Business Finance
MGT 301 Saudi Electronic University Leadership Style Theories Questions

MGT 301

Saudi electronic university

MGT

Question Description

I’m trying to study for my Management course and I need some help to understand this question.

- Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.

- No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism.

- Use at least 3 scientific references to support your answers. Follow APA-style when referencing. + Reference Source: Book-Ch:-13 & 14

Unformatted Attachment Preview

What is leadership? What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? What are follower-centered approaches to leadership? What are inspirational leadership perspectives? Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-2 Role of management is to promote stability or to enable the organization to run smoothly. Role of leadership is to promote adaptive or useful changes. *Persons in managerial positions could be involved with both management and leadership activities, or they could emphasize one activity at the expense of the other. Both management and leadership are needed, however, and if managers do not assume responsibility for both, then they should ensure that someone else handles the neglected activity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-3 Leadership  Process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it; and  Process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-4 “Great leaders are almost always great simplifiers, who can cut through argument, debate and doubt, to offer a solution everybody can understand.” - Colin Powell Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-5 Formal leadership Informal leadership Exerted by persons Exerted by persons who appointed (or elected) become influential to positions of formal authority in organizations. because they have special skills that meet the resource needs of others. *There is a rich body of research regarding what leadership is, who has the capacity for leadership and how it is manifest. Formal leadership positions exist by virtue of their formal authority. However, leadership involves more than having authority conferred by a position. It can be manifested not only by an individual but by a team. It can be manifested within many levels of the organization. Leadership has a generally accepted component of the ability to influence others and to 13-6 inspire effort. Approaches to leadership 1. Trait and behavioral theory perspectives. 2. Cognitive and symbolic perspectives. 3. Transformational and charismatic perspectives. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-7 Trait leadership perspective  Assume that personality traits play a central role in differentiating between leaders and non-leaders, in that leaders must have the ―right stuff.‖ Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-8 *Ambition, motivation, honesty, self confidence and a high need for achievement are key traits that leaders have. 13-9 Behavioral leadership perspectives  Assumes that leadership is central to performance and other outcomes.  Focuses on leader behaviors rather than traits. *Two major studies, at the University of Michigan and Ohio State University, tried to identify the leadership behaviors that resulted in effective performance. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-10 Michigan studies  Employee-centered supervisors:  Place strong emphasis on subordinate’s welfare.  Production-centered supervisors:  More concerned with getting the work done. *Employee-centered supervisors were found to have more productive work groups than production-centered supervisors. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-11 Ohio State studies  Consideration o Sensitive to people’s feelings and making things pleasant for the followers.  Initiating structure o Concerned with defining task requirements and other aspects of the work agenda. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-12 *Effective leaders should be high on both consideration and initiating structure. This dual emphasis is reflected in the leadership grid approach. Leadership grid results are plotted on a nine-position grid that places concern for production on the horizontal axis and concern for people on the vertical axis, where 1 is minimum concern and 9 is maximum concern. As an example, those with a 1/9 style—low concern for production and high concern for people—are termed ―country club management.‖ They do not emphasize task accomplishment but stress the attitudes, feelings, and social needs of people. Similarly, leaders with a 1/1 style—low concern for both production and people—are termed ―impoverished,‖ while a 5/5 style is labeled ―middle of the road.‖ A 9/1 leader—high concern for production and low concern for people— has a ―task management‖ style. Finally, a 9/9 leader, high on both dimensions, is considered to have a ―team management‖ style; this is the ideal leader in Blake and Mouton’s framework. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1113 Situational Contingency Leadership  The effects of leader traits are enhanced by their relevance to situational contingencies. *Traits are enhanced by their relevance to the leader’s situational contingencies. Prosocial power motivation, or power oriented toward benefiting others, is likely to be most important in situations where decision implementation requires lots of persuasion and social influence. ―Strong‖ or ―weak‖ situations also make a difference. An example of a strong situation is a highly formal organization with lots of rules, procedures, and policies. An example of a weak situation is one that is ambiguous and unstructured. In a strong situation traits will have less impact than in a weaker, more unstructured situation because the leader has less ability to influence the nature of the situation. In other words, leaders can’t show dynamism as much when the organization restricts them. 13-14 Prosocial power motivation, or power oriented toward benefitting others, is likely to be most important in situations where decision implementation requires lots of persuasion and social influence. *―Strong‖ or ―weak‖ situations also make a difference. An example of a strong situation is a highly formal organization with lots of rules, procedures, and policies. An example of a weak situation is one that is ambiguous and unstructured. In a strong situation traits will have less impact than in a weaker, more unstructured situation because the leader has less ability to influence the nature of the situation. In other words, leaders can’t show dynamism as much when the organization restricts them. 13-15 Fiedler’s Leadership contingency view  Situational control  The extent to which a leader can determine what his or her group is going to do, as well as the outcomes of the group’s actions and decisions. *Team effectiveness depends on an appropriate match between a leader’s style, essentially a trait measure, and the demands of the situation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-16 The least –preferred coworker (LPC) scale, used by Fiedler, asks respondents to describe the person with whom they have been able to work least well.  Instrument measures a person’s leadership style. *Fiedler argues that high-LPC leaders (those describing their LPC very positively) have a relationship-motivated style, whereas low-LPC leaders have a task motivated style. Because LPC is a style and does not change across settings, the leaders’ actions vary depending on the degree of situational control. Specifically, a task-motivated leader (low LPC) tends to be nondirective in high- and low control situations, and directive in those in between. A relationship-motivated leader tends to be the opposite. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-17 *The figure shows the task-motivated leader as being more effective when the situation is high and low control, and the relationship-motivated leader as being 13-18 more effective when the situation is moderate control. Fiedler’s Situation Control Variables Leader /Member Relations (good/poor): Task Structure (high/low): Position Power (strong/weak): Members support for leader. Spells out leader’s task goals and procedures. Leader’s task expertise, and reward/punishment authority *Consider an experienced and well-trained production supervisor of a group that is responsible for manufacturing a part for a personal computer. The leader is highly supported by his group members and can grant raises and make hiring and firing decisions. This supervisor has very high situational control and is operating in situation 1 in Figure 13.2. For such high-control situations, a task-oriented leader style is predicted as the most effective. 13-19 House’s path-goal theory of leadership  Assumes that a leader’s key function is to adjust his or her behaviors to complement situational contingencies. *House argues that when the leader is able to compensate for things lacking in the setting, subordinates are likely to be satisfied with the leader. For example, the leader could help remove job ambiguity or show how good performance could lead to an increase in pay. Performance should improve as the paths by which (1) effort leads to performance—expectancy—and (2) performance leads to valued rewards—instrumentality—becomes clarified. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-20 *The figure shows four types of leader behavior (directive, supportive, achievementoriented, and participative) and two categories of situational contingency variables (follower attributes and work-setting attributes). The leader behaviors are adjusted to complement the situational contingency variables in order to influence subordinate satisfaction, acceptance of the leader, and motivation for task performance. 13-21 Directive leadership  Spelling out the what and how of subordinates’ tasks. Supportive leadership  Focuses on subordinate needs, well-being , and promotion of a friendly work environment. *Directive leadership is predicted to have a positive impact on subordinates when the task is ambiguous; it is predicted to have just the opposite effect for clear tasks. In addition, the theory predicts that when ambiguous tasks are being performed by highly authoritarian and closed minded subordinates, even more directive leadership is called for. Supportive leadership is predicted to increase the satisfaction of subordinates who work on highly repetitive tasks or on tasks considered to be unpleasant, stressful, or frustrating. In this situation the leader’s supportive behavior helps compensate for adverse conditions. 13-22 Achievement oriented leadership  Emphasizes setting challenging goals, stressing excellence in performance, and showing confidence in people’s ability to achieve high standards of performance. Participative leadership  Focuses on consulting with subordinates, and seeking and taking their suggestions into account before making decisions. *Achievement-oriented leadership is predicted to encourage subordinates to strive for higher performance standards and to have more confidence in their ability to meet challenging goals. Participative leadership is predicted to promote satisfaction on nonrepetitive tasks that allow for the ego involvement of subordinates. 13-23 Hersey and Blanchard Situational Situational Leadership Theory  There is no single best way to lead.  Assess Readiness  The extent to which the people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task.  Implement appropriate leadership response. *Readiness is the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. Hersey and Blanchard argue that ―situational‖ leadership requires adjusting the leader’s emphasis on task behaviors—for instance, giving guidance and direction—and relationship behaviors—for example, providing socioemotional support—according to the readiness of followers to perform their tasks. This situational leadership approach requires that the leader develop the capability to diagnose the demands of situations and then choose and implement the appropriate leadership response. The model gives specific attention to followers and their feelings about the task at hand and suggests that effective leaders focus on emerging changes in the level of readiness of 13-24 the people involved in the work. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-25 *The figure identifies four leadership styles: delegating, participating, selling, and telling. Each emphasizes a different combination of task and relationship behaviors by the leader. The figure also suggests the following situational matches as the best choice of leadership style for followers at each of four readiness levels. The model requires the leader to diagnose the demands of the situation implement the response that is most effective in the situation. A “telling” style (S1) is best for low follower readiness (R1). The direction provided by this style defines roles for people who are unable and unwilling to take responsibility themselves; it eliminates any insecurity about the task that must be done. A “selling” style (S2) is best for low-to-moderate follower readiness (R2). This style offers both task direction and support for people who are unable but willing to take task responsibility; it involves combining a directive approach with explanation and reinforcement in order to maintain enthusiasm. A “participating” style (S3) is best for moderate-to-high follower readiness (R3). Able but unwilling followers require supportive behavior in order to increase their motivation; by allowing followers to share in decision making, this style helps enhance the desire to perform a task. A “delegating” style (S4) is best for high readiness (R4). This style provides little in terms of direction and support for the task at hand; it allows able and willing followers to take responsibility for what needs to be done. 11-26 In your current or former job, did your manager behave the same way with each of the people he/she managed? A=Yes, B=No If no, what was different about the relationships between the manager and each employee? Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-27 Substitutes for leadership  Makes a leader’s influence either unnecessary or redundant in that they replace a leader’s influence. Romance of leadership  People attribute romantic, almost magical, qualities to leadership. *First, studies involving Mexican, U.S., and Japanese workers suggests both similarities and differences between various substitutes in the countries examined. Again, there were subtle but important differences across the national samples. Second, a systematic review of 17 studies found mixed results for the substitutes theory. The review suggested a need to broaden the list of substitutes and leader behaviors. Symbolic treatment of leadership occurs particularly when performance is either extremely high or extremely low or when the situation is such that many people could have been responsible for the performance. This refers to the concept of romantic leadership. 13-28 Leadership categorization theory  Implicit leadership theories - preconceived notions about the attributes (e.g., traits and behaviors) associated with leaders.  They reflect the structure and content of ―cognitive categories‖ used to distinguish leaders from nonleaders.  Attributes or leadership prototypes are mental images of the characteristics that make a ―good‖ leader, that a ―real‖ leader would possess. *Implicit leadership theories reflect the structure and content of ―cognitive categories‖ used to distinguish leaders from nonleaders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-29 Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-30 Followership  The behaviors of individuals acting in relation to leaders. Implicit followership theories (IFT)  Preconceive notions about prototypical and antiprototypical followership behaviors and characteristics. *Table 13.2 is an 18-item implicit followership theory (IFT) scale that contains two main factors: followership prototype and followership antiprototype. Followership prototype consists of factors associated with good followers, including being ―industrious,‖ having enthusiasm, and being a good organizational citizen. Followership antiprototype consists of behaviors associated with ineffective followership, including conformity, insubordination, and incompetence. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-31 Social construction approaches  Individual behavior is ―constructed‖ in context, as people act and interact in situations.  Passive followership beliefs - beliefs that followers should be passive, deferent and obedient to authority.  Proactive followership beliefs - beliefs that followers should express opinions, take initiative, and constructively question and challenge leaders. *Social constructions are influenced by two things: the individuals’ implicit theories about how they should act, and the nature of the situation in which they find themselves. Some followers hold passive beliefs, viewing their roles in the classic sense of following—as passive, deferential, and obedient to authority (i.e., a passive belief). Others hold proactive beliefs, viewing their role as expressing opinions, taking initiative, and constructively questioning and challenging leaders (i.e., a proactive belief). These proactive followership beliefs more closely resemble leading (e.g., followers acting as leaders) than following. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-32 Charismatic leaders  Leaders who, by force of their personal abilities, are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers. *Findings show that charismatic leaders are high in need for power and have high feelings of self-efficacy and conviction in the moral rightness of their beliefs. Their need for power motivates them to want to be leaders, and this need is then reinforced by their conviction of the moral rightness of their beliefs. The feeling of selfefficacy, in turn, makes these individuals believe they are capable of being leaders. These traits also influence such charismatic behaviors as role modeling, image building, articulating simple and dramatic goals, emphasizing high expectations, showing confidence, and arousing follower motives. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-33 Transactional leadership Involves leader-follower exchanges necessary for achieving routine performance that is agreed upon by leaders and followers. •Uses various kinds of rewards in exchange for mutually agreed-upon accomplishment. •Watches for deviations from rules and standards and taking corrective action. •Intervenes only if standards not met. •Laissez faire style – avoids making decisions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-34 Dimensions of transformational leadership  Charisma  Inspiration  Intellectual stimulation  Individualized consideration     *Charisma provides vision and a sense of mission, and it instills pride along with follower respect and trust. Inspiration communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, and expresses important purposes in simple ways. Intellectual stimulation promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving. Individualized consideration provides personal attention, treats each employee individually, and coaches and advises. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-35 Charismatic/transformational leadership is not uniformly better  Approaches with special emphasis on vision often emphasize training.  Dark-side charismatic leaders can have negative effects on followers. *Charismatic and transformational leadership is important not only at the top of an organization. A number of experts argue that for an organization to be successful, it must apply at all levels of organizational leadership. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-36 Leadership-Membership Exchange Theory  Shows t ...
Purchase answer to see full attachment
Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool's honor code & terms of service.

Final Answer

Attached.

Running head: MANAGEMENT 301

1

Management 301
Student’s Name
Institution

MANAGEMENT 301

2

Question 1
Leadership is the art of inspiring a group of persons to act toward attaining a common
target (Schermerhorn, 2015). Within a business setting, this may imply directing employees as
well as colleagues with a strategy to meet the firm’s needs.

The primary difference between

managers and leaders is that leaders have people follow them whereas managers have persons
who work for them. Leaders paint an image of what they view as likely and motivate and engage
their persons in tuning that mission into reality whereas managers concentrate on se...

ProfOscar (14080)
Rice University

Anonymous
Solid work, thanks.

Anonymous
The tutor was great. I’m satisfied with the service.

Anonymous
Goes above and beyond expectations !

Studypool
4.7
Trustpilot
4.5
Sitejabber
4.4
Similar Questions
Related Tags