USM Addressing Stressful Issues & Policies on How to Address Them Discussion

University of Southern Mississippi

Question Description

I’m studying for my Social Science class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

The paper will consist of the following components regarding the subject of stress. 2 pages required

  1. Introduction – “What’s the problem?” 1 PARAGRAPH. . Students will write a brief summation of the issue and how it impacts families. This should be no longer than a paragraph and should be informed by the content provided in Canvas as well as relevant outside research. APA-style citations should be included in-text to identify relevant source material.
  2. Scope of the problem – “How big is the problem?” 1/2 PAGE. Students will use the resources provided and relevant outside research to describe the scope and impact of the issue on families (include statistics/number of people impacted). Particular attention will be paid to evidence of unequal or different impacts based on gender, race, SES, age, sexual orientation, family structure, or other relevant family demographics. This section should be at least one-half page in length and should include in-text citations for the source content.
  3. Description of policy – “What has been done to help/ fix the problem?” 1 PARAGRAPH. Using the information provided in Canvas and any relevant outside sources, students will describe a policy or set of policies that aim to address the focal family issue. This section will be no more than one paragraph and should include a brief description of the policy and its purpose along with appropriate APA citations back to the relevant source material.
  4. Evaluation of impact – “Did the fix work?” 1/2 PAGE. Students will digest information from provided sources and relevant outside source material and prepare a brief (approx. one-half page) summary of the impact the identified policy has had on the focal family issue. Citing relevant sources, using APA, the students will describe how the policy has or has not impacted the family issue (the policy’s intended consequences) as well as any unintended consequences that may have resulted from the policy’s implementation. As with the above sections, this portion should be primarily informed by research and should contain APA in-text citations for used source material.
  5. Personal reaction – “How do I feel about it?” 1 PARAGRAPH Having outlined the issue, relevant policy, and its impact, students will conclude their paper with a brief discussion of their own opinions on the issue and policy. Students should describe their opinions in light of the information they included earlier in the paper and should discuss how those opinions were or were not influenced by their research for this paper. As this is entirely based on opinion, there is no right or wrong answer for this section. Instead, points will be based on whether the students clearly articulate their opinion and how they arrived at it.

I attached a sample paper given by the instructor and a previous paper that I turned in for the class to use as a reference if needed. There needs to be at least 2 of the provided sources used in the paper and whatever other outside sources needed, and everything cited in APA. They've been sticklers about citations and making sure everything is cited correctly that isn't own thoughts. Here are the sources:


Industry News (n.d.). The Benefits of Stress Management for Employees [Blog post]. WELCOA. Retrieved from

Landsbergis, P. A. (2009). Interventions to reduce job stress and improve work organization and worker health. In P. L. Schnall, M. Dobson, E. Rosskam, & R. H. Elling (Eds.), Unhealthy work: Causes, consequences, cures (pp. 193-209). New York, NY: Routledge.

Thoits, P. A. (2010). Stress and health: Major findings and policy implications. Journal of health and Social Behavior, 51(S), S41-S53.

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CHILD ABUSE POLICY IMPACT 1 Child abuse happens when children under 18 years of age experience physical, sexual, or emotional abuse, or neglect (Fortson, Klevens, Merrick, Gilbert, & Alexander, 2016). Individuals who experience child abuse are at greater risks for developing mental and emotional disorders, and they are more likely to attempt suicide (Pérez-Fuentes et al., 2013). Scope and Impact on the Family It is difficult to estimate the prevalence of child abuse because it is so underreported (Pérez-Fuentes et al., 2013; Walsh, Zwi, Woolfenden, & Shlonsky, 2018). One study suggested that about 9 in 1000 children in the United States are victims of child abuse, some of whom die because of it (Peterson et al., 2018). Homes with child abuse usually include unsafe, weak, and toxic relationships that hinder child development, especially with early development (Fortson et al., 2016). Such relationships are connected with higher levels of violent behavior in children. When they are adults, they are more likely to exhibit violence in dating and intimate partner relationships, sexual violence, and self-harm (Fortson et al., 2016). Family Demographics Certain demographics are associated with higher levels of child abuse. Families with lower socioeconomic status experience higher levels of child abuse (Bywaters et al., 2016). Reports show that females are also sexually abused more than males: males, 5% to 16%; females, 15% to 32%. However, part of this gap may be due to lower levels of reporting in males (Pérez-Fuentes et al., 2013). The Solution (Policy) In relation to sexual abuse specifically, school-based programs are facilitated in minority schools (Walsh et al., 2018). In a one year-period between 2014 and 2015, 85% of elementary CHILD ABUSE POLICY IMPACT 2 schools utilized a prevention program, and about two in three children experience these kinds of programs (Pulido et al., 2015). Purpose These school-based abuse prevention programs focus on teaching children skills they can use to defend themselves against perpetrators (Walsh et al., 2018). Programs also help children learn how to recognize situations that can be sexually abusive. Parents are taught how to appropriately respond to their children when they bring up concerns regarding sexual abuse. Ultimately, the goal is to reduce harm by empowering children to avoid harm and seek help, and to help parents provide the best support possible for their children (Walsh et al., 2018). Policy Impact Research shows that there is a decrease in child abuse because of prevention programs (Peterson et al., 2018; Walsh et al., 2018). The costs to run prevention programs are small compared to the benefits of reduced child abuse incidences treated in healthcare, child services, and the legal system (Peterson et al., 2018). The long-term benefits for children and their families where abuse has been avoided as a result of these programs is significant as well (Peterson et al., 2018). Unintended Consequences Unfortunately, prevention programs that teach children how to protect themselves may deliver an incorrect message that children are responsible for protecting themselves from abuse and that it is not the responsibility of the parents or other adults to keep them safe (Walsh et al., 2018). Another issue related to child abuse prevention policies is the poor connection between the legal system and agencies that encounter potential child abuse (Chasnoff, Barber, Brook, & Akin, 2018). Because each system is left to discern for themselves minor details in what counts CHILD ABUSE POLICY IMPACT 3 as child abuse under certain policies, families miss out on help they would otherwise receive if there was a clear line of collaboration between agencies, medical professionals, and the legal system (Chasnoff et al., 2018) Personal Reaction Child abuse is definitely a big issue and it has a major impact on families. Child abuse within families alters the course of children’s development for the rest of their lives. It also impacts how they treat their families of procreation, and it becomes a nasty cycle that leads to more child abuse and more unhealthy families. The fact so many children experience child abuse or witness domestic violence is very sad. Because it is so underreported, and so well hidden by perpetrators, it is hard to imagine that there will ever be a policy that will stop child abuse. Even with school-based abuse prevention programs, adults have more power than children. Thus, child abuse will still happen because children will always be weaker than the adults that abuse them. The only comforting idea that arises when considering these programs is that child abuse is still reduced in some way. Even if a hundred children are all a policy saves, it is worth it because saving a hundred children can save a hundred lines of posterity and future generations. Each child matters, thus efforts made by policy makers will reap some success. The real question lies in finding the best way to implement effective policies. CHILD ABUSE POLICY IMPACT 4 References Bywaters, P., Bunting, L., Davidson, G., Hanratty, J., Mason, W., McCartan, C., & Steils, N. (2016). The relationship between poverty, child abuse and neglect: An evidence review. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Retrived from ionship_between_poverty_child_abuse_and_neglect_an_evidence_review/links/58208f7c 08ae40da2cb4ede7/The-relationship-between-poverty-child-abuse-and-neglect-anevidence-review.pdf Chasnoff, I. J., Barber, G., Brook, J., & Akin, B. A. (2018). The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act: Knowledge of health care and legal professionals. Child Welfare, 96(3), 41-58. Retrieved from Fortson, B. L., Klevens, J., Merrick, M. T., Gilbert, L. K., & Alexander, S. P. (2016). Preventing child abuse and neglect: A technical package for policy, norm, and programmatic activities. Division of Violence Prevention. doi: 10.15620/cdc.38864 Pérez-Fuentes, G., Olfson, M., Villegas, L., Morcillo, C., Wang, S., & Blanco, C. (2013). Prevalence and correlates of child sexual abuse: a national study. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 54(1), 16-27. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2012.05.010 Peterson, C., Florence, C., Thomas, R., & Klevens, J. (2018). Cost-benefit analysis of two child abuse and neglect primary prevention programs for US states. Prevention Science, 19(6), 705-715. doi: 10.1007/s11121-017-0819-8 CHILD ABUSE POLICY IMPACT Pulido, M. L., Dauber, S., Tully, B. A., Hamilton, P., Smith, M. J., & Freeman, K. (2015). Knowledge gains following a child sexual abuse prevention program among urban students: A cluster-randomized evaluation. American Journal of Public Health, 105(7), 1344-1350. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2015.302594 Walsh, K., Zwi, K., Woolfenden, S., & Shlonsky, A. (2018). School-based education programs for the prevention of child sexual abuse: A Cochrane systematic review and metaanalysis. Research on Social Work Practice, 28(1), 33-55. doi: 10.1177/1049731515619705 5 Running head: GUN VIOLENCE POLICY 1 Introduction Currently, the issue of gun violence is a hot topic that attracts varied responses from different people, agencies, and politicians. In the United States, the level of gun violence remains high over the past years, despite various measures being put in place. Although various nongovernmental agencies advocate for the formulation of effective gun policies, gun violence in the country has an immense impact on families. Scope and Impact on the Family According to Everytown (2019), gun-related violence is the behavior of using excess force where a person uses firearms. Depending on the jurisdiction, the possession of the gun may or may not be considered illegal. The statistics show that civilians control 75 percent of the guns globally (Masters, 2019). In the United States, approximately 393 guns are owned by civilians, which accounts for roughly 46 percent of gun ownership in the world (Key Statistics, 2020). Globally, millions of people are killed in a year using guns, and others are left crippled or nursing their gun wounds. In the United States alone, over 20,000 people are killed or injured each year (Key Statistics, 2020). In a single day, approximately 310 people are shot where 100 people succumb to the injuries while others survive in the U.S. (Key Statistics, 2020). The data depicts that 21 children between 1 and 17 years are shot in a day where 4 die in the process, and 17 survive from the injuries (Key Statistics, 2020). Family Demographics The gun violence has risen in the last few years and has attracted public attention. Much of the attention has focused on the tightening of gun policies, thus getting firearms from the 2 GUN VIOLENCE POLICY hands of the potentials criminals and people with mental health instabilities. Indeed, gun violence has a negative implication on most of the families. The families have been left mourning the deaths on their dear ones who are killed in horrendous events like the mass shooting in El-Paso in August of 2019 as well as Sandy Hook shooting December of 2019. The gun violence in the country leaves tens of thousands struggling financially, especially when their breadwinners are killed or injured. Families also experience financial difficulties, especially trying to clear the ballooning hospital bills. It leaves most of the children without parents, thus making their life difficult, especially while attempting to adjust to a life without parents. Most of the gun violence incidences that take place at the homes are witnessed by the children (Masters, 2019). The exposure of gun violence in children negatively impacts their mental and psychological health. Children and parents are likely to experience post-traumatic stress disorders, and it may lead to some conditions like substance abuse, early marriages, homelessness, or the development of aggressive behaviors among children (Swoveland, & Swoveland, 2019). Therefore, gun violence negatively impacts the family structure. Description of Policy In order to address the issue of gun violence on the families, the stringent gun policy should be put in place like Universal background checks. Screening should be done to ensure that guns do not land in the hands of criminals, domestic abusers, people with mental illness, or those abusing substances. Persons involved in threatening others using a gun or any other weapon should be blacklisted from accessing a gun (Kleck, Kovandzic, & Bellows, 2016). Similarly, a person who is charged with a criminal offense should as well be barred from possessing a gun. 3 GUN VIOLENCE POLICY Evaluation of Impact Barring of the possession of guns by persons with mental illnesses, substance abuse disorders, abusive or criminal cases will reduce gun violence significantly. According to Everytown (2019), the laws designed to regulate the ownership of guns are effective in reducing gun violence. The level of gun violence is minimal in states with a universal background than in the states with no gun control policies (Everytown, 2019). In 2019, the states with strict gun control policies recorded a 15 percent decrease in homicide cases (Everytown, 2019). Laws that restrict the possession of the guns by people found guilty of various criminal offenses led to the decline in homicide cases by 18 percent (Everytown, 2019). The strict laws that prohibit the possession of firearms are more preferred than the laws that allow ownership. According to Everytown (2019), the states with laws that limit possession of the guns and those that prohibit the transfer of the firearms illegally recorded a 35 percent decrease in gun-related violence. Unintended Consequences Unfortunately, the background check laws result in some unintended outcomes. They may not limit people who aim to commit suicide. People who want to commit suicide can always use other means of doing it. Similarly, it may not help in reducing mass killings. Occasionally, the mass shootings are rarer. Mass shootings account for only 0.2 percent of the total homicides, and the number of injuries accounts for only 1 percent of the homicides in the USA (Everytown, nd). Therefore, enacting stricter gun control will have a slight effect on reducing the number of people who lose their lives annually. 4 GUN VIOLENCE POLICY Personal Reaction The firearm violence rate continues to increase day by day. Overall, I feel that gun violence has a negative impact on families. It destroys the family structure, and has an especially when the parents are killed or injured. The families experience financial difficulties due to the huge medical bills when one of the family members is critically injured. It also results in the everlasting emotional and psychological problems for the children, such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder and the chance of resorting to aggressive violent behavior in the future (Everytown, 2019). Although the gun background checks reduce the rate of gun violence, it may not completely address the issue, as there are always loopholes and people will find a way no matter what if the desire is strong enough. It is essential for both government and nongovernmental agencies to implement community gun prevention programs (American Psychological Association, 2013). 5 GUN VIOLENCE POLICY References American Psychological Association (2013). Gun violence: prediction, prevention, and policy: APA panel of experts report. American Psychological Association. Everytown (2019). The impact of gun violence on children and teens. Retrieved from Everytown (nd). Ten years of mass shootings in the United States. Retrieved from Key Statistics, (2020). Retrieved from Kleck, G., Kovandzic, T., & Bellows, J. (2016). Does gun control reduce violent crime? Criminal justice review, 41(4), 488-513. Masters, J. (2019). U.S. Gun Policy: Global Comparisons. Retrieved from Swoveland, C., & Swoveland, E. (2019). The impact of gun violence on children, families, & communities – CWLA. Retrieved from ...
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Final Answer



Running head: FAMILY STRESS


Family Stress

Family stress

Stress is can either be in form of physical or emotional tension and occurs as a response to
demand or a challenge and makes one feel frustrated, nervous, and or angry (Lazarus &
Folkman, 2014). Considering the definition of stress, it, therefore, affects the emotional and
physical aspects of a person. Despite stress being a considerably big problem, it cannot be
avoided because life poses various demands that keep the stress-energy. The body system of a
human being continues to function even when asleep and the pressure of death can only be
relieved after death. Stress poses social challenges to the communities as it greatly affects
families in many ways (Fink, 2010). When stress affects a family member, it can affect their
health status and this can increase the costs associated with caring for them medically. Stress can
also affect the social relations in families as it affects the moods and can also result in divorces.
Stress affects how family members interact and communicate as it can comprise the quality of
relationships and interactions.
Scope of the problem
Everyone is at risk of experiencing family stress but parents are more vulnerable than children.
Children stress affect their parents in a great way because the parents have to help them deal with
the stressing condition. Therefore, children’s stress in a family also increases the stress of their
parents. According to a report by the American Psychology Association, 73% of parents report
cases of stress from parental responsibilities. About 31% of overweight children and 14% of
normal children experience stress in their families. Only 69% of adult parents think that they can
manage stress but hardly are they able to handle stress. About 14% of children are not bothered

Family St...

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