Engineering
Bloomsburg University Petroleum Engineering Hydraulic Program Project Report

Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania

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I attached What you need in project 2

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Abdulla Alqahtani 800153627 PNGE 310 Huseyin Bilgesu Project 1 2/21/2020 1. ABSTRACT The main objective of this project is to obtain hydrocarbons from the reservoir in a safe, cost effective, and environmental friendly manner. Drilling process of the well is most critical part in the petroleum industry to achieve success in their projects. The drill string is an important part of the rotary drilling process. It is the connection between the rig and the drill bit. This project is involved designing a drilling string including drill pipe, drill collar and drill bit for the field in Ouray, Southeast of northeast, Uintah. First step of the design involving selection of the proper type of drilling bit according to the geological formations of the field. Since the Ouray field is considered as medium hard formation, in this project it was selected steel tooth roller cone type drill bit. The drill collars are the critical section of the drill string to be designed. Selection of drill collar outside and inside diameter is depending on drill bit size, coupling diameter of the casing, hydraulic program and ect .The collars length and size affect the type of drill pipe that must be used. The design is approached with the buoyancy factor method.In this Project it is decided to have outer diameter of 4 ¾’ and inside diameter of 2 ¼’ with weight of 44 lb/ft. In this drill string design, the pipe grade is selected as “E” grade for extra strength. Strength of drill pipe is calculated under collapse, burst tension and torsional loads. Drill stem design is done through the Buoyancy factor method and require length of drill collar LDC is calculated as 1392.76 ft and it is found that drill pipe length is 8507.24 ft. Contents 1. ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................ 2 2. INPUT DATA ......................................................................................................................... 4 2.1 Background of the Field. ....................................................................................................... 4 2.2 Environmental Impacts ......................................................................................................... 9 3. DESIGN FACTORS AND OTHER ASSUMPTIONS ......................................................... 11 3.1 Drill Bit ............................................................................................................................... 11 3.2 Drill String........................................................................................................................... 12 3.3 Drill pipes ............................................................................................................................ 12 3.4 Drill collar ........................................................................................................................... 13 4. SUMMARY OF RESULTS .................................................................................................. 13 5. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS ............................................................................................... 15 6. CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................................................... 15 7. REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................... 16 8. ATTACHMENTS (SUBMIT AS PART 2 AND 3) .............................................................. 17 2. INPUT DATA 2.1 Background of the Field. Wyasket well is situated at Ouray in Uintah sates of USA .Operator of this gas well is Coastal Oil & Gas Corporation. Total area of the well is 320 acres and Coastal Oil & Gas Corporation proposed to drill a well to the total depth of 9900 ft. Figure 2.1 showed the location of Wyasket well and detailed of the well is shown in table 2.1 Company/Operator Coastal Oil & Gas Corporation Well Name & Number Wyasket 33-105 API Number 43-047-33408 Figure 1.1 Location of the Wyasket well Estimated tops of important geologic markers are shown in table 2.2. Table 2.2 Estimated Tops of Important Geologic Markers. Formation Depth ft KB 4670 Green River 2300 Wasatch 5850 Mesaverde 9050 Total Depth 9700 Estimated Depths of Anticipated Water, Oil, Gas, or Mineral Formations are shown in table 2.3. Table 2.3 Estimated Depths of Anticipated Water, Oil, Gas, or Mineral Formations Substance Formation Depth Oil/Gas Green River 2300 Wasatch 5850 Mesaverde 9050 Water N/A Other Minerals N/A Existing roads, planned access roads and proposed pipelines of the well field is shown in figure 2.3. Figure 2.3 Topographic map for existing roads, planned access roads and proposed pipelines Figure 2.4 describes the drill pad cross-sections, cuts and fills, and locations of the mud tanks, reserve pit, flare pit, pipe racks, trailer parking, spoil dirt stockpile, and surface material stockpile(s). Figure 2.4 Well Site Layout 2.2 Environmental Impacts The development of well field does have some environmental impacts such as surface disturbances, physical effects due to fluid withdrawal, noise, thermal effects and emissions of chemicals, both gas emissions and liquid discharge, and social and economic effects on the communities etc The liquid and solid waste associated with oil and gas well drilling industry include wastes derived from drilling activities such as well cuttings, drilling muds, formation water, cement slurry residue, oil cushions etc. and wastes derived from maintenances of machines and equipment. [3].To mitigate liquid and solid waste impact it has proposed reserve pits which are lined with an impervious synthetic liner and to backfilling the reserve pit, all fluids are pumped from the pit into trucks and hauled to approved disposal sites. And also it has proposed closed system for the production as shown in figure 2.5. This means that production fluids are contained in leak-proof tanks and production fluids are disposed of at approved disposal sites. And also it is decided to construct well pads and roads to mitigate impede surface water flow or interfere with fish movement during high water seasons. In addition soil erosion can mitigated by reseeding all disturbed areas. And also it is decided to construct well pads and roads to mitigate impede surface water flow or interfere with fish movement during high water seasons. , Figure 2.5 Closed loop solids system 3. DESIGN FACTORS AND OTHER ASSUMPTIONS 3.1 Drill Bit Selection of the proper type of drilling bit for particular application is one of the key concepts in drilling engineering. The drilling bit is the instrument which is used to transmit energy to the formation being drilled. Therefore selection of a particular type of bit depends on geological formations such as shale, sticky shale, salt, plastic clay, sandy shale, soft Sand, sand, gravel, hard sand, sandstone, limestone, hard limestone, Dolomite, and granite. [1] Rotary drilling is the most common technique for drilling and there are two types of drill bits named roller-cone and Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) bits. Roller cone bits are commonly used to drill a wide variety of rocks, from soft to extremely hard. Dense with increasing compressive strength but non- or semi-abrasive, e The formation of the Ouray field is consisted of limestone which is dense with increasing compressive strength and medium hard formation . Therefore it will be used steel tooth roller cone type drill bit for drilling purpose. Following table is shown the data of drill bit. Table 3.1 Drill bit data [2] Manufacturer IADC code Size ( in) & Model Baker Hughes RC 321 321 6.75 Recommended Recommended WOB rotary (lb/in.diameter) (RPM) 3200-7000 120-60 speed 3.2 Drill String Drill string is consist of drill pipe with tool joints and drill collars. The drill stem is consists of the drill string and other components such as kelly, subs, stabilizers, mud motors, drilling jars ect. Figure 3.1 shown the typical drill stem arrangement. Figure 3.1 Typical drill stem arrangement 3.3 Drill pipes Drill pipes are used for formation evaluation during drill stem testing, well stimulation and fishing operations. And also it is used to set tools in place which are remain in the hole.[3] In this project it is decided to use drill pipe with outer diameter of 3.5 and properties as showed in table 3.3. Table 3.3 Drill pipe data OD Norminal weight lb/ft Grade Wall thickness in Inside Diameter Collapse resistance psi Internal yield pressure psi Pipe body yield strength 1000lbs 3.5 9.5 E 0.254 2.992 10,040 9520 194 3.4 Drill collar Drill collar is used to connect the bit to the drill pipe and to furnish weight to the drill bit. The size and length of the drill collars affect to the drill bit performance and drill pipe service life. Selection of drill collar outside and inside diameter id depending on drill bit size, coupling diameter of the casing, hydraulic program and ect. In this Project it is decided to have outer diameter of 4 ¾’ and inside diameter of 2 ¼’ with weight of 44 lb/ft as showed in table 3.2. Table 3.2 Steel drill collar weight [1] 4. SUMMARY OF RESULTS Parameter Value Buoyancy Factor, Bf 0.8567 Drill Collar Length, LDC 1392.76 ft Drill Pipe Length, LDP 8507.24 ft Tension Load of Drill String, F 142100.22 lbs Tensional Safety Factor, Na 1.22 Collapse Pressure, PC 4839.12 Collapse Design Factor, Nc 2.07 Drill Pipe Capacity, Ap 7.03 Collapse Rating Under Tension, Pca 9400.99 Polar Moment of Inertia, J 6.86 Yield Strength of Drill Pipe, ST 1794.4 Lb/ft Total Stretch of Drill Pipe, et 113.65 in Critical Rotary Speed of Drill Pipe, 169.11 Unit psi 𝑖𝑛2 psi 𝑖𝑛4 rpm RPM Drill Pipe Metal Area, As Maximum permissible 𝑖𝑛2 2.59 Bending 31638.77 psi Stress, b Max BHP 4839.12 psi MASP (Gas) 3651.12 psi MASP (Gas/Mud): 2661.12 psi 5. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Drill Collar length to provide a desired weight on the Drilling Bit was calculated according to 0.8567 of Buoyancy factor and zero hole angle at BHA. It was found that drill collar length is 1392.76 ft. With the true depth of 9900 ft and drill collar length, it shows 8507.24ft of pipe length. Tension load of drill string is 142,100.22 lbs and it is less than the allowable tension load of 174, 600 lbs of drill string. Collapse pressure of the string is calculated as 4839.12 psi and compared to the theoretical collapse pressure in API table, it has 2.07 of collapse factor. According to the internal yield pressure and true depth of the well, it has 9400.99 psi of collapse rating under tension .When considering selected inside and outside diameters of the drill pipe it has polar moment of 6.86 in4 and 1794.4 1b/ft of yield strength. Critical rotary speed of the drill pipe is 169.11rpm and total stretch is 113.65 in and finally max bore hole pressure is 4839.12 psi. Considering all these parameter it can be said that the design is almost technically feasible. 6. CONCLUSIONS Buoyancy factor is critical parameter in modeling loads on the drill string. Although in this project we assumed the same mud density inside and outside the drill string it can be changed in actual situation. Drill pipe is subjected to different types of loading such as axial loading and radial loading. Therefore it concludes that collapse and tension are critical parameters in selection process of drill pipe weights, grades and couplings. 7. REFERENCES 1. Johannes Karl Fink , Petroleum Engineer’s Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids,frist edition , 2012, Gulf Professional Publishing is an imprint of Elsevier , USA 2. World Oil’s 2014 DRILL BIT CLASSIFIER, Gulf Publishing Company. Softcopy available at https://docplayer.net/58121011-Special-supplement-to.html 3 YAhor Makayonak, Analysis of drill-string based on case study of ultra-deep drilling on Kola Peninsula , 2015. 8. ATTACHMENTS (SUBMIT AS PART 2 AND 3) 1. Buoyancy Factor, Bf: 𝐵𝑓 = 1 − 𝜌𝑀𝑢𝑑 9.4 𝑝𝑝𝑔 =1− = 0.8567 𝜌𝑆𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑙 65.6 𝑝𝑝𝑔 2. Drill Collar Length, LDC: 𝐿𝐷𝐶 = 𝑊𝑂𝐵𝑚𝑎𝑥 7000 × 6.75 = = 1392.76 𝑓𝑡 cos(𝛼) × 𝑁𝑃 × 𝐵𝑓 × 𝑊𝐷𝐶 cos (0°) × 0.9 × 0.8567 × 44 3. Drill Pipe Length, LDP: 𝐿𝐷𝑃 = 𝐷 − 𝐿𝐷𝐶 = 9900 − 1392.76 = 8507.24 𝑓𝑡 4. Tension Load of Drill String, F: . 𝐹 = (𝐿𝐷𝑃 × 𝑊𝐷𝑃 + 𝐿𝐷𝐶 × 𝑊𝐷𝐶 ) × 𝐵𝑓 = (8507.24 × 9.5 + 1392.76 × 44) × 0.8567 = 142100.22 𝑙𝑏𝑠 5. Allowable Tension Load of Drill String, Fat: 𝐹𝑎𝑡 = 0.9 × 𝐹𝑡𝑡 = 0.9 × 194000 = 174 600 𝑙𝑏𝑠 6. Tensional Safety Factor, Na: 𝑁𝑎 = 𝐹𝑎𝑡 174600 = = 1.22 𝐹 142100.22 7. Collapse Pressure, PC: 𝑃𝐶 = 0.052 × 𝑇𝐷 × 𝜌𝑀𝑢𝑑 = 0.052 × 9900 × 9.4 = 4839.12 𝑝𝑠𝑖 8. Collapse Design Factor, Nc: 𝑁𝑐 = 𝑃𝑡𝑐 10040 = = 2.07 𝑃𝑎𝑐 4839.12 9. Drill Pipe Capacity, Ap: 𝐴𝑝 = 𝜋 𝜋 𝑑𝑖𝑑 2 = × (2.992)2 = 7.03 𝑖𝑛2 4 4 Capacity of the drill pipe is 7.03 in2 10. Collapse Rating Under Tension, Pca: 𝑇 𝑇 3 𝐴𝑝 1 1 𝐴𝑝 𝑃𝑐𝑎 = 𝑃𝑐𝑜 {[1 − ( )]2 − ( )]} 4 𝑌𝑚 2 𝑌𝑚 1 4839.12 2 4839.12 3 1 = 10040 × [1 − ( 7.03 )] − ( 7.03 ) 4 9520 2 9520 ]} {[ = 9400.99 𝑝𝑠𝑖 11. Polar Moment of Inertia, J: 𝐽= 𝜋 𝜋 × (𝑑𝑂𝐷 4 − 𝑑𝐼𝐷 4 )𝐷𝑃 = × (3.54 − 2.9924 ) = 6.86 𝑖𝑛4 32 32 12. Yield Strength of Drill Pipe, ST: 𝑆𝑇 = 0.096167 × 𝐽 × 𝑌𝑚 0.096167 × 6.86 × 9520 = = 1794.4 𝑙𝑏 ∙ 𝑓𝑡 𝑑𝑂𝐷 3.5 13. Total Stretch of Drill Pipe, et: 𝐿𝐷𝐶 × 𝑊𝐷𝐶 × 𝐿𝐷𝑃 𝐿2 𝐷𝑃 )+[ 𝑒𝑡 = 𝑒1 + 𝑒2 = ( × (65.44 − 1.44 × 𝜌𝑀𝑢𝑑 )] 735444 × 𝑤𝐷𝑃 9.625 × 107 1392.76 × 44 × 8507.24 8507.242 )+[ 𝑒𝑡 = ( × (65.44 − 1.44 × 9.4)] = 113.65𝑖𝑛 735444 × 9.5 9.625 × 107 14. Critical Rotary Speed of Drill Pipe, RPM: 𝑅𝑃𝑀 = 1 1 4760000 4760000 2 2 2 2 2 ]2 [3.5 [𝑑 + 𝑑 ] = + 2.992 = 169.11 𝑟𝑝𝑚 𝑂𝐷 𝐼𝐷 𝑙2 3602 15. Drill Pipe Metal Area, As: 𝐴𝑠 = 𝜋 2 𝜋 (𝑑 𝑜𝑑 − 𝑑 2 𝑖𝑑 ) = (3.52 − 2.9922 ) = 2.59 𝑖𝑛2 4 4 16. Maximum permissible Bending Stress, b: 2 10 𝑤𝑒 0.6 𝑤𝑒 ( − 33500) 𝜎𝑏 = 19500 − × × 67 𝐴𝑠 6702 𝐴𝑠 = 19500 − 2 10 × 0.6 × 7000 7000 (( − 33500) ) 67 × 6702 × 2.59 2.59 = 31638.77 𝑝𝑠𝑖 17. Max BHP: 𝑀𝑎𝑥 𝐵𝐻𝑃 = 0.052 × 𝐷 × 𝜌𝑀𝑢𝑑 = 0.052 × 9900 × 9.4 = 4839.12 𝑝𝑠𝑖 18. MASP (Gas): 𝑀𝐴𝑆𝑃 = 𝑀𝑎𝑥 𝐵𝐻𝑃 − (0.12 × 𝐷) = 4839.12 − (0.12 × 9900) = 3651.12 𝑝𝑠𝑖 19. MASP (Gas/Mud): 𝑀𝐴𝑆𝑃 = 𝑀𝑎𝑥 𝐵𝐻𝑃 − (0.22 × 𝐷) = 4839.12 − (0.22 × 9900) = 2661.12 𝑝𝑠𝑖 PNGE 310 Spring 2020 Project #2 March 3, 2020 Due Friday, March 27, 2019 Design a hydraulics program using the wellbore configuration from “Design Project One” in your proposed area of study. Use mud pump manufacturers’ catalogs (such as ContinentalEmsco and Gardner Denver, Inc.) to select your pump. Some catalogs are available at web pages of major mud pump manufacturers. Calculate pressure drop values in your wellbore using at least two different flow rates. Use Bingham Plastic non-Newtonian rheological model for all calculations. Determine the nozzle sizes and operating conditions (pump flow rate and pressure) at two different depths (at 6,000 ft and 9,000 ft.) Use maximum bit hydraulic horsepower criteria. Submit your report (in Word format), program/calculation file(s) (if used with proper file format), and any applicable attachments. Use proper name convention given in syllabus for files and also for submitted names for eCampus link. Submit your final report as Project Two in MS Word format and other documents in .pdf, .xls, .xlsx, .mat, or any format using the Turnitin links for Project Two Part Two. 1. ABSTRACT The main objective of this project is to obtain hydrocarbons from the reservoir in a safe, cost effective, and environmental friendly manner. Drilling process of the well is most critical part in the petroleum industry to achieve success in their projects. The drill string is an important part of the rotary drilling process. It is the connection between the rig and the drill bit. This project is involved designing a drilling string including drill pipe, drill collar and drill bit for the field in Ouray, Southeast of northeast, Uintah. First step of the design involving selection of the proper type of drilling bit according to the geological formations of the field. Since the Ouray field is considered as medium hard formation, in this project it was selected steel tooth roller cone type drill bit. The drill collars are the critical section of the drill string to be designed. Selection of drill collar outside and inside diameter is depending on drill bit size, coupling diameter of the casing, hydraulic program and ect .The collars length and size affect the type of drill pipe that must be used. The design is approached with the buoyancy factor method.In this Project it is decided to have outer diameter of 4 ¾’ and inside diameter of 2 ¼’ with weight of 44 lb/ft. In this drill string design, the pipe grade is selected as “E” grade for extra strength. Strength of drill pipe is calculated under collapse, burst tension and torsional loads. Drill stem design is done through the Buoyancy factor method and require length of drill collar LDC is calculated as 1392.76 ft and it is found that drill pipe length is 8507.24 ft. Contents 1. ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................ 1 2. INPUT DATA ......................................................................................................................... 3 2.1 Background of the Field. ....................................................................................................... 3 2.2 Environmental Impacts ......................................................................................................... 8 3. DESIGN FACTORS AND OTHER ASSUMPTIONS ......................................................... 10 3.1 Drill Bit ............................................................................................................................... 10 3.2 Drill String........................................................................................................................... 11 3.3 Drill pipes ............................................................................................................................ 11 3.4 Drill collar ........................................................................................................................... 12 4. SUMMARY OF RESULTS .................................................................................................. 12 5. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS ............................................................................................... 14 6. CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................................................... 14 7. REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................... 15 8. ATTACHMENTS (SUBMIT AS PART 2 AND 3) .............................................................. 16 2. INPUT DATA 2.1 Background of the Field. Wyasket well is situated at Ouray in Uintah sates of USA .Operator of ...
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Project DATA
Well Depth, DW (ft)

9900

Hole Depth, D (ft)

9000

Hole Diameter, Dh (in)

Surface Connection Type E

13.625
Outer Diameter, OD (in)
Inner Diameter, ID (in)
Outer Diameter, OD (in)
Inner Diameter, ID (in)
Length of Drilling Collar, Ldc (ft)
Outer Diameter, OD (in)
Inner Diameter, ID (in)
Length of Casing, Lcsg (ft)
0.00025

Minimum Annular velocity Vmin (ft/min)

70

Jet Sizes/32

16
0.589125
8.9
32.9
9.7
13.5
2897
1440

Drill Pipe (dp)
Drill Colar (dc)

Casing (csg)

2

At (in )
Mud Weight (ppg)
ɵ600
Plastic Viscosity
Yield Point
Maximum Surface Pressure (psi)
Mud Pump Horsepower (hp)
Flow Rates
Minimum Possible Flow Rate (gpm)
Minimum Flow Rate (gpm)
Maximum Possible Flow Rate (gpm)
Maximum Flow Rate (gpm)
Average Flow Rate (gpm)
Operating Flow Rates (gpm)

495.203625
147
851.9710045
444
295.5
370
259

TA

3.5
2.92
6.75
2.5
450
8.5
12.615
2100

ɵ300

Operating Pressures (psi)
5000
1500

23.2

Lower Flow Rate
Mud Flow Rate (gpm)

259

Mean Velocities (ft/min)
Inside the Drill Pipe
12.40859608
Inside the Drill Collar
16.92810458
Between Drill Pipe and
0.72028002
Casing
Between Drill Pipe and Hole

0.610186702

Between Drill Collar and Hole

0.755297471

Surface Connection Loss
Bit Pressure Loss
Drill Pipe Pressure Loss
Drill Collar Pressure Loss
Annular pressure Loss (CasingDrill pipe)
Annular Pressure Loss (HoleDrill pipe)
Annular Pressure Loss (HoleDrill Collar)

Pressure Drop (psi)
49.97420985
158.4253926
Laminar Flow
256.1492866
7.917751489

Turbulent Flow
928.3572157
4.781260675

15.70089212

70.85787229

43.37239524

190.8449087

4.474532812

954.433585
2360.810936

Total Pressure Drop

Parasitic Pressure Loss (psi)
ΔPd2
2202.385543

Higher Flow Rate
Mud Flow Rate (gpm)

370

Mean Velocities (ft/min)
Inside the Drill Pipe
17.72656582
Inside the Drill Collar
24.18300654
Between Drill Pipe and
1.028971457
Casing
Between Drill Pipe and Hole

0.871695288

Between Drill Collar and Hole

1.078996388

Surface Connection Loss
Bit Pressure Loss
Drill Pipe Pressure Loss
Drill Collar Pressure Loss
Annular pressure Loss (CasingDrill pipe)
Annular Pressure Loss (HoleDrill pipe)
Annular Pressure Loss (HoleDrill Collar)

Pressure Drop (psi)
94.96628829
323.3171277
Laminar Flow
290.6340102
10.3937982

Turbulent Flow
1732.979987
6.247681652

15.76500771

132.2715788

43.5319932

356.2533923

4.498683238

1781.657183
4431.839355

Total Pressure Drop

Parasitic Pressure Loss
ΔPd2
4108.522227

Size of the BIT Nozzle
m

1.748152788

Optimum Frictional pressure losses for the
optimum bit hydraulic horsepower (psi)

1819.403936

Flow Rate (gpm)
370
259

Pressure vs. Flow Rate

Pressure (psi)

10000

1000

100
100

Flow Rate (gpm)

Optimum Flow Rate (gpm)

240

At

0.209316434
9.537134784

d

Nozzle

Parasitic Pressure (psi)
4108.522227
2202.385543

1000


1
Project 2
Abstract
The purpose of this project was to design and create a hydraulic program to be used in
the calculation problems relating to the circulation of the mud fluid. The program would be
used to determine pressure drops and parasitic pressures at different depths and flow rates. It
was also to be used in the calculation of bit nozzles of optimal sizes. The project focused on
two depths, 6000 ft and 9000 ft both at flow rates of 259 gpm and 370 gpm. The project
attained its objectives. The hydraulic program was successfully developed in Excel and
calculated the required quantities. At higher flow rates the pressure losses were high
compared to pressure losses at lower flow rates due to the transition of the fluid flow from
laminar to turbulent. The project also found out that an increase in depth increased pressure
drop, whereas a decrease in depth caused a decrease in pressure drop. The optimal bit nozzle
sizes for depths of 6000 ft and 9000 ft were found to be two 10/32nds ...

Prof_Axel (2232)
Rice University

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