Writing
HIST 4904 VCU American Women In The Military During WW2 Research Paper

HIST 4904

Virginia Commonwealth University

HIST

Question Description

I don’t know how to handle this History question and need guidance.

Attached:

is the template must be followed, also attached is the an example of what it should look like, also list of primary and secondary.

Thesis: How did gender roles define what American women did in the military during WW2.

Looking at: Nursing, Codebreakers/ spies, roles in WAVES,WACS, WASPS.

FIRST, draft a preliminary "reason-based" outline of your chapter, with 3-4 “reasons” identified, formatted as follows:

Claim/Argument/Working Thesis
1. Reason 1
2. Reason 2
3. Reason 3
4. Reason 4

SECOND, transform your "reason-based" outline into a "question-based" outline, with 3-4 secondary questions (provide the answer to each secondary question in parentheses), formatted as follows. The best primary and secondary research questions always begin with a "why" or a "how".

Primary Research Question (the question that your Claim answers)

  1. Secondary Question 1 (answer 1 = reason 1)
  2. Secondary Question 2 (answer 2 = reason 2)
  3. Secondary Question 3 (answer 3 = reason 3)
  4. Secondary Question 4 (answer 4 = reason 4)

Working Thesis/Argument/Answer to Primary Research Question

THIRD, Insert a shorthand list of relevant evidence for each of your Secondary Questions

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Inventory of Primary Sources part 1 Keywords and Search Terms used: U.S workforce, intelligence workforce, spy, female, male spy, World War II, gender roles, the 1940s, 1960s Primary Source Collection 1: • Title/name of the collection: Published source • Brief description of the selection: The collection includes books and journals, which are part of scholarly references that discuss the issue of the evolving gender roles in the field of intelligence. • Specific primary sources identified: Books National Research Council., Policy and Global Affairs., Board on Higher Education and Workforce., Division on Earth and Life Studies., Board on Earth Sciences and Resources., & Committee on the Future U.S. Workforce for Geospatial Intelligence. (2013). Future U.S. Workforce for Geospatial Intelligence. National Academic Press Pattinson, J. (2011). Behind enemy lines: Gender, Passing, and the Special Operations Executive in the Second World War (Cultural History of Modern War) 1st Edition. Manchester University Press Purnell, S. (2019). A Woman of No Importance: The Untold Story of the American Spy Who Helped Win World War II. London: Little Brown Book Group Rose, S. (2019). The D-Day Girls: The Spies Who Armed the Resistance, Sabotaged the Nazis, and Helped Win World War II. New York: Crown Publishing Smith, M. (2020). The Anatomy of a Spy: A History of Espionage and Betrayal. Cheltenham: History Press Journals and Thesis INVENTORY OF PRIMARY SOURCES 2 Carlomagno, C. (2019). Women in a Man's War: The Employment of Female Agents in the Special Operations Executive, 1940-1946. Chapman University, MA, Thesis. Chapman University Digital Commons, https://doi.org/10.36837/chapman.000075 Martin, A. (2015). America’s Evolution of Women and Their Roles in the Intelligence Community. Journal of Strategic Security 8(3), 99-109 Zidaru, M., Georgescu, S., & Dragan, C. (2014). The Change in the Activity of the American Intelligence Services. Journal of History Culture and Art Research • How do you think these sources will help you answer your research question? All the sources mentioned above are quite vital for the research at hand. The book by National Research Council et al. has a section on the evolution of the field and also the emerging areas. It will help in gaining an understanding of how the intelligence field has evolved over the years and, in particular geospatial intelligence. The knowledge will help to define the role of both genders and whether it was an equal fete for the field of intelligence. The other books all give specific and actual events of the lives of spies in the 1940s, which is imperative for this research. The journal by Zidaru et al. contains the elements of the re-organization of the intelligence services of the U.S, which is crucial when it comes to an understanding the changing roles of those admitted to the intelligence service bodies. Martin et al. provide more profound and more specific insights as there is a discussion of women and their changing roles specifically. Primary Source Collection 2: • Title/name of the collection: Film and Video Footage INVENTORY OF PRIMARY SOURCES 3 • Brief description of the collection: Films that serve as a recreation of what happened in the 1940s and 1960s in the field of intelligence and also videos that have actual stories of the occurrences then. • Specific primary sources identified Film Zemeckis, R., & King, G. (2016). Allied. The United Kingdom. Paramount Pictures Youtube Videos Special Forces. (2014). NSA - Documentary on the Secret Intelligence Agency. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kx7X4EWf0q8&t=64s Timeline - World History Documentaries. (2018). Nancy Wake: Gestapo's Most Wanted (French Resistance Documentary) | Timeline. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qNXKovYM15A • How do you think these sources will help you answer your research question? The saying goes that a picture is worth more than a thousand words. These video footage and images will provide insights on the occurrences of the intelligence services during the 1940s1960s in terms of gender roles in the intelligence community. These occurrences may not be accurate as some are dependent on oral history, but they help in painting a picture of the situation back then. They will also narrate accounts of specific spies, which will make the content of the research more productive. Primary Source Collection 3: • Title/name of the collection: Historical newspapers and magazines INVENTORY OF PRIMARY SOURCES • Brief description of the collection: Newspapers whose primary purpose is to write articles based on historical events and also magazines which may have sections that talk about past events but their print outs are not necessarily and solely historically based. • Specific primary sources identified Budiansky, S. (2014). America’s Unknown Intelligence Czar. American Heritage, Retrieved from https://www.americanheritage.com/americas-unknown-intelligence-czar Jarvis, E. (2016). Five Badass Female Spies Who Deserve Their Own World War II Movie. Vanity Fair, History Newsletter. Retrieved from https://www.vanityfair.com/hollywood/2016/11/allied-world-war-2-female-spy-movies Schaefer, K. (2014). The Female Spies of the SOE. The historic U.K., the History and Heritage Accommodation Guide. Retrieved from https://www.historicuk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofBritain/The-Female-Spies-Of-SOE/ Smith, A. (2019). Women Spies during WWII Were Way Better At Keeping Secrets than Their Male Counterparts. Crime Reads. Retrieved from https://crimereads.com/women-spiesduring-wwii-were-way-better-at-keeping-secrets-than-their-male-counterparts/ Sutton, M. (2019). The U.S. Recruited Missionaries as Spies during World War II. Their Stories Are Only Now Being Told. Time Magazine, History Newsletter. Retrieved from https://time.com/5684518/missionaries-spies/ • How do you think these sources will help you answer your research question? These articles provide insights as to how the spies, mostly of World War 2, lived their lives. The materials provide a platform for the comparison of how it was to work in the intelligence docket as a male and a female. It also gives the challenges that each faced despite their differences in the locality, having in mind that most of the mentioned spies were fighting 4 INVENTORY OF PRIMARY SOURCES 5 the same battle- the Second World War. These are real and well-researched accounts; thus, accuracy is not an issue. Primary Source Collection 4: • Title/name of the collection: Visual Images • Brief description of the collection: These are images that prove the participation of the individuals mentioned in intelligence in the 1940s-1960s. • Specific primary sources identified: Images of excerpt reports that intelligence officers handed in as proof of their assignment progress or completion. Excerpt from Beaulieu’s Evaluation of Tinchant. Retrieved from https://cdn.nationalarchives.gov.uk/blog/wpcontent/uploads/2014/09/01163240/Tinchant-Totally-Unsuitable-after-Fifie1409661962619.jpg Fifi’s method of approaching students. Retrieved from https://cdn.nationalarchives.gov.uk/blog/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/01163237/Fifi-Areyou-Mr.-X-e1409566175420.jpg Fifi’s Report on Tinchant. Retrieved from https://cdn.nationalarchives.gov.uk/blog/wpcontent/uploads/2014/09/01163239/Fifi-Tas-Excerpt.jpg • How do you think these sources will help you answer your research question? These two sources are excerpts of the methods that intelligence officers-female ones would use to extract information from males, whether they were also intelligence officers or not. The references will help in the definition of how both genders would use their innate abilities and prowess to extract the necessary information which will offer the needed comparison for the research. INVENTORY OF PRIMARY SOURCES 6 Primary Source Collection 5: • Title/name of the collection: Any other databases, websites, or online archives • Brief description of the selection: The information sprouts from the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) website. • Specific primary sources identified Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). (n.d.). History of American Intelligence. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/kids-page/6-12th-grade/operation-history/history-of-americanintelligence.html • How do you think these sources will help you answer your research question? The source gives an account of how intelligence has developed in the U.S since the mid19th century. In the statement, the researcher gets to see the changing and evolution of the gender roles in service up to the 1960s, which is essential in answering the questions concerning experiences in the intelligence field. Shay 1 Bibliography • Gates, Philippa. 2016. “Home Sweet Home Front Women: Adapting Women for Hollywood’s World War II Home-Front Films.” The Journal of American Popular Culture 15 (2). The article focuses on the portrayal of women in films about the Second World War in Hollywood. According to this author, most films do not give an accurate depiction of the role of gender and women in the war. They tend to portray the men in heroic roles and fail to take into account the effects that the presence of women in these societies had on the success or failure of the warring parties. However, there are some exceptions to this, which focus on the roles and sacrifices of the women who were left behind during the war. Examples of this include Mrs. Miniver (Wyler 1942), The Best Years of Our Lives (Wyler 1946), and Since You Went Away (Cromwell 1944)1. The author focuses on primary sources from the war, secondary sources, and films from the period immediately after the war. The article fits into the research question by showing the role of gender for American women during the Second World War. • Madison, James. 2009. World War II: A History in Documents. Pages from History. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. The book by Madison gives a detailed account of the Second World War. Unlike other books, this book takes into account various aspects of social life that were Gates, Philippa. 2016. “Home Sweet Home Front Women: Adapting Women for Hollywood’s World War II Home-Front Films.” 1 Shay 2 affected by the war, including gender roles. The author is an accomplished historian who conducted an in-depth research using both primary and secondary data. It makes the book an authoritative source on the subject. The book looks into the role of gender for American women during World War Two in great detail, making it ideal for this particular research. • The National Park Service. World War II and the American Home Front. World War II and the American HomeFront,2007.https://www.nps.gov/subjects / tellingallamericansstories /upload/WWIIHomeFront-508-Compliant.pdf The article is a full copy of the findings of a program conducted by the ‘U.S. Department of the Interior’ after a directive from Congress in 2007. The project carries intensive research on World War II mobilization centers. The centers served as the homes where men and women were recruited to join the U.S military, enhancing their influence in war. The team selected engaged in the rigorous activity of finding potential informers of activities and specifics of the location of such sites. The authority of the article is credible since it is a project that was financed by the federal government and supervised by the department of the interior. The report is a comprehensive content able to identify significant individuals and groups that participated in recruitment and war. Men and women are well discussed and the role they play in home fronts and fields. • Peniston-Bird, Corinna. 2012. “War and Peace in the Cloakroom: The Controversy over the Memorial to the Women of World War II.” In Representations of Peace and Conflict, edited by Stephen Gibson and Simon Shay 3 Mollan, 263–84. Rethinking Political Violence Series. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. The article looks at attitudes towards the women who participated in various capacities during the Second World War. In many cultures, heroes of war are acknowledged and sometimes immortalized through various honors. However, a memorial to commemorate the women who participated in the war in Britain was rocked with controversy, with people having dissenting views on the matter. The author focuses on one case study, with minor references to the works of other scholars and writers as well. It raises questions about gender and recognition during World War Two, which is relevant to the research question. Shay 4 Bibliography Coetzee, Frans, and Marilyn Shevin-Coetzee. 2010. The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. Gates, Philippa. 2016. “Home Sweet Home Front Women: Adapting Women for Hollywood’s World War II Home-Front Films.” The Journal of American Popular Culture 15 (2). http://www.americanpopularculture.com/journal/articles/fall_2016/gates.htm. Korczynski, Marek, Emma Robertson, Michael Pickering, and Keith Jones. 2005. “‘We Sang Ourselves Through That War’: Women, Music and Factory Work in World War Two.” Labour History Review 70 (2): 185–214. https://doi.org/10.1179/096156505X53618. Madison, James. 2009. World War II: A History in Documents. Pages from History. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. Shay 5 Peniston-Bird, Corinna. 2012. “War and Peace in the Cloakroom: The Controversy over the Memorial to the Women of World War II.” In Representations of Peace and Conflict, edited by Stephen Gibson and Simon Mollan, 263–84. Rethinking Political Violence Series. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137292254_14. Shatnawi, Dina, and Price Fishback. 2018. “The Impact of World War II on the Demand for Female Workers in Manufacturing.” The Journal of Economic History 78 (2): 539–74. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022050718000232. Vuic, Kara Dixon. 2019. The Girls Next Door: Bringing the Home Front to the Front Lines. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Zahra, Tara. 2011. The Lost Children. Harvard University Press. 1 Primary Source Collection #1 Title: From Empowerment to Domesticity: The Case of Rosie the Riveter and the WWII Campaign. Brief description: The article reveals the contributions made by women during WWI. The author reveals that during this historical period, women challenged the traditionally set gender perspectives and roles to engage in the process of constructing vital war machinery such as planes, working as pilots and offering their services as nurses. In particular, the article reveals that the contributions made by Rosie the Riveter acted as a great source of inspiration for other females to take up what were initially considered as masculine roles. Specific primary source identified: Oral history collection (Journal) Importance of the source: The article provides an in-depth analysis of the ways through which WWII broke the traditionally adopted gender roles to allow women to make contributions in this historic event. Primary Source Collection # 2 Title: Women in WWII: How women’s entry into the public sphere helped win the war and influence gender workplace discourse Brief description of collection: The paper gives an analysis of the ways through which the economic efforts made by American women in WWII had a significant influence on Allied victory. Specific primary sources identified: Published source Importance: The source will help in the process of demystifying the extents to which the contributions made by women in the private sector influenced their acceptance in the expansion of the American public and industrial sectors during WWII. 2 Primary Source #3 Title/name of collection: American Women in World War II Brief description of collection: The collection gives a description on the roles played by the over 350,000 American women in WWII in the military, aircraft making, and as pilots in the Women’s Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs). Specific primary sources identified: Manuscript collections (online) https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/american-women-in-world-war-ii-1 Importance: The source reveals how previous professional experienced among women led to their inclusion as essential agents during WWII. Primary Source# 4 Title/name of collection: Does integration change gender attitudes? The effect of randomly assigning women to traditionally male teams Brief description of collection: The study examines the extents to which exposing women to conventionally male dominated fields fosters changes in attitude concerning Specific primary sources identified: Published sources (document collections) Importance: The source provides essential literature that will guide in the processes of appreciating the extents to which the involvement of women in militaristic activities such as WWII altered the previously accepted gender roles. Primary Source #5 Title: The Anatomy of Patriotism: The Commodification of American Gender Roles and the Female Body in World War II Print Media 3 Brief description: The source adopts media representations to reveal the ways through which the WWII imposed modifications on the American gender roles and the essence of women as a representation of the cultural perspectives of the American society in WWII. Specific primary sources identified: Oral history collections Significance: The source will be used to explain the nature of women as people who carry the burdens associated with the American culture during WWII. Primary Source # 6 Title/name of collection: Women’s Roles during World War II Brief description of collection: The source gives a professional talk on how the role of women changed during WWII from housewives and private workers to the engagement in public workforce, and application of political influences to offer refugees and Jews with aid Specific primary sources identified: Film and video footage Significance: The ability of the film to incorporate historian Gretchen Skidmore gives a revelation of the historical occurrences that forced women to change their gender roles during WWII. Primary Source#7 Title/name of collection: Women in the Workforce and Military during World War II Brief description of collection: The video clip presents History Professor Keller Lisa’s talk on the roles played by women in WWII. The influx of females led to a significant change in the gender roles during WWII and the genesis for women’s activist groups. Specific primary sources identified: Film and video footage Significance: The video clip will lay a foundation for appreciating the roles played by American women during WWII and the extents to which such chores led to alterations in gender roles. 4 Primary Source #8 Title/name of collection: Working Dad; Stay at Home Mom: 1950s Ideal Brief description of collection: The film shows the essential roles that WWII played in instilling changes in American gender roles by creating ample employment opportunities that liberated the females from their traditionally accepted chores. Specific primary sources identified: Film and video footage Significance: The film will play a significant role in the process of unraveling the extents to which WWII in fostering gender equality and changing status quo in relation to the roles played by women in the American economy. Primary Source #9 Title/name of collection: The waves of World War II Brief description of collection: The source gives a pictographic representation of the contributions made by women in WWII which led to great alterations in gender roles. Specific primary sources identified: Other database (photographs) Significance: The source will avail ample pictographic representations of the roles that women played in WWII that go beyond the traditionally acknowledged roles. Primary Source #10 Title/name of collection ...
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Running head: RESEARCH PAPER OUTLINE

Research Paper Outline

1

Name:
Research Topic: Women and the Second World War
Research Question: How did the gendered roles define the roles that women played in
World War II?
Working Thesis: Although more women joined the workforce, the entry of the US into
World War II changed the types of jobs available to women, as they were allowed to
serve in non-combat roles in the army.

Claim/Argument/Working Thesis: Although more women joined the workforce, the
entry of the US into World War II changed the types of jobs available to women, as they
were allowed to serve in non-combat roles in the army.

1. Reason 1: Women largely took up the roles that were initially not available to
them in the army.
a) The new roles taken were previously not available to women and were mainly
considered masculine.
b) Women were previou...

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