WU Application Research Design Strengths & Limitations & Rationale Research Paper

Walden University

Question Description

I’m trying to learn for my Social Science class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

Research designs and methods are not created equal. Each design and method has its strengths and limitations. True experimental research designs, for example, tend to have higher levels of validity compared to ex post facto designs. Once you decide on your research design this week and the method, which you will cover in Week 8, it is important to evaluate limitations of each and consider how you will attempt to prevent or minimize them in your study.

Either determining research questions or the research design might come first; most likely, you will circle back from one to the other until they are aligned and one flows logically from the other. It is necessary to have both in place before deciding on your methodology.

To prepare for this Assignment, review the Learning Resources for the week. Your research design represents the structure of your study. In other words, the research design includes (a) elements of treatment; and (b) the number, type, relationship, and strategies to control the variables you are studying. It also includes (c) the number and type of individuals or groups in your sample. Finally, the research design includes (d) the measurements; (e) sampling methods; (f) data collection time frame; and (g) setting (Walden University, 2010). Research methods are used to carry out research designs; methods fall under two broad categories: (a) Quantitative (e.g., experimsental, quasi-experimental) and (b) qualitative (e.g., case study, grounded theory, ethnography) (Trochim & Land, 1982). More on that in Week 8.

Again, your problem statement and research questions will help you determine your research design, and your research design will help determine your research method. In this Assignment, you will select a research design and examine its appropriateness for your potential research.

In your Discussion assignment, you have posted at least two research questions. In the Week 7 Application Assignment, using the required readings and media resources on research design, write 4-5 pages (a) describing at least one potential research design you could use, (b) the strengths and limitations (including reliability and validity issues) of that design selection, and (c) the rationale for your selection: Finally, explain how your problem statement, purpose statement, and research questions align with your proposed methodology and design. Be specific.

The latter will become part of your Prospectus section on the nature of the study, together with your chosen methodology.

Support your Application Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are asked to provide a reference list for all resources, including those in the Learning Resources for this course.

Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool's honor code & terms of service.

Final Answer




Research Design
Student’s Name
Walden University



Research Design
Potential Research Design
The purpose aims at enhancing the understanding of the society on the issue of gender gaps in
leadership positions. Therefore, choosing the right research design will help to present factual
data to the readers. Notably, one of the research questions seeks to analyze the current number of
women in executive positions and how the number has evolved over the years. Besides, it is
crucial to provide a qualitative analysis of the causes of gender gaps, especially in the institutions
of higher learning. Notably, the other research question is to analyze the barriers that affect the
women who aspire to hold leadership positions. The research design should also help explain the
effectiveness of the modes of affirmative action that society has instituted. Generally, the third
question is to explain how the community is reducing the barriers facing women in their careers
as leaders.
Therefore, the ex post facto research design will help analyze the primary purpose of the
dissertation. Ex post facto research design is a form of quasi-experiment. Notably, a quasiexperiment does not allow the researcher to manipulate the independent variable. What's more,
the quasi-experiment does not enable the researcher to assign participants randomly. The
scientific explanation for the Ex post facto research design is the design that relies on the
naturally-occurring treatment after the treatment has occurred instead of creating the procedure
itself. The primary aim of the Ex post facto research design is to establish causal or functional
relationships among the variables. The Ex post facto research design would rely on the already
collected data even if the amassed data were for another research. The phrase Ex Post Facto
represents what the researcher does afterward. Instead of taking groups that are similar and



exposing them to varying conditions to determine how the differences in their dependent
variables, the design takes groups that are already diverse and subjects and attempts to analyze
the factors that brought the differences. The Ex post facto research design would rely on the
previously collected data even if the amassed data were for another research. All the participants
must exhibit a unique trait that could affect the dependent variable. Therefore the Ex post facto
research design examines how the independent variable present before the study affects the
dependent variable.
For instance, a researcher may want to analyze if weight reduces the self-esteem of an individual.
The primary approach is to group the participants into different categories such as those who
overweight, people who are underweight, and the people with average weight. The research then
conducts an empirical study to measure the levels of self-esteem. The presence of a pre-existing
condition, in the case being weight, means that the experiment is ex post facto in nature.
Nevertheless, the failure by the Ex post facto research design does not reduce its viability.
Notably, the model also shares with the actual experimental research design on specific aspects,
such as determining the influence of a particular variable on another variable and testing a theory
using the hypothesis testing techniques.
Nevertheless, the Ex post facto research design follows several steps. First, the researcher has to
define the problem. The problem statement of the dissertation is analyzing why gender gaps exist
in positions of leadership. The second step is to surveying the literature and stating the
hypothesis. Afterward, the researcher must detail the assumptions upon which the individual will
base the hypotheses and the procedures that follow.



Furthermore, the researcher must design the overall approach of the experiment. For instance, the
researcher selects appropriate participants and materials. Then, the individual identifies the
proper techniques for collecting the data and design the various categories upon which to classify
the data. Nevertheless, the classes should avoid any ambiguity. Moreover, the researcher must
validate the techniques for gathering data to avoid hitches after the process begins. After the
collection of data, the last step is to analyze and interpret the findings in clear and precious
Strengths and Limitations of Ex Post Facto Research Design
The Ex post facto research design is a crucial model when researching on social aspects.
Notably, it is not ethical to manipulate some of the social elements for research purposes (Simon
& Goes, 2013). For instance, an individual cannot take measures to ensure a participant is
overweight to complete an assessment on whether being overweight reduces the self-esteem of
the individual. The other strength of the Ex post facto research design is that they are very
flexible. Notably, the researcher finds and manipulates the hypotheses according to personal
preferences. Since they rely on the already available data, the researcher does not spend a lot of
time gathering the already existing data. Generally, the researcher seeks permission from the
authors of the data and uses it in the research. Therefore, the Ex post...

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