EDU 7100 AU Week 6 Controversies in Contemporary Higher Education in the USA Research Paper

EDU 7100

ashford university

Question Description

I don’t know how to handle this Philosophy question and need guidance.

Controversies in Contemporary Higher Education

[WLOs: 1, 2, 3, 4] [CLOs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

As you have learned throughout this course, there have been a number of controversies, issues, and challenges in higher education throughout different eras. Some of these controversies remain today or have evolved because of current societal, economic, political, or legal influences.

For this final project, you will select one of these controversies affecting contemporary higher education. In a 10-12 page paper, you will then trace this controversy through various eras of higher education in the United States. In your project, you will also provide an overview of the current state of this controversy. You will examine the socioeconomic, political, and legal factors.

In your analysis you must identify all of the stakeholders impacted by this controversy. You will forecast how that controversy may impact higher education in the future.

Your work must be supported by appropriate academic and empirical sources as detailed in the annotated bibliography project description (see Week 4). All work must be properly formatted according to APA (6th edition) format.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.) for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.


Cohen, A. M. & Kisker, C. B. (2010). The shaping of American higher education: Emergence and growth of the secondary system (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

  • The full-text version of this ebook is available through your online classroom through the RedShelf platform.

Lucas, C. J. (2006). American higher education: A history (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Palgrave McMillan Book.

  • The full-text version of this ebook is available through your online classroom through the RedShelf platform.


  • Brennan, J. & Naidoo, R. (2008). Higher education and the achievement (and/or prevention) of equity and social justice. The Future of Higher Education and Higher Education Justice, 56(3), 287-302.
  • Jo, V. H. (2008). Voluntary turnover and women administrators in higher education. Higher Education, 56(5), 565-582.
  • Minor, J. T. (2008). Segregation residual in higher education: A tale of two states. American Educational Research Journal, 45(4), 861-885.
  • Stanley, M. (2003). College education and the midcentury GI Bills. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118(2), 671-708.
  • Woodbury, R. L. (2004). Higher education and the promise of opportunity. New England Journal of Public Policy, 20(1), 95-99.

Web Pages


  • Bynner, J., Brassett-Grundy, A., Hammond. C, Preston, J., & Schuller, T. (2004). The benefits of learning: The impact of education on health, family life and social capital. London: Taylor and Francis.
  • McMahon, W. W. (2009). Higher learning, greater good. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University.
  • Pasque, P. P. & Nicholson, S. E. (2011). Empowering women in higher education and student affairs: Theory, research, narrative, and practice from feminist perspectives. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.
  • Witt, A., Wattenbarger, J., Gollattscheck, J., & Suppiger, J. (1994). America’s community colleges: The first century. Washington, DC: Community College Press.


  • Hodson, J. B. & Speck, B. W. [Eds.]. (2010). New Directions for Higher Education, 149. Special Issue: Perspectives on fundraising. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Stater, M. (2009). The impact of financial aid on G.P.A. at three flagship public institutions. American Educational Research Journal, 46(3), 782-815.
  • Teresa, B. B., & Lucas, C. J. (2006). The first hundred years. International Educator, 15(6), 26-33.

Web Pages


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Final Answer




Controversies In Contemporary Higher Education
Student’s Name
Institution Affiliation


Controversies In Contemporary Higher Education
In the United States, students can voluntarily choose to continue with higher education after
completion of secondary education. This education level is delivered in various institutions
like the public or private universities, community colleges, or liberal arts colleges. There has
been a decline in the enrolment of students in colleges, according to the national centre for
educational statistics (Bulick, 2017). This decline can be stagnant in the next decade or
continue. In the U.S., there is a high investment in sports, especially American basketball and
football, with the presence of large arenas and sports stadiums.
Colonial-era to 19th century
Colleges were established by religious leaders for the purpose of establishing ministers. In
1636, the colonial legislature founded Harvard College. The instructors in the elite colleges
were paid lowly, and also the enslaved Africans and indigenous people were oppressed. This
led to the opening of smaller denominational colleges by the Protestants and Catholics in the
19th century. Therefore, 46% of undergraduate students were enrolled in the year 1899. Some
colleges ended up merging or closing. In the early 20th century, women's colleges were
opened by the Catholics. Creativity was not a priority, and students were engaged in latin,
geometry, Greek, history logic, and ethics in the small schools with a limited number of
undergraduates. Colleges also operated preparatory schools, and students were younger than
the age of seventeen years. Scholarships were quite a few for the students as well as low
tuition. The schools offered the community with leaders. North-eastern elite college was
formed through eastern colleges such as Harvard, which stressed on the wealthy families and
20th century


During the early and mid of the 20th century, the number of colleges drastically increased.
The small institutions grew to state universities, and also the regional campuses became
separate universities. There was a network of teachers' colleges that were set up as a result of
this growth in every state. Junior colleges were later developed but were renamed community
colleges in the 1960s. The community colleges remained open to enrolment and focused on
the vocational type of education. These colleges targeted poorer and less-prepared students.
In 1930 junior colleges enrolled a total of 70000 new students. There were social movements
by the students before the 20th century, where they protested for their civil rights and against
the Vietnam War. Gay and women's rights were also part of the social movement. Enrolment
of students in the profit colleges declined since the year 2011 following the federal
investigations. The profit colleges focused on sales practices and the marketing of those
21st century
The 21st century was characterized by the shifting of technology and also politics. Changing
in technology have brought a change in higher education. Approximately 6.3 million
American students, in the year 2016, took one online course. This led to the competition of
online students decreasing the confidence of chief academic affairs in the year 205 from
70.8% to 63.3% in 2016. At Harvard extension schools as well as other major university
extension schools, there were short term coding boot camps that existed in the U.S. programs
in 2018. According to research, there has been an increase in gaps in the success of education
across socioeconomic groups due to online education. Online education has also failed to
improve the affordability of education (Quarles, 2018). The aim of the massive open online
course was to be accessed through the web and have unlimited participation by the students.
The massive online open course also provided forums that were interactive to support the
student, professor, and teaching assistants’ interaction. However, according to research, very


few students completed their online course. In the year 2019, only 3% completion rates were
recorded, and the number of ...

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