SOC 240 Ashford University Synthesis of Studies on Bullying Literature Review

SOC 240

ashford university


Question Description

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You are to write a 1050 to 1750 word literature review (in addition to the title page and references page) on the articles you selected for Week 2, synthesizing the findings in the articles that you found on your topic. You may incorporate other articles or references to support your discussion, as needed. Use APA citation and reference guidelines.

What is a literature review?
A literature review is a synthesis and critique of the published research in a given area of research. Your focus is on the findings of the studies you are exploring – their methods, approach, results, and implications – rather than the broad topic overall. It should synthesize findings in specific areas. Thus, you should look for themes in the range of articles and write about them as you group common themes.

Synthesize the material you found. In other words, find connected themes in the different areas you cover. Occasionally you might discuss individual articles, but only if the article is very unique and no other article has similar findings. The synthesis should focus strictly on existing, published research.

What else should you include besides a synthesis of research?
Be sure to include in your review other potential areas that still need to be explored. What unanswered questions are there? What holes are in the research that you have not yet found answers to? What contradictions are in the research will you seek to explore?

Examples of Synthesized Findings for Literature Review:

College students were found to have a large number of conflicts with roommates (Darsey, 2003; Smith, 2001; Yarmouth, 2005). Researchers also found that roommate conflicts were most frequent during the first semester of college (Lotspiech, 2004; Nominskee, 2001; Zackarov, 2000). Morissey (2004) found a reduction of roommate conflicts continued as students progressed from freshman to seniors, with seniors having the fewest roommate conflicts. However, Ellensworth (2001) found no correlation with year in school and frequency of roommate conflict. The contradiction between Ellensworth’s and Morissey’s findings suggest that additional research is needed in this area.

Ellensworth’s (2001) research was strictly quantitative, lacking a full picture of the contexts or reasons for the specific conflicts. It asked people to mark the frequency of their conflicts and types of people with whom they typically disputed. Morissey (2004) conducted interviews that allowed participants to provide an explanation for the reasons for the conflicts, and the contexts (dorm roommates, apartment roommates, house roommates, etc.). However, she interviewed far fewer people than Ellensworth surveyed.

Combining Ellensworth’s surveys with Morissey’s interview questions and utilizing a research team to increase the number of interviews could provide more details about the conflicts and contexts, and allow us to further look into the question of year in school and conflict behavior.

DeSoto (2005) and Craig (2004) found that most students lack an understanding of the term “binge drinking.” This research finding suggests that earlier investigations that utilized the words “binge drinking,” as an identifier for students have limited use. It also suggests that researchers should be very careful when using terms to make sure that research participants fully understand the terms being used.

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Running head: RESEARCH ARTICLE SUMMARIES Research Article Summaries Lynn Capobianco Ashford University This paper is being submitted on March 22, 2020, for Brett Gordon’s RES 5240 Applied Research Methods class. 1 Running head: RESEARCH ARTICLE SUMMARIES 2 Research Article Summaries Bullying is the intimidation of people who are perceived as vulnerable. Bullying has been in existence since the nineteenth century, but studies on bullying and its impacts on students emerged in the second half of the twentieth century. Currently, bullying can take forms like a physical force, spreading rumors, destruction of property, verbal aggression, and cyberbullying. All kinds of bullying have negative impacts on the academic performance of the students, social life, and the mental well-being of the students. Research Question 1. What are the effects of bullying on a student? Articles Malian, I. M. (2012). Bully versus Bullied: A Qualitative Study of Students with Disabilities in Inclusive Settings. Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education, 2(10), 3. Original Abstract This qualitative study observed bullying patterns and trends of students with and without disabilities in inclusive settings. The participants were fourth-grade students eligible for receiving special education services in inclusive, resource, and self-contained settings. Qualitative data were collected while students were in class and during specials and nonacademic times. The data suggests that students with disabilities are bullied and are themselves bullies at times. There appeared to be a relationship between personal characteristics and the incidence of bullying. Further, adult intervention was reported to be lax during incidences of bullying. Educational implications for schools, teachers and teacher educators are presented. Running head: RESEARCH ARTICLE SUMMARIES 3 Synopsis Bullying in public schools is a national problem that has to be addressed. Bullying can be spreading rumors about others, taunting, hitting, poking, and kicking, among other actions that humiliate an individual. A study on the victimization of students between grades 4 and 8 reveals that bullying lowers the self-esteem of students. Since bullying lowers the self-worth of an individual, experiencing it for a long time exposes an individual to harmful effects. One of the reasons cited for bullying is the inability to fit in a group. Even though bullying affects typical students, its effects are higher for students with disabilities. Students with learning and physical disabilities are likely to be bullied compared to their peers who are not disabled. Students who have disabilities are more likely to have fewer friends, and this exposes them to bullying. Bullying for students with disabilities increases when they are in special education compared to general education classes. This means that the separation of special needs students from the rest accelerates cases of bullying. The study conducted by Malian (2012) is aimed at studying bullying among students with special needs. The participants for the study are two females and two males in grade four. The ages of the students are between 9 and 10. The students were observed while in the cafeteria, resource room, playground, and general education classrooms. The observation occurred for three weeks. It targeted areas whereby the disabled students interact with other students. From the observation, it was found that students engaged in attention-seeking behaviors that resulted in being bullied. When bullies reform or move to other schools, it results in a void that the victims will seek to fill. Students with disabilities were found to exhibit some superiority compared to typical students. The students felt superior because they can attract the attention of the teacher, and teachers take their concerns seriously. Disabled students were also found to engage in Running head: RESEARCH ARTICLE SUMMARIES 4 bullying. One male student who is confined in a wheelchair used his wheelchair several times to physically harass other students. The demerit of this study is that only eight disabled students participated, and therefore, the findings of the data cannot be applied to a broad population. This study employed qualitative data. This is evident from the method of data collection use. Observation is used to collect qualitative data. Maran, A, Tirassa, M., & Begotti, T. (2017). Teachers' intervention in school Bullying: A qualitative analysis on Italian Teachers. In Frontiers in Education (Vol. 2, p. 36). Frontiers. Original Abstract The chances that a teacher will intervene in a case of bullying appear to be associated with several variables, which may be resumed as the confidence that he has in his capability to deal with problems at school. In accordance with Social Cognitive Theory and Attribution Theory, the three-factor model of self-confidence was used to investigate the differences between preservice teachers (PSTs) and in-service teachers (ISTs). A qualitative approach was used to examine the strategies of intervention suggested against bullying at school by teachers. Results showed that there are different profiles to PSTs and ISTs. In both groups, participants with low outcome expectations (OEs) revealed a propension to intervention in the classroom, while those characterized by high external locus of control tend to intervene only upon the victims and the bullies. ISTs with high OEs are the group most likely to intervene directly because they are self-confident in their abilities to put an end to the problem. Overall, the data show that professional experience is important for the interpretation of the phenomenon and Running head: RESEARCH ARTICLE SUMMARIES 5 remedies suggested. This does not mean that interventions suggested by IST are necessarily effective, but that they tend to have a stronger sense of self-efficacy. Synopsis Bullying is repeated acts of aggression against a person, and it is a result of power imbalance. Past research had focused on the impacts of bullying on the future behavior of a student. Since the majority of bullying incidents are reported to have occurred in schools, it is vital to note that the role of teachers in identifying preventing bullying from happening. The actions teachers take when intervening in bullying instances reinforce the behavior or inhibits it from happening again. When the students believe that the teacher is disapproving of their actions, they are likely to stop it, but when they perceive that the teacher is comfortable with their actions, the bullying will persist. Teacher's intervention when they encounter instances of bullying differs according to the years they have in service. Preservice teachers feel that they can effectively handle bullying based on their recent experiences as students. Teachers who have a stint in teaching are likely to leave students to sort their differences alone. This could be that the teachers are not confident in their abilities to handle the cases. Teachers who handle bullying cases decisively are likely to be respected by the students, while those who fail to assert their authority on matters bullying are likely to be taken less seriously. In this study, 238 preservice teachers and those who are already teaching were interviewed. The majority of teachers that participated in the study were females reflecting the significant percentage of female teachers in Italy. The participants were given questionnaires to fill. For teachers already working, additional questions were added about the number of years they have taught and the grades they are teaching. One of the questions required teachers to describe what they can do when they encounter cases of bullying. From the study, it was Running head: RESEARCH ARTICLE SUMMARIES 6 discovered that their experiences guide the perceptions of preservice teachers on how they can manage classes as students. Basing interventions on past experiences as a student can result in burnouts, and this can affect the teachers' ability to deliver. Teachers in service, based on their many years of teaching, have devised a way of dealing with bullying, and their efforts are effective in preventing bullying. A qualitative approach was used in this study. The collection of data was done using interviews and questionnaires. In the questionnaires, the participants were allowed to give their opinions on what they can do to stop bullying. Shams, H., Garmaroudi, G., & Nedjat, S. (2017). Factors related to bullying: a qualitative study of early adolescent students. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 19(5). Original Abstract Background: Bullying is considered a serious health problem in primary schools, high schools, and universities. It can have negative effects on both the bully and who is bullied. The negative consequences of it include depression, anxiety, drug abuse, etc. These consequences can be devastating in many areas of the person's future life like his/her relations with other people. The current study aims at investigating the factors that students and teachers believe can affect bullying. Methods: A qualitative design based on content analysis approach was used to collect the data and analyze the perspective of 72 Iranian students, 12 teachers, and 9 parents chosen by a purposeful sampling strategy in Gonabad. Semi-structured interviews were held in order to collect the data. Sampling was continued until the data saturation. The data were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis approach by MAXQUDA 2010 software. Running head: RESEARCH ARTICLE SUMMARIES 7 Results: In this study, five factors associated with bullying were identified. The factors include 'psychological factors,' 'family factors,' 'school factors,' 'socioeconomic factors,' and the influence of the media.' The first factor includes four sub-factors of psychiatric disorder, pride and arrogance, jealousy, and imposing will and opinions on others. The second factor includes four sub-factors of family violence, wrong parenting, siblings' bullying behavior, and parental employment. The third factor includes four sub-factors of not paying attention to the students' inappropriate behaviors, discrimination against the students, teachers' behaviors, and peer influence. The fourth factor includes three sub-factors of the lack of patience, neighbors' influence on our behaviors, and poverty. And the fifth factor includes two sub-factors of the influence of social media and the internet and violent video games. Conclusions: Bullying has different aspects and, therefore, we should pay attention to its psychological causes, family problems, school problems, and social and economic factors, etc. we should pay more attention to the lack of patience as a religious-mental variable which seems to be closely linked with a behavioral issue. Synopsis Bullying is the act of hurting another person. Bullying is a global issue that affects school-going children. The negative consequences of bullying are felt in both the school and family level. At school, the adverse effects of bullying can affect the educational success and the social life of a student. Victims of bullying have social phobia, isolation, diminished selfconfidence, and loneliness. Bullying can force a student to drop out of school since it promotes under-achievement. About 600 million students are affected annually by bullying in the world. In Tehran, 725 students are involved in bullying. About 28% report to have been bullied, 9.5% are bullies, and 34.5% are victims and perpetrators of bullying. Past studies have applied quantitative Running head: RESEARCH ARTICLE SUMMARIES 8 research to study bullying. Quantitative research cannot yield substantial results since bullying is a social issue and can, therefore, be studied adequately through qualitative research. The present study was conducted in schools in Gonabad city. The participants of the study are teachers, parents, and students. The selection of student participants was pegged on gender, geographical area, and age, while for parents, the selection was based on educational status, job, and gender. The participants were 72 students, 12 teachers, and nine parents. Semistructured interviews were the data collection method applied in the study, and interview duration varied from 60 to 90 minutes. Mental, economic, social, mass media, school, and family factors are some of the factors that contribute to bullying according to the study. Victims of bullying suffer from anxiety and, therefore, can be easily picked while the perpetrators have emotional disorders. Children from families whereby there is a weak link between parents and children are the significant perpetrators of bullying. Bullying thrives in a school environment whereby teachers do little work to prevent bullying. The response of the teachers towards bullying cases can either discourage or encourage the vice. On socioeconomic factors, children from poor societies are likely to be bullied by those from wealthy backgrounds. Violent videogames and films on violent behaviors are promoting violent behaviors that are manifested in bullying other students. Bullying has negative impacts on the education performance and mental well-being of students. The qualitative approach was used to collect data. The participants were interviewed for a period ranging from 60 to 90 minutes. An interview is a qualitative approach to collecting data. Al-Raqqad, H. K., Al-Bourini, E. S., Al Talahin, F. M., & Aranki, R. M. E. (2017). The Impact of School Bullying on Students' Academic Achievement from Teachers' Point of View. International Education Studies, 10(6), 44-50. Running head: RESEARCH ARTICLE SUMMARIES 9 Original Abstract The study aimed to investigate school bullying impact on students' academic achievement from teachers' perspectives in Jordanian schools. The study used a descriptive-analytical methodology. The research sample consisted of all schools' teachers in Amman West Area (in Jordan). The sample size consisted of 200 teachers selected from different schools from Amman West area in Jordan. A self-administrated questionnaire was designed according to research objectives and hypotheses and distributed over research sample subjects. All distributed questionnaires were collected. They were, coded and analyzed by using SPSS version 18. The research results indicated that school bullying exists in all schools, regardless if they are governmental or private ones. The study also concluded that school bullying affects student's academic achievement, either victims or the bullies. Synopsis Bullying is the harassment of people with weaker powers in society. Bullying has been in existence for years, and children experience it from kindergarten to secondary schools. One can be bullied while in the fields, class, bathroom, or school buses. Studies show that bullies make schools unsafe for students. Bullying is global issues, and students in different parts of the world are bullied daily. Bullying affects the academic performance of a student and their selfconfidence. This suppresses their personalities, and they end up missing enjoyable opportunities in school. The different types of bullying are verbal, physical, sexual, psychological, and cyberbullying. This study aimed to research on the effects of bullying on the academic achievement of a student. The researchers reviewed the literature on the impacts of bullying on the academic performance of students, and they found that bullying affects academic performance since it lowers the interest of the student in academics. Grade 6 and 7 teachers Running head: RESEARCH ARTICLE SUMMARIES 10 participated in the study, and a total of 200 teachers from different schools participated. The teachers were given self-administered questionnaires, while secondary data was obtained from books, journals, internet, and periodicals. On examination of the questionnaire, it was found to have 0.91 reliability making it acceptable. From the study, bullying is rampant in schools and cannot be avoided. The respondents claimed that even though bullying was present in their schools, there was no way to minimize it. The teachers also reported that bullying has negative impacts on the performance of the students. Bullying creates an environment that does not support learning, and the bullied students end up performing poorly. For the bullies, bullying reduces their interest in learning as they focus on harassing other students. From the study, the researchers concluded that bullying is significant at α≤0.05, meaning that bullying has negative impacts on the academic performance of the students. Even though the level of significance varies between private and public schools, bullying affects the academic performance of the students to some levels. These findings indicate that bullying has disastrous effects, and therefore, school management and teachers have to formulate measures to reduce cases of bullying in schools. A quantitative approach was used to accomplish this study. After data was collected using the self-administered questionnaires, it was analyzed using SPSS. SPSS is an essential tool in analyzing quantitative data. Fullchange, A., & Furlong, M. J. (2016). An exploration of effects of bullying victimization from a complete mental health perspective. Sage Open, 6(1), 2158244015623593. Original Abstract Running head: RESEARCH ARTICLE SUMMARIES 11 This study explored the effects of being bullied from a dual-factor lens, specifically examining the relation between victimization and constructs that contribute to social-emotional well-being. Prior to carrying out the main analyses, the factor structure of self-report items related to experiencing bullying and harassment from the California Healthy Kids Survey, which was administered to more than 14,000 high school students, was examined to establish that these items represent an overall factor: students' experience of victimization. This factor was then used as an independent variable in a series of planned comparisons with a dependent variable represented by constructs addressed by the Social-Emotional Health Survey–Secondary: beliefin-self, emotional competence, belief-in-others, and engaged living. With increased frequency of victimization, suicidality increased, and belief-in-others decreased. For other constructs, beliefin-self, engaged living, and depression, there were significant differences found between individuals who had experienced frequencies of bullying as low as less than once a month and those who did not experience bullying at all but no further detrimental impacts were seen with even higher frequencies of victimization, indicating that being victimized at all is significantly worse than not being victimized for these variables. Implications and future directions for research are explored. Synopsis Past studies on mental health have focused on existing mental health conditions. Studies on bullying reveal that menace contributes to mental health. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies on the effects of bullying on the mental health of victims reveal that bullying increases the likelihood of having suicidal tendencies and depression. Victimization also causes poor academic performance due to an increase in psychological stress and a decrease in student involvement in academics. Students who have been bullied have challenges making friends, and Running head: RESEARCH ARTICLE SUMMARIES 12 this creates loneliness that can affect the mental and physical health of the student. Past studies on bullying reveal that victims of bullying have a low belief in themselves, and this reduces their academic performance. Studies also indicate that peer intervention mechanisms reduce the occurrence of bullying. Bullying reduces empathy, and this diminishes the psychological dispositions of the victims hen ...
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Final Answer


Synthesis of Studies on Bullying outline
Thesis statement: A synthesis of the identified published studies regarding the effects of bullying
will reveal comprehensive recommendations for schools and research areas that still need to be



Literature Review
a. Method
b. Approach
c. Results
d. Implications




Synthesis of Studies on Bullying
Student’s Name
Professor’s Name


Synthesis of Studies on Bullying
Students, either in preschool or young adults, are susceptible to bullying, which has
adverse effects on their overall wellbeing. Researchers have conducted surveys to evaluate the
impact of bullying among students. The benefits of the findings have influenced the
identification of interventions that educators can implement to help the affected students to
recover. A synthesis of the identified published studies regarding the effects of bullying will
reveal comprehensive recommendations for schools and research areas that still need to be
Literature Review
Currently, bullying, whether physical or verbal, has severe problems among primary,
high school, and college-going students. As established by Shams, Garmaroudi, and Nedjat
(2017), parents and teachers do not have a clue concerning the rate of the bullying issue in
schools. This is a challenge having in mind that the victims only disclose their encounters when
it is too late if teachers or parents do not recognize any problematic issues. An alarming aspect
by Malian (2012) is that a specific group of students with disabilities are more likely to be
exposed to bullying from physically fit students. Hence, Maran, Tira...

agneta (51451)
Cornell University

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