Running Head: RESEARCH DESIGN
Potential Research Design
The purpose aims at enhancing the understanding of the society on the issue of gender gaps in
leadership positions. Therefore, choosing the right research design will help to present factual
data to the readers. Notably, one of the research questions seeks to analyze the current number of
women in executive positions and how the number has evolved over the years. Besides, it is
crucial to provide a qualitative analysis of the causes of gender gaps, especially in the institutions
of higher learning. Notably, the other research question is to analyze the barriers that affect the
women who aspire to hold leadership positions. The research design should also help explain the
effectiveness of the modes of affirmative action that society has instituted. Generally, the third
question is to explain how the community is reducing the barriers facing women in their careers
Therefore, the ex post facto research design will help analyze the primary purpose of the
dissertation. Ex post facto research design is a form of quasi-experiment. Notably, a quasiexperiment does not allow the researcher to manipulate the independent variable. What's more,
the quasi-experiment does not enable the researcher to assign participants randomly. The
scientific explanation for the Ex post facto research design is the design that relies on the
naturally-occurring treatment after the treatment has occurred instead of creating the procedure
itself. The primary aim of the Ex post facto research design is to establish causal or functional
relationships among the variables. The Ex post facto research design would rely on the already
collected data even if the amassed data were for another research. The phrase Ex Post Facto
represents what the researcher does afterward. Instead of taking groups that are similar and
exposing them to varying conditions to determine how the differences in their dependent
variables, the design takes groups that are already diverse and subjects and attempts to analyze
the factors that brought the differences. The Ex post facto research design would rely on the
previously collected data even if the amassed data were for another research. All the participants
must exhibit a unique trait that could affect the dependent variable. Therefore the Ex post facto
research design examines how the independent variable present before the study affects the
For instance, a researcher may want to analyze if weight reduces the self-esteem of an individual.
The primary approach is to group the participants into different categories such as those who
overweight, people who are underweight, and the people with average weight. The research then
conducts an empirical study to measure the levels of self-esteem. The presence of a pre-existing
condition, in the case being weight, means that the experiment is ex post facto in nature.
Nevertheless, the failure by the Ex post facto research design does not reduce its viability.
Notably, the model also shares with the actual experimental research design on specific aspects,
such as determining the influence of a particular variable on another variable and testing a theory
using the hypothesis testing techniques.
Nevertheless, the Ex post facto research design follows several steps. First, the researcher has to
define the problem. The problem statement of the dissertation is analyzing why gender gaps exist
in positions of leadership. The second step is to surveying the literature and stating the
hypothesis. Afterward, the researcher must detail the assumptions upon which the individual will
base the hypotheses and the procedures that follow.
Furthermore, the researcher must design the overall approach of the experiment. For instance, the
researcher selects appropriate participants and materials. Then, the individual identifies the
proper techniques for collecting the data and design the various categories upon which to classify
the data. Nevertheless, the classes should avoid any ambiguity. Moreover, the researcher must
validate the techniques for gathering data to avoid hitches after the process begins. After the
collection of data, the last step is to analyze and interpret the findings in clear and precious
Strengths and Limitations of Ex Post Facto Research Design
The Ex post facto research design is a crucial model when researching on social aspects.
Notably, it is not ethical to manipulate some of the social elements for research purposes (Simon
& Goes, 2013). For instance, an individual cannot take measures to ensure a participant is
overweight to complete an assessment on whether being overweight reduces the self-esteem of
the individual. The other strength of the Ex post facto research design is that they are very
flexible. Notably, the researcher finds and manipulates the hypotheses according to personal
preferences. Since they rely on the already available data, the researcher does not spend a lot of
time gathering the already existing data. Generally, the researcher seeks permission from the
authors of the data and uses it in the research. Therefore, the Ex post...
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