Analysis Essay

Question Description

I’m trying to study for my English course and I need some help to understand this question.

Hello, I want some one to complete my essay to be 4.5 pages. I already wrote 1.5 pages so all i need is 3 more pages.

The only reference that can be used is the PDF file I attached.

Here are the requirements for the essay:

  • Essay features an in-depth, persuasive rhetorical and genre analysis of a peer-reviewed, academic article, from your major; essay demonstrates highly effective use of quotes from the source to support your clear thesis.
  • Essay analyzes author’s use of rhetorical strategies (ethos, logos).
  • Essay analyzes the Genre of a peer-reviewed article by discussing expectations for structure, language and references (citations).
  • Essay uses proper MLA format and features highly polished writing appropriate for an academic audience with knowledge of rhetorical/genre analysis.

Remember to address the issues about the genre structure, language, and use of references.

Here is my essay:

In the academic journal of “The impact of neglecting user-centered information design principles when delivering online information” Dr. Maria, Dr. David, and Dr. Hey-Won are investigating weather information design principles are important when delivering information or not. They established the results by comparing two websites, Cyber Aware and Get Safe Online. The primary audience for this journal is anyone in the cyber security field. It is also as important to people in the web development industry who are responsible for designing web pages. Also, people interested in the web security can find this journal interesting as it is full of helpful information. The authors established their goals by providing studies and logical deductions, and showing credibility by relying on trusty sources.

The journal was full of studies, charts, statistics, and quotes from experts which is important to persuade readers with reason. Authors did a great job explaining the findings of their study using charts and tables. They also followed up each table with a brief description telling the readers what was accomplished. “The choice of three words to describe the website is illustrated in Table 4.1 and Figure 7.1. The highest choice was the word ‘Accessible’ (31.1%), selected for the Cyber Aware website, and the word ‘Complex’ (23.0%) for the Get Safe Online website.” (Lonsdale et al) Here authors managed to narrow down what is important from the table that was full of results. The purpose for these illustrations is to help audiences understand the situation without wasting time reading through long texts. Authors also made sure to rely on experts when it comes to quoting information. It is important as it is the reason for readers to believe these information. “claimed by Nielsen (2011), users do not stay on a web page for very long. Users usually leave in 10–20 seconds, with the average page visit lasting a little less than a minute.” (Nielsen qtd. In Lonsdale et al) here authors used a quote from Jakob Nielsen who have a Ph.D. in human-computer interaction.

Throughout the article, authors relied on trusty sources to use as a source if information to back up their claims. “As reported in IBM’s Cyber Security Intelligence Index, the vast majority (95%) of security breaches are due to human error” (Lonsdale et al) Here authors used The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) which is a leading computer hardware company as their source of information to strengthen their credibility. They also used governmental office as a source of information. “As noted by GCHQ Director, Robert Hannigan, ‘the baseline of understanding across society and across government is still very low’” (Lonsdale et al) Authors here relied on the Government Communications Headquarters in the United Kingdom (GCHQ) and Robert Hannigan, a cybersecurity specialist, as source of information. Their use of reliable sources has strengthened their credibility and created strong connection with the audience.

Finally, authors managed to establish their goals by persuading reader with studies and logical deductions, and showing credibility by relying on trusty sources. The journal started with an appeal to the readers’ logical reasoning. Throughout the journal, there were a lot of statistics and studies to prove their point. Also, authors managed to illustrate all the tables and chart in the journal to the audience to help them understand it without much effort. There was also many quotes from experts which was a way to persuade readers to believe these information.

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Information Design Journal 24(2), 151–177 © 2018 John Benjamins Publishing Company D O I : 10.1075/idj.00005.san Maria dos Santos Lonsdale, David J. Lonsdale, & Hye-Won Lim The impact of neglecting user-centered information design principles when delivering online information Cyber security awareness websites as a case study Keywords: information design, online information, information processing, user-centered information design principles, cyber security Information design principles are overlooked in cyber security awareness websites. An Information Design Process Model has been devised to help frame and interpret how online information is processed and the role information design principles play in facilitating that processing. Two websites have been compared, and results show significant differences in terms of performance, behavior and perception. The results also show that in situations where serious information is at stake, such as cyber security, a more accessible design does not seem to be sufficient to project a sense of trust and security among users. All these findings have led to original insights regarding the design of online information in terms of lasting impression and user-centered design approaches. 1. Introduction 1.1 Context On 1st November 2016, the UK government released its new National Cyber Security Strategy 2016–2021, a £1.9 billion investment over five years. The new cyber security strategy will be implemented by the newly established National Cyber Security Centre, which, under the authority of GCHQ, will centralize and rationalize the UK’s cyber security activities. In the United States, annual government spending on cyber security has risen to $19 billion, and Cyber Command has been elevated to the status of a full, unified combatant command. This reflects the emphasis afforded to the subject in the 2015 The DoD Cyber Strategy and the 2017 National Security Strategy. Despite these developments in funding and organizational structure, both the UK and the US identify further room for improvement. In particular, it is acknowledged in the UK National Cyber Security Strategy (2016), “the majority of businesses and individuals are still not properly managing cyber risk”. Since all Internet users play a role in cyber security, this is a serious failing. Indeed, although cyber security is often discussed in technical terms, it is primarily a people problem. As reported in IBM’s Cyber Security Intelligence Index, the vast majority (95%) of security breaches are due to human error (Howarth 2014). Moreover, much of this is down to deficiencies in education and understanding about basic cyber security matters (Olmstead & Smith 2017). As noted by GCHQ Director, Robert Hannigan, ‘the baseline of understanding across society and across government is still very low’ (Ashford 2017). In response, 151 Lonsdale, Lonsdale, & Lim • User-centered online information design principles for cyber security one of the three pillars of the UK strategy, ‘Develop’, has the objective of increasing cyber security awareness and skills. The US National Security Strategy addresses this problem via ‘Building a Culture of Preparedness’ and ‘Information Sharing’. It is in such areas where information and awareness campaigns come to the fore. However, worryingly significant deficiencies currently exist in cyber security awareness campaigns. For example, the UK crossgovernment awareness and behavior change campaign Cyber Aware has been criticized for being an ‘expensive flop’. The campaign cost more than £12 million, but has only had 1.9 million visits across 2 years and 10 months, meaning that each visit to the site cost £6.37 (Martin 2017). This problem of cyber ignorance is well illustrated by the 2017 WannaCry attack, which exploited a known deficiency in older forms of the Windows operating system. Many of the systems affected by the attack had simply not been updated or downloaded the available security patch. This clearly speaks to a lack of awareness of security risks and remedies. Part of these identified deficiencies are design problems that are simply overlooked, but that according to the literature can significantly hinder users in their attempts to locate, understand and recall/retain information that is vital for cyber security. In this sense, information design is essential when seeking to develop cyber skills and awareness amongst the public. Information design is vital to the construction of websites where the primary aim is to inform, instruct and educate. However, there is a lack of research and literature focusing on the integration of information and web design and its relevance to the delivery of information and instructions online. This is even more so in the area of cyber security, despite the obvious need to keep the public well informed on how to be cyber secure and avoid falling foul of the many problems encountered online (e.g., fraud, identity theft, viruses). 152 idj 24(2), 2018, 151–177 The first challenge that any information designer and any platform providing information face is to gain the attention of the user and then continue to hold their attention and interest thereafter (Petterson 2010). As claimed by Nielsen (2011), users do not stay on a web page for very long. Users usually leave in 10–20 seconds, with the average page visit lasting a little less than a minute. Scanning and skimming are the most common reading strategies used (Nielsen 2008; Schriver 2016) and, on an average visit, users read a maximum of 28% of the words, with 20% being more likely. Cardello (2013) brings to the discussion the theory that when users feel uneasy, uncertain or sense a problem (e.g., when reading complicated instructions, when viewing text that is in small font or has poor contrast) they switch from a state of ‘cognitive ease’ to ‘cognitive strain’. When this switch happens and users are required to spend more energy to find a piece of information, they become more vigilant and suspicious and may start to question the credibility of the information provided and even the reputation of the company/organization. Such lack of confidence can lead to users not taking ‘desirable actions’, as defined by Cardello 2013, i.e., the actions we want them to take. Getting the public to take ‘desirable actions’ regarding cyber security is crucial to any informative and educational website. Therefore, in order to: (1) attract the user to a website, (2) hold their attention for as long as possible, and (3) get them to take desirable actions, it is imperative to deliver information as clearly, quickly and focused as possible. 1.2 Aim and hypothesis The aim of this paper is to identify how successfully cyber security websites are at informing and instructing the public on how to adopt secure online behaviors and be protected online. Lonsdale, Lonsdale, & Lim • User-centered online information design principles for cyber security The researchers’ hypothesis is that neglecting usercentered design principles compromises cyber awareness by impairing users’ ability to locate, understand and recall/retain information that is vital for cyber security. To test the researchers’ hypothesis, a study has been devised to ascertain the effectiveness of two existing UK websites that provide practical advice on cyber security: Cyber Aware and Get Safe Online. The need to focus on user-centered design principles stems from the fact that information design solutions that are merely driven by opinion and intuition, without having involved the target user (testing and feedback), nor having been tested and gone through several stages of iteration and re-design, lack validity and reliability and are prone to failure. 2. Information processing: A theoretical model Building on the literature, we propose a theoretical ‘Online Information Process Model’ (Figure 1). The model illustrates the process of looking for information online, and identifies at the ‘Information seeking’ stage: 1 INFORMATION NEED 2.1 Start task (1) the strategies used when looking for information; (2) the factors influencing the information seeking process; and (3) the consequences of poor online information design on user performance. Such a model is important to help frame and interpret how online information is processed and the role information design principles play in facilitating that processing. The three stages of information processing, based on Choo (1999) and Loeber and Cristea (2003), are defined as: 1. Information need—why do users visit a website? 2. Information seeking—how do users perform? 3. Information use—do users apply what they have learnt? Although all three stages are identified, since they are equally important and closely inter-related, the model here proposed focuses on Stage 2, Information seeking. This is because this is the stage at which design has a direct effect on performance when trying to find online information. For a comprehensive understanding of the process 2 INFORMATION SEEKING 2.2 Continue task 3 INFORMATION USE 2.3 Find & extract info Strategies used Influencing factors Consequences Reading strategies: • • • • • • • • • • • • Scanning • Skimming Navigation strategies: • Browsing • Searching idj 24(2), 2018, 151–177 Amount of information Quality of information Complexity of information Accessibility of information Time available to read the information Cognitive effort Speed of reading Speed of navigation Engagement Attention Retention and recall Figure 1. Online Information Process Model. 153 Lonsdale, Lonsdale, & Lim • User-centered online information design principles for cyber security of finding information online, Stage 2 is broken down into three sub-stages. Each sub-stage includes a list of factors that ought to be considered in the information process. 2.1) START TASK—At this first sub-stage, users select a reading and navigation strategy. As discussed by several authors, online reading involves mainly scanning and skimming (e.g., Nielsen 2008; Schriver 2016), and online navigation involves mainly browsing and searching (e.g., Loeber & Cristea 2003). The importance of identifying these strategies in Stage 2 of the model is because, as shown by Lonsdale (2007, 2014b and 2016), design principles can improve performance when using ‘search reading’ strategies to locate information, which is the case when visiting websites. However, for navigation on websites, the most suitable term would be ‘browsing’ strategies, which Loeber and Cristea (2003, p.45) define as the process of following links to get to the information needed (while ‘searching’ strategies on websites is defined by the same authors as typing keywords in order to find information). 2.2) CONTINUE TASK—At this second sub-stage, users continue the task of finding information, which is influenced by several factors. The influencing factors listed in the model were adapted and extended from Hoyer and McInnis’ (2001) Motivation, Ability and Opportunity (MAO) model. All factors relate to the information itself, with the exception of the last influencing factor, which relates to time. As discussed by Nielsen (2011), users do not spend much time on a website. In addition, as shown by Lonsdale et al. (2006), the implementation of design principles can improve performance when searching for information under time pressure, i.e., when information needs to be found quickly or within a limited amount of time. 2.3) FIND & EXTRACT INFORMATION—At this third sub-stage, users locate the information and retain what 154 idj 24(2), 2018, 151–177 fulfils their need. Here we identify the effects of online information design. For example, poor design, i.e., neglecting design principles that have been identified in the literature, could lead to cognitive overload and strain; poor speed of reading and of navigation; as well as poor engagement, attention, retention and recall. Tetlan and Marschalek’s (2016) article on ‘How humans process visual information’ gives a very good account regarding: –– Cognitive effort—the brain can process only a certain amount of information at one time (3–7 items), and when exposed to too much information at one time the user will feel overwhelmed and disengage from the material. Tetlan and Marschalek (2016) point out that information designers have the responsibility to reduce information in order to limit cognitive overload by, for example, grouping units of thought, limiting the number of fonts and colors, balancing words with image, etc. –– Attention—humans also have a limited attention span that changes according to the type of activity required. Tetlan and Marschalek (2016) recommend that in an effort to encourage readers to stay engaged with the material, information designers should use elements that can be interpreted more quickly than text, as is the case of images and symbols, which can prolong engagement. –– Recall—information designers can facilitate information recall by grouping and/or chunking information (incorporating two or more elements into one), as this improves the reader’s ability to store information accurately and retrieve it in long-term retrieval. 3. Evaluation: Design principles To further understand which design principles might have a negative effect on cognitive load and strain, speed of reading and navigation, engagement and attention, Lonsdale, Lonsdale, & Lim • User-centered online information design principles for cyber security retention and recall, a framework which includes a total of 82 design principles has been developed. These principles have been extracted from the fields of Information and Web Design under the content areas of ‘Page layout’ and ‘Navigation’ (see Appendix for a full list of principles). The sources used were limited to articles and books that already provide principles of Information and Web Design. Our approach was to analyze whether these principles were user-centered, and consequently idj 24(2), 2018, 151–177 merge them to create single principles that apply to the design of information on the Web. Both websites (Figure 2 and Figure 3) were analyzed based on this framework. The findings from this initial evaluation on the design features of the websites provide evidence that simple design principles are being neglected when it comes to cyber security websites (as listed in Table 1). The Cyber Aware website, although with a clearer and more accessible design, still fails in Table 1. Neglected design principles on the respective websites Cyber Aware • • • • • Get Safe Online • • • • • • • • • Some important information is not kept above the fold and requires scrolling The hierarchy could be clearer. The menu is not distinct enough. Adequate cueing techniques are not being used to distinguish more relevant information. Visuals could be better used to create a more aesthetically pleasing website that complements the organization (project a more serious and corporate feel). • The search box is not long enough (only fits 10 visible characters at a time). • The website content is not rich enough for automated searches (less than the required 100 pages). • • • • • • • • • The layout is not easy to navigate. The homepage and menu are too cluttered. The font size is too small. The line length is too long. Some important information is not kept above the fold and requires scrolling. The hierarchy needs to be clearer (confusing to have two bullet points levels within one another, that look similar). Repetition and redundancies need to be deleted. A limited number of information items should be displayed at the same time. Where applicable, units of thought should be grouped so that the user can visually see and register as a single unit of information. Adequate cueing techniques are not used to distinguish more relevant information. The graphics are not kept simple and distinct enough from advertisements. Visuals should be used to complement and/or replace some text. White space should be used to reflect the relationship between items of information. Horizontal, roll-over activated submenus should not be used. A-Z listings should be avoided. If alphabetizing information needs to be used for “scannability”, then it should be in rows rather than columns. Some links do not work. The link for the videos is badly located and is not different enough from other elements on the homepage. 155 Lonsdale, Lonsdale, & Lim • User-centered online information design principles for cyber security Figure 2. Homepage for Cyber Aware website (left) and Get Safe Online website (right). 156 idj 24(2), 2018, 151–177 Lonsdale, Lonsdale, & Lim • User-centered online information design principles for cyber security idj 24(2), 2018, 151–177 Figure 3. Example of one of the web pages for Cyber Aware website (left) and Get Safe Online website (right) used as the testing material in the study (in this case the web page containing information on ‘Passwords’). 157 Lonsdale, Lonsdale, & Lim • User-centered online information design principles for cyber security some design aspects that if improved would enhance user performance even further. The Get Safe Online website shows far more design problems that can significantly impair (or at least not support) user performance. Based on these initial findings, the researchers went on to test the hypothesis of whether neglecting information and web design principles that are user-centered compromises cyber awareness by impairing users’ ability to locate, understand and retain information that is vital for cyber security. 4. User testing 4.1 Participants A total of 61 participants were tested. These belonged to social grades A and B (higher & intermediate managerial, administrative, professional occupations), since these are the two groups who use the Internet the most in the UK—94–95% of internet usage, respectively (Cabinet Office 2012). The participants were admin, teaching and research staff at university level. Such individuals are considered medium-high risk because they are responsible for personal details, private and financial information relating to students, staff, applicants and research participants. Overall, there were 34.4% males and 65.6% females; 41% of participants were aged 30–39 years old and 24.6% were aged 20–29 years old. In terms of ‘internet usage’, 91.8% of participants said that they used the internet ‘very often’. When asked about their cyber security awareness, only 29% of participants said they were aware of cyber security. 4.2 Stimuli The reasons for selecting the two websites in question were as follows: (1) both websites provide practical 158 idj 24(2), 2018, 151–177 advice on how to be protected online, with the aim of driving behavior change amongst businesses and individuals, so that they adopt simple secure online behaviors; (2) both websites are closely linked to the same government, i.e., HM Government in the UK (Cyber Aware is sponsored by HM Government and Get Safe Online is a private/public sector partnership with HM Government); (3) despite their similar scope and aim, these websites adopt contrasting approaches in the way information is designed and delivered, which makes them ideal for this study. 4.3 Procedure Participants were asked to find specific information on both Cyber Aware and Get Safe Online websites. The two websites were presented to participants in a random order to prevent biasing and learning effects. Participants were required to complete 4 tasks as follows: –– T1—Find information and tell us briefly how to create ‘strong passwords’. –– T2—Find information and tell us briefly how to keep your ‘ ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

Surname 1

Professor’s Name
Student’s Name
Course title
Date
Rhetorical/Genre Analysis
Essay

In the academic journal of "The impact of neglecting user-centered information design
principles when delivering online information," Dr. Maria, Dr. David, and Dr. Hey-Won are
investigating whether information design principles are essential when delivering information or
not. They established the results by comparing two websites, Cyber Aware and Get Safe Online.
The primary audience for this journal is anyone in the cybersecurity field. It is also as important
to people in the web development industry who are responsible for designing web pages. Also,
people interested in web security can find this journal interesting as it is full of helpful information.
The authors established their goals by providing studies and logical deductions and showing
credibility by relying on reliable sources.
The journal is full of studies, charts, statistics, and quotes from experts, which is vital to
persuade readers with reason. The authors did a great job explaining the findings of their research
using charts and tables. They also followed up each table with a brief description telling the readers
what was accomplished. "The choice of three words to describe the website is illustrated in Table
4.1 and Figure 7.1. The highest choice was the word 'Accessible' (31.1%), selected for the Cyber
Aware website, and the word 'Complex' (23.0%) for the Get Safe Online website." (Lonsdale et
al.) Here authors managed to narrow down what is essential from the table that was full of results.
The purpose of these illustrations is to help audiences understand the situation without wasting

Surname 2

time reading through long texts. Authors also made sure to rely on experts when it comes to quoting
information.
It is crucial as it is the reason for readers to believe this information. "claimed by Nielsen
(2011), users do not stay on a...

UIUC

Anonymous
Return customer, been using sp for a good two years now.

Anonymous
Thanks as always for the good work!

Anonymous
Excellent job

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