Humanities
HIST 101 Western Kentuky University US History to 1877 Midterm Questions

hist 101

Western Kentuky University

HIST

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I’m working on a History question and need guidance to help me study.

define 10 terms, each one not more than three sentences.

choose 2 of three questions and answer them in ur best essay style.

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Decline of Empires Eastern Zhou Dynasty • By 722 B.C.E. the power of the royal family was weakening due to wars and internal issues • Regional lords gained more power • Regional lords battled each other from 403 to 221 B.C.E. for power during the “Warring States” period Four Great Systems of Thought and Religion • Chinese Philosophy – includes Confucianism, Daoism and Legalism • Indian Religion – includes Hinduism, Jains and Buddhism • Hebrew Monotheism – includes Christianity and Islam • Greek Philosophy – beginning of intellectual thought, science and philosophy Confucius • Born in 551 B.C.E. to a lower noble family in northeastern China • A teacher and scholar • Lived during the later part of the Spring and Autumn Period of China • “Analects” are a collection of his teachings written by his disciples • Died in 479 B.C.E. Teachings of Confucius • Sought social harmony • Rulers should treat people with kindness, respect and love • People should respect their rulers as they do their parents • Believed in the natural goodness of human beings Teachings of Confucius • Believed that evil was a result of the breakdown of the feudal system • People should treat others as they would like to be treated • Believed good government requires good men • Believed correct behavior would bring order and stability • His teachings were ignored while he was alive Confucianism Today • • • • Over 6 million followers in the world 99.4 percent are in Asia Primary followers are in China and Taiwan Korea has the largest population of followers outside of China • Followers also present in Japan and Vietnam • “Life is really simple, but we insist on making it complicated” Laozi • Born in the 6th century B.C.E. • A contemporary of Confucius and believed to be his teacher • A scholar and writer • Work as the Keeper of the Archives for the Zhou royal court • Died in 531 B.C.E. Daoism (Taoism) • Founded on the teachings of Laozi • Author of the Tao Te Ching • Explained his teachings through paradox, analogy, repetition, ancient sayings and rhyme • Focuses on the individual and spiritual life Teachings of Laozi • • • • Promoted the “Dao, ” or way Promoted a simple life without desires Believed knowledge interfered with the Dao Life and death are two aspects of reality; the yin and yang • Death is simply a transition from being to nonbeing • Does not emphasize rigid rituals and social order Daoism Today • About 20 million followers in the world • There are about 30,000 followers in North America • Primary followers are in China and Taiwan • Many practice in conjunction with Confucianism, Buddhism and other religions • 1 of the 5 religious doctrines officially recognized by the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan Eastern Zhou Dynasty • The period of 771 – 476 B.C.E. is known as the Spring and Autumn of the Zhou dynasty • Last attempt of Zhou rulers to consolidate and centralize their power • Made governmental reforms in the regions they controlled • Created a system of registering peasants for tax purposes and army conscription The Warring Years (481 – 221 B.C.E.) • Each state relied a core of professional troops supported by conscripted peasants • Armies used iron armor, weapons and crossbows • Large state armies contained nearly 1 million men • Agricultural revolution in the Yellow River Valley led to an increase in the population Zhou Agricultural Revolution • Regional lords allowed peasants to own land in return for taxes and military service • Introduced new technologies, such as crop rotation, canals and irrigation systems • Wheat, millet and rice were the main staple crops grown • The population increase led to diminished resources Decline of the Zhou • Continued conflict and warfare between the seven states weakened the power of the king • Power became more focused with regional lords instead of the king • People looked to the local lord rather than the king for protection • In 256 B.C.E. the army of the Qin captured the city of Chengzhou and King Nan was killed The Upanishads • A later Vedic text promoted from 800 – 500 B.C.E. • Place a new emphasis on knowledge over ritual practices • Presented immortality as an escape from existence • Centered on the nature and mental actions of the individual The Upanishads • Believed the “samara,” or cycle of life and death, was never ending • Created the concept of “karma” to counter the samara • Emphasized good deeds over bad deeds • The concept of “dharma” gave acceptance to the actions of individuals Old Classes, or Varnas • The Brahman priest interpreted the Vedic text for the commoners • The Kshatriya, or warrior class, was the nobility or ruling class • The commoners • The laborers • Each “Janis”, or subclass was divided Hellenism, Commerce and Religion Macedonia • A kingdom north of Greece • Emerged as a state by the early 7th century B.C.E. • United as a kingdom under King Amyntas III around 392 B.C.E. • Became involved in the affairs of Greece • Adapted many aspects of Greek culture and society Phillip II of Macedon • Born the 3rd son to the royal family of Macedon in 382 B.C.E. • At the age of 14 offered as a hostage to the city of Thebes • Received his military and diplomatic education while a hostage • Held hostage until 365 B.C.E. Phillip II • • • • Returned to Macedon in 364 B.C.E. Became King of Macedon in 359 B.C.E. Developed ideas of expansion and conquest Introduced the idea of the phalanx infantry unit • Defeated an Athenian army in 359 B.C.E. • Consolidated his power in Macedon and northern Greece by 355 B.C.E. Phillip II • In 356 B.C.E. 3 great things happened to Phillip: conquest of Crenides, birth of Alexander and his horse won the Olympic Games • Conquered much of Greece by 337 B.C.E. • Developed plans for an invasion of Persia • Assassinated in October 336 B.C.E. at his daughters wedding Alexander the Great • Born in Pella in July 356 B.C.E. • A student of Aristotle from 343 - 340 B.C.E. • Acted as regent while Phillip II was away at war • In 337 B.C.E. Phillip II’s marriage and new born son threatened Alexander’s position Alexander the Great • Became ruler of Macedon in 336 B.C.E. after the assassination of his father • Phillip’s death led to open revolts in Greece • Began an campaign to eliminate possible rivals to the throne • Consolidated his power in 335 B.C.E. • In 335 B.C.E. began preparations to fulfill his father’s dream of invading the Persian Empire Invasion of the Persian Empire • Macedonian army consisted of about 48,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry and 120 ships • Alexander launched the invasion in early 334 B.C.E. when he crossed the Hellespont • Darius III initially failed to react to the movement of the Macedonian army • In April 334 B.C.E. Darius III dispatched an army to confront the Macedonian army Invasion of the Persian Empire • Persians were defeated at the Battle of Granicus in May 334 B.C.E. • Alexander laid siege to the city of Halicarnassus in 334 B.C.E. • Persians were defeated at the Battle of Issus in November 333 B.C.E. • Alexander laid siege to the city of Tyre in 332 B.C.E. Invasion of the Persian Empire • Alexander invaded Egypt in 332 B.C.E. and was seen as a liberator • Persians defeated at the Battle of Gaugamela in October 331 B.C.E. • Babylon and Susa fall in 330 B.C.E. • Alexander defeated the last Persian army in the winter of 330 B.C.E Alexander the Great • Conquered areas along the Indus River valley in 327 and 326 B.C.E. • Alexander’s soldiers refused to go any further • Created an empire that stretched from Greece in the west to India in the east • Died of fever in Babylon in 323 B.C.E. Empire of Alexander the Great Aftermath of Alexander’s Death • Alexander left no clear heir to his empire • His generals sought to keep the empire united • Disagreements among his generals led to years of internal fighting and civil wars • His generals began to establish independent territorial states and alliances • The issue was finally decided after the Battle of Ipsus in 301 B.C.E. Division of Alexander’s Empire • Cassander became King of Macedonia • Lysimachus took control of Thrace • Ptolemy I founded the Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt • Seleucus I founded the Seleucid Dynasty in Mesopotamia • Antigonus I founded the Antigonid Dynasty in Asia Minor The Hellenistic World • The successor states helped to spread Hellenistic culture • Introduced new ideas on philosophy and politics • Linked large areas with a “common Greek ” language • Expanded trade across lands of the former empire Schools of Greek Philosophy • Epicureans – founded in 307 B.C.E. by Epicurus of Athens; believed happiness in life could be achieve through knowledge of the workings of the world, limiting ones desires and reason • Stoics – founded in the 3rd century by Zeno of Citium; believed humans must live in harmony with nature and themselves in order to achieve happiness Leaders in Scientific Thought in Classical Greece • Euclid – considered the “father of geometry,” introduced the ideas of plane geometry, geometrical algebra, tangents and polygons • Archimedes – introduced the idea of the lever and hydrostatics • Heraclides – introduced the idea of the heliocentric universe • Aristarchus – introduced the idea that the sun and stars were stationary and the planets, including the earth, revolved around the sun with the earth revolving on an axis Mauryan Empire • Occupied areas vacated by the retreating army of Alexander the Great in 325 B.C.E. • Originated from the kingdom of Magadha south of the Ganges River • Established as an empire by Chandragupta Maurya around 322 B.C.E. • Largest empire ever on the Indian sub-continent Nomads and Territorial States Political Turmoil • A long term drought around 2200 B.C.E. led to widespread famine in the river valley cultures • Drought and famine led to the collapse of the Old Kingdom of Egypt around 2200 B.C.E. • Created economic and political chaos in the river valley cultures • Nomadic herding peoples migrated into the river valleys Indo – European Migrations • Migrations occurred across Eurasia, China, Mesopotamia and India • Nomadic tribes introduced new technologies, such as the chariot • Created new pressures for settled communities Indo - Europeans • By 2000 B.C.E. Indo-European tribes had spread across Eurasia • Introduced their language and culture to the indigenous peoples • Adapted parts of indigenous cultures • Nearly ½ of all humans today speak an IndoEuropean language, including those in Europe, the Iranian Plateau and northern India Creation of Territorial States • Continued drought and a new style of warfare created political chaos • By 2000 B.C.E. city states expanded their power to create territorial states • States based on a central ruler occurred in Egypt, Mesopotamia and China Middle Kingdom 2052 – 1786 B.C.E. • In 2052 B.C.E. rulers of Thebes reunite Egypt • Osiris, the god of the afterlife, became a central religious god • Expanded control into Nubia and the Sinai • Expanded territory over the next 250 years Middle Kingdom of Egypt • Political and religious institutions were greatly influenced by the rulers • Religion was used to promote the state and royal family • Rulers often linked themselves with a god • Pharaoh seen as caretaker of his people • Expanded trade routes and commerce Middle Kingdom • Constructed large temple complexes • Reached its peak between 1878 – 1814 B.C.E. • Collapsed around 1786 B.C.E. due to internal and external pressures, including a series of weak kings and drought New Kingdom 1550 – 1087 B.C.E. • Established around 1550 B.C.E. by Ahmose I • Known as the “empire period” of Egypt • The most prosperous period of Egyptian history • The title “pharaoh” came into use under Thutmose III New Kingdom of Egypt • Queen Hatsheput reigned 1479 to 1458 B.C.E was a successful pharaoh and longest ruling female • Reached its peak by 1270 B.C.E. • Rameses III reigned 1186 to 1155 B.C.E and is considered the last “great pharaoh” of Egypt • Declined due to weak rulers and continued warfare Old Babylonians • Around 2000 B.C.E. Amorites migrated into Mesopotamia • Gained control over the region by 1900 B.C.E. • Founded territorial states with ruling families • Reached its apex around 1750 B.C.E. under Hammurabi Hammurabi 1792 – 1750 B.C.E. • Began a campaign of conquest by 1765 B.C.E. • Centralized state authority • Created a new legal order to society • Code of Hammurabi established a code of conduct for the classes Code of Hammurabi • If one break a man's bone, they shall break his bone • If a freeman strike a freeman, he shall pay ten shekels of silver • If a man steal a watering-bucket or a harrow, he shall pay 3 shekels of silver • If a son strike his father, they shall cut off his fingers • If a man destroy the eye of another man, they shall destroy his eye The Aryans • Migrated from the Iranian Plateau and reached the Indus River Valley around 1800 B.C.E. • One of the earliest known Indo – European languages • Reached the Himalayas and the Ganges River Valley around 1200 B.C.E. Vedic Aryans • Introduced new languages and religious ideas into northern India • Adapted traditions and practices of local peoples • Transitioned to a settled agriculture lifestyle by 1100 B.C.E. • Tribal conflicts led to loose confederations • Introduced the caste system into India Nomads and Territorial States Political Turmoil • A long term drought around 2200 B.C.E. led to widespread famine in the river valley cultures • Drought and famine led to the collapse of the Old Kingdom of Egypt around 2200 B.C.E. • Created economic and political chaos in the river valley cultures • Nomadic herding peoples migrated into the river valleys Indo – European Migrations • Migrations occurred across Eurasia, China, Mesopotamia and India • Nomadic tribes introduced new technologies, such as the chariot • Created new pressures for settled communities Indo - Europeans • By 2000 B.C.E. Indo-European tribes had spread across Eurasia • Introduced their language and culture to the indigenous peoples • Adapted parts of indigenous cultures • Nearly ½ of all humans today speak an IndoEuropean language, including those in Europe, the Iranian Plateau and northern India Creation of Territorial States • Continued drought and a new style of warfare created political chaos • By 2000 B.C.E. city states expanded their power to create territorial states • States based on a central ruler occurred in Egypt, Mesopotamia and China Middle Kingdom 2052 – 1786 B.C.E. • In 2052 B.C.E. rulers of Thebes reunite Egypt • Osiris, the god of the afterlife, became a central religious god • Expanded control into Nubia and the Sinai • Expanded territory over the next 250 years Middle Kingdom of Egypt • Political and religious institutions were greatly influenced by the rulers • Religion was used to promote the state and royal family • Rulers often linked themselves with a god • Pharaoh seen as caretaker of his people • Expanded trade routes and commerce Middle Kingdom • Constructed large temple complexes • Reached its peak between 1878 – 1814 B.C.E. • Collapsed around 1786 B.C.E. due to internal and external pressures, including a series of weak kings and drought New Kingdom 1550 – 1087 B.C.E. • Established around 1550 B.C.E. by Ahmose I • Known as the “empire period” of Egypt • The most prosperous period of Egyptian history • The title “pharaoh” came into use under Thutmose III New Kingdom of Egypt • Queen Hatsheput reigned 1479 to 1458 B.C.E was a successful pharaoh and longest ruling female • Reached its peak by 1270 B.C.E. • Rameses III reigned 1186 to 1155 B.C.E and is considered the last “great pharaoh” of Egypt • Declined due to weak rulers and continued warfare Old Babylonians • Around 2000 B.C.E. Amorites migrated into Mesopotamia • Gained control over the region by 1900 B.C.E. • Founded territorial states with ruling families • Reached its apex around 1750 B.C.E. under Hammurabi Hammurabi 1792 – 1750 B.C.E. • Began a campaign of conquest by 1765 B.C.E. • Centralized state authority • Created a new legal order to society • Code of Hammurabi established a code of conduct for the classes Code of Hammurabi • If one break a man's bone, they shall break his bone • If a freeman strike a freeman, he shall pay ten shekels of silver • If a man steal a watering-bucket or a harrow, he shall pay 3 shekels of silver • If a son strike his father, they shall cut off his fingers • If a man destroy the eye of another man, they shall destroy his eye The Aryans • Migrated from the Iranian Plateau and reached the Indus River Valley around 1800 B.C.E. • One of the earliest known Indo – European languages • Reached the Himalayas and the Ganges River Valley around 1200 B.C.E. Vedic Aryans • Introduced new languages and religious ideas into northern India • Adapted traditions and practices of local peoples • Transitioned to a settled agriculture lifestyle by 1100 B.C.E. • Tribal conflicts led to loose confederations • Introduced the caste system into India Urban Life and the Caste System • Began the use of weighted coins for trade • Many found success in the cities, but others did not • Urban life reinforced the caste system • Created a new class of people, the “Untouchables” Gautama • Gautama was born in India around 556 B.C.E. • Renounced worldly possessions at the age of 29 • Known as Buddha, or Enlightened One • Promoted the middle path Spread of Buddhism • Buddhists monks used the trade routes to spread their word • Spread north and east into China and the Iranian Plateau • Reached Afghanistan in the 5th century C.E. Principles of Buddhism • All life is suffering, or dukkha • The source of suffering is desire • To end all suffering one must be free of desire • Actions, thought and understanding are the path to end all suffering Principles of Buddhism • Through good deeds one can achieve samsara, or rebirth • Karma of good/bad deeds affects rebirth • Goal should be to reach nirvana, or complete liberation and enlightenment • Life is a journey and death is a return to the earth • The soul, or atman, moves from 1 body to the next at rebirth Buddhism Today • About 360 million followers worldwide • Primary followers are in China and southeast Asia • 4th largest religion in the world • Modern influences have led to new variations The Mediterranean World • By the 9th century B.C.E. new social and political ideas began to emerge • By the 8th century B.C.E. the population began to rebound • By the 6th century B.C.E. the polis, or city-state became the political center of Greek life The City – State • Viewed as an extension of the family unit • Free adult males could hold public office, vote and debate public policy • Adult freeborn males held full citizenship and decided public policy, public works and warfare • They were competitive with each other The City - State • Developed open markets • By 400 B.C.E. a coinage system was created for the exchange of goods • The Agora, or marketplace, was the center of the city – state • Commerce led to the exchange of ideas and the establishment of colonies by the Greeks Greek Philosophy • Thales intro ...
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Running Head: HISTORY 101: MID–TERM

History 101: Mid – Term
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HISTORY 101: MID-TERM

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Definition of 10 terms, each one not more than three sentences
Settled Agriculture refers to the application of tools and human labor to a certain fixed plot
of land for in excess of one growing cycle. It involves changeover from a lifestyle of hunting
and gathering to a life that is based on agriculture, whereby the individual stays in one
location or place until that place’s soil is exhausted (Teegalapalli & Datta, 2016). Fertilizer is
used once the soil is exhausted.
Cuneiform refers to a writing system first developed by Mesopotamia’s Sumerians between
c. 3500 and 3000 BCE (Sayce, 2019). It is regarded as one of the oldest or earliest writing
systems. This writing system was wedge-shaped.
Uruk was among the most significant cities in ancient Mesopotamia. This city was
established by King Enmerkar around 4500 BCE. The name of this city gave rise to the
modern name of the Iraq nation.
Hammurabi was renowned for being the 6th king of the First Babylonian dynasty of
Babylon. He reigned between 1792 and 1750 BCE (De la Croix & Licandro, 2015). He
expanded his kin...

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