Business Finance
SYS 210 AOU Competitive Advantage Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance Worksheet

SYS 210

Arab Open University

SYS

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I’m working on a Business exercise and need support.

case study about Facebook data privacy scandal three question about different aspects of the process of exploring a complex situation recognizing how complex it is, identifying the different perspectives it can be viewed from, and stepping back to reflect on this whole process of exploration to see the strengths and weaknesses of the approach you have adopted, and how you might do it better.

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Facebook data privacy scandal: A cheat sheet A decade of apparent indifference for data privacy at Facebook has culminated in revelations that organizations harvested user data for targeted advertising, particularly political advertising, to apparent success. While the most well-known offender is Cambridge Analytica—the political consulting and strategic communication firm behind the pro-Brexit Leave. EU campaign, as well as Donald Trump's 2016 presidential campaign—other companies have likely used similar tactics to collect personal data of Facebook users. What is the Facebook data privacy scandal? The Facebook data privacy scandal centers around the collection of personally identifiable information of "up to 87 million people" by the political consulting and strategic communication firm Cambridge Analytica. That company—and others—were able to gain access to personal data of Facebook users due to the confluence of a variety of factors, broadly including inadequate safeguards against companies engaging in data harvesting, little to no oversight of developers by Facebook, developer abuse of the Facebook API, and users agreeing to overly broad terms and conditions. In the case of Cambridge Analytica, the company was able to harvest personally identifiable information through a personality quiz app called thisisyourdigitiallife, based on the OCEANpersonality model. Information gathered via this app is useful in building a "psychographic" profile of users (the OCEAN acronym stands for openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism). Adding the app to your Facebook account to take the quiz gives the creator of the app access to profile information and user history for the user taking the quiz, as well as all of the friends that user has on Facebook. This data includes all of the items that users and their friends have liked on Facebook. What is the timeline of the Facebook data privacy scandal? Facebook has more than a decade-long track record of incidents highlighting inadequate and insufficient measures to protect data privacy. While the severity of these individual cases varies, the sequence of repeated failures paints a larger picture of systemic problems. In 2005, researchers at MIT created a script that downloaded publicly posted information of over 70,000 users from four schools. (Facebook only began to allow search engines to crawl profiles in September 2007.) In 2007, activities that users engaged in on other websites were automatically added to Facebook user profiles as part of Beacon, one of Facebook's first attempts to monetize user profiles. As an example, Beacon indicated on the Facebook News Feed the titles of videos that users rented from Blockbuster Video, which was a violation of the Video Privacy Protection Act. A class action suit was filed, for which Facebook paid $9.5 million to a fund for privacy and security as part of a settlement agreement. In 2011, following an FTC investigation, the company entered into a consent decree, promising to address concerns about how user data was tracked and shared. That investigation was prompted by an incident in December 2009 in which information thought private by users was being shared publicly, according to contemporaneous reporting by The New York Times. In 2013, Facebook disclosed details of a bug that exposed the personal details of six million accounts over approximately a year. When users downloaded their own Facebook history, that user would obtain in the same action not just their own address book, but also the email addresses and phone numbers of their friends that other people had stored in their address books. The data that Facebook exposed had not been given to Facebook by users to begin with—it had been vacuumed from the contact lists of other Facebook users who happen to know that person. This phenomenon has since been described as "shadow profiles." The Cambridge Analytica portion of the data privacy scandal starts in February 2014. A spate of reviews on the Turkopticon website—a third-party review website for users of Amazon's Mechanical Turk—detail a task requested by Aleksandr Kogan asking users to complete a survey in exchange for money. The survey required users to add the thisisyourdigitiallife app to their Facebook account, which is in violation of Mechanical Turk's terms of service. One review quotes the request as requiring users to "provide our app access to your Facebook so we can download some of your data—some demographic data, your likes, your friends list, whether your friends know one another, and some of your private messages." In December 2015, Facebook learned for the first time that the data set Kogan generated with the app was shared with Cambridge Analytica. Facebook founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg claims "we immediately banned Kogan's app from our platform, and demanded that Kogan and Cambridge Analytica formally certify that they had deleted all improperly acquired data. They provided these certifications." According to Cambridge Analytica, the company took legal action in August 2016 against GSR (Kogan) for licensing "illegally acquired data" to the company, with a settlement reached that November. On March 17, 2018, an exposé was published by the The Guardian and The New York Times, initially reporting that 50 million Facebook profiles were harvested by Cambridge Analytica; the figure was later revised to "up to 87 million" profiles. The exposé relies on information provided by Christopher Wylie, a former employee of SCL Elections and Global Science Research, the creator of the thisisyourdigitiallife app. Wylie claimed that the data from that app was sold to Cambridge Analytica, which used the data to develop "psychographic" profiles of users, and target users with pro-Trump advertising, a claim that Cambridge Analytica denied. On March 16, 2018, Facebook threatened to sue The Guardian over publication of the story, according to a tweet by Guardian reporter Carole Cadwalladr. Campbell Brown, a former CNN journalist who now works as head of news partnerships at Facebook, said it was "not our wisest move," adding "If it were me I would have probably not threatened to sue The Guardian." Similarly, Cambridge Analytica threatened to sue The Guardian for defamation. We have a responsibility to protect your data, and if we can't then we don't deserve to serve you.Mark Zuckerberg On March 20, 2018, the FTC opened an investigation to determine if Facebook has violated the terms of the settlement from the 2011 investigation. In April 2018, reports indicated that Facebook granted Zuckerberg and other high ranking executives powers over controlling personal information on the platform that are not available to normal users. Messages from Zuckerberg sent to other users were remotely deleted from users' inboxes, which the company claimed was part of a corporate security measure following the 2014 Sony Pictures hack. Facebook subsequently announced plans to make available the "unsend" capability "to all users in several months," and that Zuckerberg will be unable to unsend messages until such time that feature rolls out. On April 4, 2018, The Washington Post reported that Facebook announced "malicious actors" abused the search function to gather public profile information of "most of its 2 billion users worldwide." In a CBS News/YouGov poll published on April 10, 2018, 61% of Americans said Congress should do more to regulate social media and tech companies. This sentiment was echoed in a CBS News interview with Box CEO Aaron Levie and YML CEO Ashish Toshniwal who called on Congress to regulate Facebook. According to Levie, "There are so many examples where we don't have modern ways of either regulating, controlling, or putting the right protections in place in the internet age. And this is a fundamental issue that, that we're gonna have to grapple with as an industry for the next decade." On April 18, 2018, Facebook updated its privacy policy. On May 2, 2018, SCL Group, which owns Cambridge Analytica, was dissolved. In a press release, the company indicated that "the siege of media coverage has driven away virtually all of the Company's customers and suppliers." On May 15, 2018, The New York Times reported that Cambridge Analytica is being investigated by the FBI and the Justice Department. A source indicated to CBS News that prosecutors are focusing on potential financial crimes. On May 16, 2018, Christopher Wylie testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee. Among other things, Wylie notes that Cambridge Analytica, under the direction of Steve Bannon, sought to "exploit certain vulnerabilities in certain segments to send them information that will remove them from the public forum, and feed them conspiracies and they'll never see mainstream media." Wylie noted that the company targeted people with "characteristics that would lead them to vote for the Democratic party, particularly African American voters." On June 3, 2018, a report in The New York Times indicated that Facebook had maintained datasharing partnerships with mobile device manufacturers, specifically naming Apple, Amazon, BlackBerry, Microsoft, and Samsung. Under the terms of this personal information sharing, device manufacturers were able to gather information about users in order to deliver "the Facebook experience," the Times quotes a Facebook official as saying. Additionally, the report indicates that this access allowed device manufacturers to obtain data about a user's Facebook friends, even if those friends had configured their privacy settings to deny information sharing with third parties. The same day, Facebook issued a rebuttal to the Times report indicating that the partnerships were conceived because "the demand for Facebook outpaced our ability to build versions of the product that worked on every phone or operating system," at a time when the smartphone market included BlackBerry's BB10 and Windows Phone operating systems, among others. Facebook claims that "contrary to claims by the New York Times, friends' information, like photos, was only accessible on devices when people made a decision to share their information with those friends. We are not aware of any abuse by these companies." The distinction being made is partially semantic, as Facebook does not consider these partnerships a third party in this case. Facebook noted that changes to the platform made in April began "winding down" access to these APIs, and that 22 of the partnerships had already been ended. On June 5, 2018, the The Washington Post and The New York Times reported that the Chinese device manufacturers Huawei, Lenovo, Oppo, and TCL were granted access to user data under this program. Huawei, along with ZTE, are facing scrutiny from the US government on unsubstantiated accusations that products from these companies pose a national security risk. On July 2, 2018, The Washington Post reported that the US Securities and Exchange Commission, Federal Trade Commission, and Federal Bureau of Investigation have joined the Department of Justice inquiry into the Facebook/Cambridge Analytica data scandal. In a statement to CNET, Facebook indicated that "We've provided public testimony, answered questions, and pledged to continue our assistance as their work continues." On July 11th, the Wall Street Journal reportedthat the SEC is separately investigating if Facebook adequately warned investors in a timely manner about the possible misuse and improper collection of user data. The same day, the UK assessed a £500,000 fine to Facebook, the maximum permitted by law, over its role in the data scandal. The UK's Information Commissioner's Office is also preparing to launch a criminal probe into SCL Elections over their involvement in the scandal. On July 3, 2018, Facebook acknowledged a "bug" unblocked people that users has blocked between May 29 and June 5. On July 12, 2018, a CNBC report indicated that a privacy loophole was discovered and closed. A Chrome plug-in intended for marketing research called Grouply.io allowed users to access the list of members for private Facebook groups. Fallout from a confluence of factors in the Facebook data privacy scandal has come to bear in the last week of July 2018. On the July 25th, Facebook announced that daily active user counts have fallen in Europe, and growth has stagnated in the US and Canada. The following day, Facebook suffered the worst single-day market value decrease for a public company in the US, dropping $120 billion, or 19%. On the July 28th, Reuters reported that shareholders are suing Facebook, Zuckerberg, and CFO David Wehner for "making misleading statements about or failing to disclose slowing revenue growth, falling operating margins, and declines in active users." Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg testified before Congress on September 5, 2018, as a follow up to Zuckerberg's April testimony. Senators who questioned Sandberg focused on issues of user privacy and election interference, with Senator Mark Warner of Virginia even saying, "The era of the wild west in social media is coming to an end," which seems to indicate coming legislation. While there is currently no legislation in the works to regulate social media, it could be coming, especially in light of more congressional testimonies on the horizon. Congress has scheduled a hearing for September 26, 2018, titled "Examining Safeguards for Consumer Data Privacy," and has called on Twitter, Amazon, Google, Apple, AT&T, and Charter Communications to attend. ARAB OPEN UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF BUSINESS STUDIES SYS210 – Business Driven Technology Spring2020 - SEMESTER 2 SYS210 - TMA – Spring 2019-2020 Please read these instructions carefully, and contact your tutor if you require any further clarifications. You should submit your completed assignment to your tutor to arrive no later than the cut-off Date (15/4/2020). Please use standard A4 size paper for submitting the hard copy of your TMA. Your name, personal identifier, course and assignment numbers must appear at the top of each sheet. A soft copy of your TMA must be uploaded to the university moodle within the indicated cut-off date. The hard & soft copies must be identical. Please leave wide margins and space at the end of each sheet for tutor comments. It is better to use double spacing so that you can easily handwrite corrections to your drafts and tutors have space to include their feedback on the script. Start each question in the assignment on a new page. Any extended text should ideally be word-processed, but, diagrams and accompanying notes may be hand drawn and hand written and on an A4 paper. Completing and sending your assignments When you have completed your TMA, you must fill in the assignment form (PT3), taking care to fill all information correctly including your personal identifier, course code, section & tutor, and assignment number. Each TMA and its PT3 form should be uploaded on the AOU branch moodle within the cut-off date. Late submissions require approval from the branch course coordinator and will be subject to grade deductions. All assignments are treated in strict confidence. If you feel that you are unable to meet the cut-off date of the TMA because of unusual circumstances, please contact your tutor as soon as possible to discuss a possible extension to the cut-off date. Plagiarism University Definitions of cheating and plagiarism According to the Arab Open University By-laws, “the following acts represent cases of cheating and plagiarism: 1 • Verbatim copying of printed material and submitting them as part of TMAs without proper academic acknowledgement and documentation. • Verbatim copying of material from the Internet, including tables and graphics. • Copying other students’ notes or reports. • Using paid or unpaid material prepared for the student by individuals or firms. • Utilization of, or proceeding to utilize, contraband materials or devices in examinations. Penalty on plagiarism: The following is the standard plagiarism penalty applied across branches as per Article 11 of the university by-laws: 1) Awarding of zero for a TMA wherein more than 20% of the content is plagiarized. 2) Documentation of warning in student record. 3) Failure in the course to dismissal from the University. All University programs are required to apply penalties that are consistent with the University by laws. Examples of Plagiarism Copying from a single or multiple sources, this is where the student uses one or more of the following as the basis for the whole, or a good part, of the assignment: 1. Published or unpublished books, articles or reports 2. The Internet 3. The media (e.g.TV programs, radio programs or newspaper articles) 4. An essay from an essay bank 5. A piece of work previously submitted by another student 6. Copying from a text which is about to be submitted for the same assignment Introduction This TMA has one question with three parts. You should answer them all. The questions in this assignment are all about different aspects of the process of exploring a complex situation: drawing different kinds of maps of it, recognizing how complex it is, identifying the different perspectives it can be viewed from, and stepping back to reflect on this whole process of exploration to see the strengths and weaknesses of the approach you have adopted, and how you might do it better. 2 Question 01 (100 % marks) (a) Read through the attached case study “Facebook data privacy scandal: A cheat sheet”. As you read through the case, and based on what you learned in SYS210: Business Driven Technology, tackle the following questions and attempt to answer them using an essay format of no more than 1500 words: 1- Describe the information age and the differences among data, information, business intelligence, and knowledge. (250 words, 15 % marks) 2- Explain system thinking and how management information system (MIS) solve issues with information silos Facebook entire worldwide organization? (250 words, 20 % marks) 3- Explain how MIS enabling business communications at Facebook? (250 words, 20 % marks) 4- Demonstrate how Facebook can add value by using porter's, value chain analysis (350 words, 20 % marks) 5- Explain customer relationship management systems and show how Facebook could use it to understand their customer’s needs and discuss whether Facebook has improved having a satisfying social life or undermined people offline relations (400 words, 25 % marks) General Mark’s deductions of 20% as follows • • • PT3 Form (failure to use the PT3 completely filled) (deduct up to 5% marks) TMA Presentation and Structure, and word count (untidy, work way below or above the word count, no display of word count) (deduct up to 5% marks) Referencing and in-text citation (poor referencing and in-text citation, without plagiarism, (deduct up to 10% marks). END OF SYS210 TMA QUESTIONS 3 ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

TMA - PT3 – Form
Arab Open University - Tutor Marked Assignment (TMA)
Academic Year

2019 - 2020

Semester: Fall
Program:Faculty of Business – Systems

Branch:KSA
Course Title:Business Driven Technology

Course Code:SYS210
Student ID:

Student Name:

Tutor Name:

Section Number:

Questions
Weight

Allocated Marks

Q1
15

Q2
20

Q3
20

Mark Details
Q4
Q5
20
25

Total

Student’s Marks

Mark Deduction

Criteria
Weight

Presentation &
Word Count
Deduct up to 5
Marks

Referencing &
Citation
Deduct up to 10
Marks

E-Library
Deduct up to 5
Marks

Deducted
Marks
Student’s Total Mark
Notes on plagiarism
A. According to the Arab Open University By-laws, “the following acts represent cases of cheating and
Plagiarism:
➢ Verbatim copying of printed material and submitting them as part of TMAs without proper academic
acknowledgement and documentation.
➢ Verbatim copying of material from the Internet, including tables and graphics.
➢ Copying other students’ notes or reports.
➢ Using paid or unpaid material prepared for the student by individuals or firms.
B. Penalties for plagiarism ranges from failure in the TMA to expulsion from the university.
Declaration: I hereby declare that the submitted TMA is my own work and I have not copied any other person’s work or
plagiarized in any other form as specified above.
Student Signature:

Total

TMA - PT3 – Form
The information age is a period beginning in the 20th Century which is characterized by a
rapid technological revolution as a result of changes in information technology (Martin &
Darrell, 2016). The period is also known as the computer age or digital age and has resulted to
shift from traditional industry to economies based on information and communication
technology. A remarkable invention in the information age is the Facebook by Mark Zuckerberg.
Facebook has facilitated growth of business in areas such as advertising and e-commerce.
However, as indicated in the article “Facebook data privacy scandal: A cheat sheet”,
unscrupulous organizations have over the years breached Users’ privacy by obtaining their data.
Hence, violation of Users’ privacy through Facebook is an example of drawbacks of the
Information age.
The key terms in Information age are; data, information, business intelligence and
knowledge. Data refers to raw facts that describe the features of an event or an object while
information refers to data when converted to become more meaningful or useful. Furthermore,
Business Intelligence refers to...

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Rice University

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