Humanities
Bethel University US History Essay

Bethel University

Question Description

Help me study for my History class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

Please see the below the questions below that I would like to have individually answered. This assignment must consist of 1000+ words with 3 Scholarly Sources, the below reference must be used as one source. Please put the question number by the answer so that I know what answer goes with each question. **NO PLAGIARISM WHATSOEVER**

1. Explain current beliefs about how the first peoples settled North America, and discuss the ways in which they became differentiated from one another over time.

2. Describe the founding of European nations' first colonies in the New World. Give 2-3 examples.

3. Explain the relationship between the expansion of British America, the decline of the Native American population in the east, and the transition from indentured servitude to race-based servitude in the period of 1660-1700.

Reference and Textbook are below;

Schultz, K.M. (2013). US History Through 1877. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

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S M I T H , A D A M 2 0 0 8 T S Chapter 1 Three Societies on the Verge of Contact S M I T H , A D A M 2 0 0 8 ­Learning Outcomes T After reading this chapter, you should be able to do S the following: 1-1 Explain current beliefs about how the first peoples settled North America, and discuss the ways in which they became differentiated from one another over time. 1-2 Describe the African societies that existed at the time the first Africans were brought to the New World as slaves. 1-3 Describe Europe’s experiences during the last centuries before Columbus made his first voyage to the New World in 1492. 2 C h apte r 13 The Continued Move West 9781305211827, HIST, Third Edition, Schultz - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. “ We will probably never know when the first people set foot on what we now call the United States. ” People have been living on the landmass we now know as the United States for at least the past 12,000 years—long before civilizations emerged Calling North America the “New World” is inaccurate. among the ancient Egyptians, Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree the ancient Greeks, and Jesus 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Christ, whose estimated time                                                    of arrival, however incorrect, S western European time came to be measured. As a political is the measure by which nation, however, the United M States is less than 250 years old, encapsulating roughly just nine or ten generations. Although this book is mostly about that relatively recent politiI who lived in it, this chapter deals with the three groups of cal nation and the people people—Indians, WestTAfricans, and Europeans—who came together in North America more than five hundred years ago, setting in motion the process by which America H would become an independent nation. This chapter begins in the Ice Age and ends as Christopher Columbus , sets foot in North America in 1492, becoming, perhaps, the first European to ever do so.  What do you think? A 1-1 NativeDAmerica Early human life in North A America can be divided into three periods: (1) the Paleo-Indian, (2) the Archaic, and (3) the pre-Columbian. Thus we begin by exploring the theories M reached North America and describe the progress of these of when the first humans humans up to the point when Columbus discovered the Western Hemisphere. 2 1-1a The Paleo-Indian Era: The First Settlers 0 (10,000–15,000 years ago) 0 The first settlers of the Americas seem to have appeared in what we call the Paleo-Indian era. Although we will8probably never know when the first people set foot on what we now call the United States, T it seems they may have come earlier than was first thought. S Arrival 1-1 © Tom Till/Superstock For a long time, archaeologists believed that the first people came not for fame, fortune, or freedom (as subsequent immigrants would), but simply because they were hungry. According to this theory, about 12,000 years ago, thousands of young adults and their families left their homes in Asia and crossed a narrow passage of iced-over land called Beringia, southwest of today’s Alaska. These people were supposedly following herds of << The Serpent Mound in Ohio is more than a thousand years old. Native America 9781305211827, HIST, Third Edition, Schultz - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 3 °N ARCTIC OCEAN 80 BERINGIA 160°E Ci rcl e 40°E ct Ar ic 180° °N 60 20°E 160°W 0° Kennewick N 40° 140°W Folsom Blackwater Draw AT L A N T I C O C EA N Cactus Hill r f Cance Tropic o 20°N 120°W S M I T H , 100°W PAC I F IC OC EA N N Monte Verde Fell’s Cave 80°W Map 1.1. Pedra Pintada A D A M 2 0 0 8 T S 20°W 20°S Tropic of Capricorn 0 0 40°S C h apte r 1 500 1000 Km. 500 1000 Mi. Extent of land, ca. 33,000–10,500 B.C.E. Glaciers, ca. 15,000 B.C.E. Probable ancient shoreline Probable migratory route 60°W Settlement of Americas Cengage Learning First Americans Enter the New World © Cengage Learning 2014 Ms00225b trim 45p x 51p Final replace: 3/28/08 Correction 7/25/09—cm: change northwest most route to coastal; add drop shadows to legend Boyer variant: Delete ‘Land Bridge’ 4 Equator 0° 40°W Selected Paleo-Indian site Type block map Bleeds top and right Align top map trim at top page trim Align left map trim at type block Three Societies on the Verge of Contact 9781305211827, HIST, Third Edition, Schultz - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Mid-Columbia Libraries. Facial reconstruction by Dr. James C. Chatters and Thomas McClelland; Bronze cast by Thomas McClelland 2005 S M I The discovery of “Kennewick man” in 1996 challenged scien>> T tists to rethink when people first came to North America. H wooly mammoths, intending to hunt the animals to , feed and clothe their families. Many of these hunters followed the herds south along the western coast of present-day Canada and ended up in what A is now the United States. Many of their latter-day ancestors D continued southward and, after many generations, made it all the way to the southernmost tipA of South America, to a place now called Tierra Del Fuego. M Recent evidence casts doubt on this theory. Carbon dating suggests that the first people on the continent were probably here much earlier than 2 12,000 years ago. This has prompted a reevaluation 0 of the Beringia theory, with some scholars suggesting that the first settlers came on boats, either follow0 ing whales across the Pacific from Asia, or coming from Europe, along Greenland, in search of8fish, or following the Pacific Coast of today’s Alaska, T British Columbia, and Washington State (see Map 1.1). In 1996, two men watching hydroplaneS races in Kennewick, Washington, discovered what turned out to be a 9,000-year-old skeleton. The skeleton, dubbed Kennewick man, baffled scientists, mainly because a physical reconstruction of the skull revealed a man who looked “more like a middle-aged European accountant than he did a Paleo-Indian hunter.” People with European features were not thought to have been in North America for another 8,500 years, so Kennewick man presented the possibility that Paleo-Indians North American settlement The first people to settle happened in different waves North America, roughly from a variety of locations, 10,000 to 15,000 years ago with older groups dying out and being replaced by yet Paleo-Indian era newer immigrants. Another Era beginning about 15,000 years ago and endscientist then suggested that ing about 10,000 years ago, Kennewick man’s features characterized by initial resembled those of people North American settlement living in specific parts of Asia rather than Europe, further complicating the initial origins of humankind in North America. Was he a man with a European face (and genetic origins), an Asian man, or did he resemble one of America’s indigenous Indians? Current DNA sampling technology cannot tell us, but a final report written by one of the principal scientists concludes that “methods developed in the near future could be successful in extracting suitable DNA for analysis.” Meanwhile, many of today’s Indian tribes resisted the supposed European or Asian appearance of Kennewick man because their beliefs maintain that they are the one, true indigenous group in North America. Regardless of the dispute, and regardless of when or from where Kennewick man came, his age suggests that calling North America the “New World” might be a mistake. England, for instance, was not inhabitable until 12,500 b.c.e., suggesting that the “New World” may actually have a much longer human history than what we now think of as the “Old World.” Today we call these initial North American settlers the Paleo-Indians. Although the initial origins and timing are in question, what is known for certain is that the greatest flow of people in this early period came between 20,000 and 10,000 b.c.e.; we also know that sometime Meet Kennewick man. between 9500 and 8000 b.c.e. the ocean level rose because of what we would today call global warming. With water covering the Bering Strait that connected Asia to North America, the first major wave of immigration came to an end. That path has remained submerged ever since. Expansion and Development As these migrants moved from region to region across North America, they adapted their lifestyle according to the climate and the land, as people do. The people of the Paleo-Indian era (10,000 to 15,000 years ago) thus lived a wide Read more about range of lifestyles, develthe Paleooping many languages and Indians. Native America 9781305211827, HIST, Third Edition, Schultz - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 5 Archaic era Era beginning about 10,000 years ago and lasting until about 2,500 years ago, characterized by increased agricultural development sedentary existence Life in which settlers can remain in one place cultivating agriculture, instead of pursuing herd animals pre-Columbian era North American era lasting from 500 b.c.e. to 1492 c.e., before Columbus landed belief systems along the way. Some of the most ancient peoples made spears by flaking stones and then chose “kill sites” that large herds traversed. Others hunted herds of animals across great distances. Still others slowly began to cultivate complex systems of sustainable agriculture that allowed them to remain in a single area for years. And still others depended on fishing and the riches of the seas to provide a stable life for their families. Over time, the population of Native North America grew. S M I T Between 5,000 and 8,000 years ago, a monumental transition occurred in how people lived their lives.H During the Archaic era, agriculture gradually became , 1-1b The Archaic Era: Forging an Agricultural Society (2,500–10,000 years ago) the primary source of sustenance for most of the people of Native North America. This trend was perhaps the most significant development in AmericanA prehistory, because settled agriculture permitted the establishment of a sedentary existence, withoutD the need to pursue herd animals. Maize, a form ofA corn, was one key element of this existence. Maize M is a highly nutritious cereal, containing more nutrients than wheat, rice, millet, and barley. Its development was a remarkable 2 feat of genetic engineering; some 6,000 years ago, Indians in today’s 0 southern Mexico cultivated the 0 crop through the careful selection 8 of desirable seeds, ultimately producing corn. T Populations grew larger, S not only because food supplies increased, but also because group size was no longer limited by the arduous demands of hunting. Many tribes became semi-sedentary, settling in camps during the agricultural growing season and then breaking camp to follow the herds at other times of year. Others 6 C h apte r 1 became increasingly urban in their development, building permanent cities, some of monumental proportions. This was the formative period of the first settled tribes in North America—the immediate ancestors of many of the Indian tribes with which we are most familiar today. The Mesoamerican civilization, founded and developed by the Olmec people, thrived in today’s Mexico and served as a precursor to the many maize-based societies that developed throughout North America. Some 5,000 years ago, another successful ancient civilization—the people of Norte Chico in today’s Peru—flourished by cultivating cotton, which they used to weave nets and catch the plentiful fish off the Pacific Coast; they then transported the fish to high-altitude cities in the Andes. Although nature has reclaimed much of what these early civilizations created, their developments and accomplishments are testaments to the capacity of humankind to create and develop monumental societies. One historian has argued that the only way to fully grasp the earth-changing significance of these early civilizations is to take a helicopter ride over undeveloped parts of Mexico and Central and South America, realizing that many of the hills and creeks below are actually the buried remains of temples and canals built by those early civilizations. 1-1c The Pre-Columbian Era: Developing Civilizations (500 b.c.e.–1492 c.e.) Of all the people living in North America before contact with Europeans, we know the most about the people of the pre-Columbian era (500 b.c.e.–1492 c.e.). The great civilizations of the pre-Columbian world (the phrase means “before Columbus”) usually based their economy on agriculture and for that reason were able to endure in a single location long enough to create complex, hierarchical societies and to develop long-standing trading networks. >>Olmec head, 1200–900 b.c.e. The Art Archive/National Anthropological Museum Mexico/Gianni Dagli Orti Three Societies on the Verge of Contact 9781305211827, HIST, Third Edition, Schultz - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Stone tools for grinding maize. >> The complex genetic engineering of maize some 6,000 years ago was vital to the development of sedentary cultures. © N.Carter/North Wind Picture Archives The largest Indian civilization in this period was that of the Incas, who lived on the western coast of South America, from the equator to the southern tip of Chile. The Incas built large cities and fortresses on the steep slopes of the Andes Mountains (and were the beneficiaries of fish deliveries from the people of Norte Chico). Other impressive pre-Columbian societies include the Maya, who, with their step-tiered temples, dominated southern Guatemala and the Yucatan Peninsula (in present-day Learn more about the Aztecs Mexico) from the fifth to the S an through a simula- eighth centuries until tion, “Colonial Expansion.” internal civil war weakened M the civilization so much that I a city it dissipated. The Teotihuacán society built (named Teotihuacán, about an hour’s bus ride T from Mexico City) that accommodated perhaps as many HMexica as 200,000 souls during the fifth century. The (later labeled “the Aztecs”) developed a complex urban society that ruled central Mexico from the ninth to the fifteenth centuries. These were all large, complex societies that, in scientific knowledge, governing capacities, and artistic and architectural development, rivaled any in the world at the time of their particular dominance. The Anasazi In the present-day United States, two of the largest pre-Columbian cultures were the Anasazi and the Mississippians. In the American Southwest, the Anasazi founded a vast civilization by combining hunting and gathering with sedentary agriculture in order to sustain a large population in the arid desert of present-day New Mexico. As a testament to the grandness of their civilization, between 900 and 1150 c.e. the Anasazi built fourteen “great houses” in the Chaco Canyon, each one several stories tall and containing more than two hundred rooms. They were perhaps used as large apartment buildings, as the canyon served as the major trading , A D A M The Serpent Mound in Ohio, nearly a quarter of a mile long, is the largest and finest surviving serpentine earthwork, putting on dramatic display the pre-Columbian peoples’ capacity to transform their world. © Richard A. Cooke/Corbis 2 0 0 8 T S Native America 9781305211827, HIST, Third Edition, Schultz - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 7 clan system Living arrangement in which a tribe was divided into a number of large family groups matrilineal Family arrangement in which children typically follow the clan of their mother and married men move into the clan of their wives; most often seen in agricultural societies post for turquoise and other material goods. Several of these great houses still stand today near Albuquerque, New Mexico. The Mississippians America had perhaps as many as 100 million inhabitants—making it more populous than Europe at the time. Although these numbers are greatly disputed, the idea that the Americas were barren “virgin” land before first contact with Europeans is clearly wrong. In 1491, American Indians were thriving and transforming the land to suit their needs. A second large, pre-Columbian culture to develop on 1-1d North America the land now known as the in 1491 United States was that of the Mississippians, whose many By the late 1400s, North America was home to different tribes lived at about numerous civilizations and tribes, some of which the same time as the Anasazi, were sizeable, dominating large swaths of land. from 700 to 1500 c.e., although their civilization More than two hundred languages were spoken, peaked about 1100 c.e. The largest Mississippian among hundreds of different tribes. It was as if each city was called Cahokia, located 8 miles east of of today’s cities spoke its own language and had present-day St. Louis. Inhabited by more than unique social rituals. Diversity abounded in this 20,000 people (comparable in size to London land. So did conflict. at that time), Cahokia served as S Some Social Similarities the civilization’s crossroads for M of Native North Americans trade and religion, the land’s first I metropolis. Webs of roads surDespite the wide variety of liferounded the city, connecting rural styles developed by the preT villagers for hundreds of miles in Columbian peoples, there were H all directions. The Mississippians some broad general similarities developed an accurate calendar among the tribes in North America , and built a pyramid that, at the during the late 1400s. Most of the time, was the third largest structribes, for instance, were based ture of any kind in the Western on a clan system, in which a A Hemisphere. The Mississippians tribe was divided into a number D also left many earthen mounds of large family groups. They were dotting the landscape. also mostly matrilineal, meaning A Some of these early civilizathat children typically followed M tions, like the Anasazi, declined the clan of their mother and that about two hundred years before a man, when married, moved into first contact with Europeans and the clan of his wife. Matrilineal 2 Africans. Others, such as the Aztecs societies usually develop when and some of the Mississippians, were still agriculture is the primary food source for 0 thriving in 1492. Why did these powa society. In these societies women 0 erful civilizations decline? There are in charge of farming (Europeans 8 is no single answer to the queswere universally surprised to see tion. Some scholars say that women working in the fields). T certain civilizations outgrew Thus Indian women mainS their capacity to produce food. tained the tribe’s social instituOthers say that battles with tions while men were hunting, enemy tribes forced them to fishing, or off to war. This sysabandon the principal landtem was by no means universal marks of their civilization. Still in Native North America, but others cite major droughts. it does signify a level of sexAnd indeed, not all of these ual equality absent from Europe civilizations did decline by the time at the time. Indeed, women were of first contact with Europeans. Scholars just as likely as men to wield politiestimate that in 1491 North and South cal power in some of these societies. Aztec calendar. Scholars estimate that in 1491 North and South America had perhaps as many as 100 million inhabitants— making ...
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U.S. History 1

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1. Explain current beliefs about how the first peoples settled North America, and discuss

the ways in which they became differentiated from one another over time.
There are various theories on the first settlers of north Americas that date between 20000
– 10000 B.C.E., the most prominent being the Paleo-Indian era. It explains that the first people
moved to America from Asia through the Beringia strip in pursuit of mammoths as a source of
food and clothing (Schultz, 2013). Other theories suggest that the early settlers came on boats
following whales from Asia or Europe through Greenland or pacific coast in search of fish.
Controversies emerged with the discovery of the Kennewick man whose skull resembled a middleaged European man. Carbon dating on his skull revealed the skeletons were 9000 years old. This
cast more doubt on the origin stories of the first settlers. There is however a consensus that the first
settlers arrived in waves making it difficult to pinpoint the origins and time. They then migrated
to different areas and adapted to the region and its climate. This constant migration during the
Paleo-Indian era ensured the development of different lifestyles, belief systems and languages.
The became localized to their source of food with some creating spears to hunt animals, others
decided to cultivate a complex agricultural system for sustenance, and finally, others decided to
carry out fishing in the pacific. The development of agriculture ensured the settlers stayed at on
place for an extended period, thereby building cities and complex hierarchal societies. These
societies morphed into great civilizations such ...

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