ASB 202 Arizona State University Immigration and Ethnic Essay

ASB 202

Arizona State University


Question Description

I need support with this Social Science question so I can learn better.

Part 1 of the midterm exam consists of two short essays.

Choose two of the following four questions and write essays based on them. Each short essay should not be more than two/three pages (doubled-spaced).

1) Describe the differences and similarities between assimilation, ethnic pluralism, and transnationalism for immigrants. Which do you think is the best way for immigrants to adapt to the host society and why?

2) Do the benefits of migration outweigh the costs of migration for women? In other words, do women have more to gain or more to lose from migration (for instance, compared to men)? You can think about this issue in terms of the causes of migration, the relative difficulty/ease of migrating for women, the occupational and economic status of women migrants in the host society, or the impact of migration on women’s gender and social status within the family/household.

3) Discuss how either refugees or diasporic migrants are different from or similar to the “ordinary” labor/economic migrants that we have examined for most of the course so far (your essay should analyze either refugees or diasporas, but not both). How might refugees or diasporic migrants face transnationalism and identity issues or settlement/citizenship rights differently (or similarly) to economic immigrants? (you don’t have to cover all these issues—choose a couple of them to discuss)

4) Human Rights Watch, a global NGO (Non-Government Organization), has concluded that the human rights situation for immigrant workers in many countries is not very good. You have been asked to therefore write a brief report recommending ways in which immigrant rights can be better protected. What sorts of immigration and citizenship policies do you recommend that governments adopt to improve the human rights situation for immigrants? Should action be taken at the national or international level?

Attached the required readings, the essays should use course material.

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Assimilation and Ethnic Pluralism/Multiculturalism Definition of Assimilation Assimilation=process in which minority immigrant groups come to adopt the dominant majority culture and become socially incorporated into majority society In last several decades, we have shifted from an assimilation to an ethnic pluralism/multiculturalism ideology Ethnic pluralism/multiculturalism=immigrants/minorities do not have to fully culturally assimilate to become integrated into American society but can/should retain their cultural differences Problems with the Concept of Cultural Assimilation Cultural Assimilation Benefits: Immigrants who culturally assimilate experience more majority social acceptance and socioeconomic mobility There are negative psychological consequences to cultural assimilation Ethnic Pluralism/Multiculturalism Most Americans today probably prefer ideology of ethnic pluralism/multiculturalism Are assimilation and ethnic pluralism opposed? Two types of ethnically plural/multicultural societies Assimilation as Inevitable? Cultural assimilation is an inevitable process that eventually occurs, especially by the second generation Language is the best indicator of cultural assimilation There is ethnic persistence (maintenance of cultural differences) into the second/third generations, but often only symbolic ethnic cultural differences (food, festivities, etc.) Factors Influencing Rate of Cultural Assimilation Why do certain immigrant groups/individuals culturally assimilate faster, whereas others maintain their cultural differences more? Three Types of Assimilation Cultural assimilation=adoption of dominant majority culture by immigrants/minorities (“acculturation”) Social assimilation=incorporation of immigrants/minorities into society’s dominant institutions (socioeconomic success) (“structural assimilation”) Identity assimilation=immigrants adopt an identity as a member of majority society (“100% American”) instead of identifying with an ethnic/immigrant minority group Three Types of Assimilation Relationship between cultural and social assimilation Assimilation versus Ethnic Pluralism/Persistence? Shouldn’t dichotomize cultural assimilation versus ethnic pluralism as if they are mutually exclusive opposites (immigrants/minorities can do both) Gender and Migration Definition of Gender Gender=culturally relative beliefs/perceptions about men/women that vary from society to society Sex=universal biological differences between women and men Background on Gender and Migration Migration has masculine connotation (men migrate abroad first, work hard, send remittances, then call over wives/kids after he settles in host society) International hierarchy of receiving countries for Asian female migrants How is Female Migration Different from Male Migration? Types of immigrant jobs that women perform Most work in service industry (most do feminine jobs) Since many service sector jobs are feminine, female immigrants often have an easier time finding employment than men How is Female Migration Different from Male Migration? Female immigrants are subject to much more abuse and exploitation than men Exploitative Nature of Female Immigrant Jobs Sex workers Domestic household workers/caregivers (especially live-in) can also be exploited/abused Mail order brides are sometimes trapped in abusive and exploitative marriages Causes of Female Migration Many women migrate more as chain migrants/family reunification migrants Most women migrate for economic reasons, especially those migrating alone to work as unskilled workers Some women migrate to escape gender constraints Causes of Female Migration Economic pull factor=strong and increasing demand for unskilled “feminine” immigrant labor in developed countries Women from developing countries are in high demand for such feminine service sector jobs because they are seen as “traditional,” docile, and submissive Gender and Migration Impact of Government Policies on Female Migration Government immigration policies are frequently biased against women=harder for women to immigrate than men Emigration policies=some sending country governments can also have policies that determine who can/can’t emigrate Women are migrating despite government immigration and emigration policies that restrict female migration Impact of Immigration on Gender Relations in Families Migration frequently improves gender status of immigrant women (leads to more equality within family in terms of socioeconomic status and gender roles) Socioeconomic status: — When migrate with husband, women begin to work outside home and earn wages and contribute economically to family — Increased economic power of wife increases her social status in family Gender roles of husband/wife in home become more equal: — After immigration, wife also contributes to public realm outside home by working/earning money — She has less time for household chores and have more power inside home, so can demand that husband contribute more to private/domestic realm (do more household work) Women prefer to settle in host society more than men (because of socioeconomic and gender gains) Men want to return home more (because lose social status, gender domination over wives and want to regain male status/privilege) Impact of Immigration on Gender Relations in Families Impact of immigration is not always positive for women’s family status—there are constraints/limitations in their gender gains Female Migration and Gender Equality Is migration a form of gender liberation for unskilled female migrant workers? Connection between female immigration from developing countries and and greater equality for and “liberation” of women living in U.S. Female Migration and Gender Equality Is female liberation/gender equality a concern/issue for immigrant women? Gender and Migrant Transnationalism Number of married women migrate by themselves to U.S., leave husband and kids behind, and maintain transnational families Many husbands back in sending country often don’t do housework/take care of kids even when their wife emigrates abroad and becomes the family’s economic provider Gender and Migrant Transnationalism Many more male immigrants migrate by themselves and leave kids/family behind than women Diasporas Definition Diaspora=community created by the migratory dispersal of one ethnic group to various countries around the globe ( because of ethnic/political/religious persecution ) who are united by sense of affiliation to their ethnic homeland (where the ethnic group/ancestors originated) — Different from ordinary immigration, which usually involves only two countries (migrants leave sending country and immigrate to receiving country) — Homeland=country/land of origin to which one feels an emotional attachment — Recently, scholars have broadened definition of diasporas to include those whose migration is not forced, but voluntary (for economic, professional, or other reasons) Different Types of Diasporas Victim diasporas (classic definition)=diasporas created by forced migration due to ethnic/political/religious persecution (refugees) Economic diasporas=diasporas created by migratory dispersal to various countries voluntarily for economic reasons Colonial diasporas=diasporas created by people colonizing various countries Creates colonial victim diasporas Diasporas and Homelands Diasporic communities scattered/dispersed around globe are united by affiliation to the ethnic homeland (where the diasporic group originated) Types of homeland: — Natal homeland=country/place where born — Ethnic homeland=country/place where the ethnic group originated § Ethnic homelands are not always a politically independent country/nationstate § Ethnic homelands may be imagined because of uncertainty about its location (a distant, ancient, mythical place) — Most diasporic peoples have some conception of a place in the world where they ethnically originated and feel a strong attachment to this ethnic homeland (it unites the people in the diaspora) Diasporas and Transnationalism Diasporic communities are transnational because they consist of people scattered across more than one nation-state who maintain social connections with each other across national borders — Diasporic peoples maintain transnational social connections/ties to their ethnic homeland but also to other people in the diaspora in different countries Diagram of diasporic communities Jews in U.S. Jews in Western Europe Ethnic Homeland (Israel) Jews in Eastern Europe Jews in other Middle Eastern countries Jews in Latin America Diasporas and Transnationalism Diasporas have transnational identities (identification with two or more nation-states) — Diasporic people identify transnationally with both the host country where they live and their ethnic homeland — But (unlike ordinary immigrants), they also identify transnationally with other people in the diaspora in other countries § Nikkeijin ( ) The Jewish Diaspora Oldest and best example of a diaspora and also the diaspora that historically has had the greatest impact on immigration to the U.S. — The largest community in the Jewish diaspora resides in the U.S. (close to 5.3 million, almost same as population of Jews living in Israel) Why have Jews been persecuted throughout history? — Jews always lived outside the ethnic homeland (immigrant minorities) — Adherence to Judaism and refusal of Jews to convert to majority religions — Jews have been economically successful in most countries (became source or resentment) — Until post World War II, Jews never had own state (Israel) that could represent Jews around world and defend them Anti-semitism has been really bad during certain historical periods, but sporadic, not constant Most Jews for most of history were not being persecuted, massacred, exiled but were left relatively unmolested The Jewish Diaspora Israel created by UN in 1947 (partitioned region in Middle East called Palestine and established a Jewish state to protect Jews after Holocaust) — Palestinians had their territory confiscated and were expelled and forced to migrate to various Middle Eastern countries as refugees (created Palestinian victim diaspora) — Millions of Jews in the diaspora return migrated to Israel, especially from Eastern Europe (Russia) and other Middle Eastern countries The Jewish diaspora today (13.7 million) — Jews are scattered throughout world—Middle East, Western/Eastern Europe, U.S., Canada, even Latin America — Largest populations in the Jewish diaspora (outside Israel) are U.S., France, Canada, United Kingdom • Considerable diversity in Jewish diaspora in terms of race, culture, and religion Definition of a Jew Are Jews an ethnic group or just religious group? — Ethnic groups=peoples who are different from majority society because of shared culture and racial descent — A Jew is someone whose mother is Jewish (ethnic group based on culture and racial descent) § Ethnicity is primordial (partly determined by birth/race)—can’t just change ethnicity at will by adopting culture of a different ethnic group — A Jew is also someone who converted to the religion of Judaism (simply a religious/cultural group and not only an ethnic group) Immigrant Rights and Citizenship Immigrant Settlement and Human Rights Immigrants often end up living long-term, indefinitely, or permanently in host society even if most initially immigrate intending to stay only temporarily Human rights=basic rights that all people should be granted by virtue of being a human being with social, economic, and political needs Types of Immigrant Rights Civil rights — Inviolability of person (freedom from violence, torture, persecution, unlawful acts by government) — Freedom of movement within host country and between host/home country — Equality before the law Economic rights (worker rights) — Right to decent job at decent wage, right to change jobs — Right to worker protection against employer abuse through government’s working standards/minimum wage laws — Right to form/join labor unions to fight for worker rights and their enforcement Types of Immigrant Rights Political rights — Right to political representation (right to vote in local/national elections, right to run for political office) — Freedom of assembly/association for political purposes (political mobilization, organizing demonstrations/protests) Social rights — Freedom from social discrimination based on one’s race, gender, and beliefs — Right to education and medical care — Right to other social/public services and social welfare Cultural rights — Right to maintain one’s own distinct culture (freedom from forced cultural assimilation) In most countries of immigration, many immigrants are not given these rights, and even if they are, they cannot always exercise them Citizenship Status of Immigrants Citizenship=group of rights that individuals are granted and exercise as legitimate members of society/country National (formal) citizenship (most important form of citizenship)=rights individuals are granted and exercise as legal members of the nation-state (granted by governments) National citizenship is not just about conferral/exercise of rights, but also entails civic obligations and responsibilities Not all people who live in a country are national citizens (most immigrants are not), but they are still granted limited rights Citizenship Status of Immigrants There are various levels of citizenship for immigrants (which correlate with amount of rights they receive) that are based on their residence status Gradations of citizenship with national citizenship being the highest form with most rights Citizenship Status of Immigrants • Permanent residents (denizens)—given almost all rights of national citizens except: — National citizenship=highest form of legal residence with most rights Obtaining National Citizenship By naturalization=acquisition of citizenship by legal immigrants (with permanent residence) Determinants of Naturalization Immigrants who decide to settle permanently tend to naturalize more Level of cultural assimilation/social integration/national loyalty to host society Number of additional rights that receive if become citizen Whether or not lose home country nationality if naturalize Obtaining National Citizenship for Second Generation Descendants of Immigrants By birth — Jus soli (principle of soil)—citizenship given to individuals born in national territory (on soil) regardless of whether parents were also citizens — Jus sanguinis (principle of blood)—citizenship given to individuals whose parents are already nationals (citizenship passed down by blood descent) Other Types of Citizenship for Immigrants Nation-states (national governments) are not only political entity that grant rights (citizenship) Global citizenship=rights all humans have as member of globe (granted by international governmental organizations=international human rights regime) Global Citizenship Some scholars suggest that global citizenship is a new form of migrant citizenship that is becoming alternative to national citizenship and even supercedes it However, immigrant rights advocates, lawyers, and courts in nationstates sometimes use international conventions that the country has ratified to defend the human rights of immigrants In general, however, national citizenship rights granted by nation-states remain much more important than global citizenship ...
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Hello there,I hope you are having a great day. I just finished your requested work. I tried my best to deliver a quality paper that meets your expectations. I closely followed your request in order to make sure that I am not missing anything.As you will be able to see, I presented the file under the form of an essay which starts with an introduction and after that answers the two questions. My chosen questions were:*Question 1*Question 2As you can see, the paper has a total of 5 pages. You stated that 6 pages are the maximum amount so I tried to limit myself to 5 full pages to avoid getting points deducted for this.References were also included together with in-text citations. As you can see, all the references are from academic resources and are no longer than 5 years old.I also understand the importance of an original paper. This work was fully written by me in order to avoid any form of plagiarism. As the plag scan results state "Results: 0 matches in 0 sources" this means that the paper is fully original.It was a pleasure working with you and I hope I will be able to provide my assistance in the near future too.

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1.General Information About the Paper
File Name: Immigration and Ethnics

Format: APA
Type : Questions & Answers
Number of Words: 1471 words
Pages: 7 pages (1 cover page + 5 content page + 1 reference page)
Subject: Essay
References: Yes
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Answering : Question 1 and Question 2


Immigration and Ethnic
Institutional Affiliation




Immigration and Ethnic
For decades, man has been migrating from one place to another for various reasons.
Different ethnic groups migrated from one geographical area to another due to multiple factors
such as to look for food, better climatic conditions, and also for pasture and water for their
animals. In the modern world, people migrate for numerous reasons such as jobs, education, or in
some cases, due to conflicts. Consequently, during this process, the immigrants face various
issues such as coping up with the new environment or facing rejection from the native people
and their leaders. Interestingly, it is women who are always greatly affected by the challenges
they experience on transit to their migration destinations while other issues of assimilation,
ethnic pluralism and transnationalism broadly affect the whole migration lot.
Assimilation, Ethnic Pluralism and Transnationalism
Migration of man has been there for centuries causing people to adapt to various cultures.
The aspect of assimilation is a necessary process that enables the minority groups of immigrants
to adapt to the culture of the native people in that geographical area (Rumbaut, 2015). For
instance, immigrants tend to adopt the way of life of the natives, and this includes how they
dress, talk, and other cultural norms and beliefs. Assimilation occurs in different forms, namely:
cultural, social, and identity assimilation. Cultural assimilation occurs when an immigrant group
adopt the beliefs and norms of the majority group. The social assimilation involves the
immigrants adopting the social morals of the natives while the identity assimilation entails the
immigrants' adoption to the ethnic group of the majority society. According to Rumbaut (2015),
ethnic pluralism occurs when immigrants fail to assimilate the culture of their host by adhering



to their original culture and tradition. In the context of ethnic pluralism, there is a broad diversity
of cultures and customs, which is different from assimilation, whereby the minority immigrants
accepts and adopt the cultural beliefs of the native people.
The transnationalism occurs when people from a specific nation spread across different
countries but maintain their social connections and ties with each other across various
jurisdictions (Green & Waldinger, 2016). For example, the Jews are a transnational community
as the...

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